Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

Archive for October, 2013

Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 10 Oct. 2013

Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog

Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog

Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to October 10, 2013
The total Visits for this blog from Sept. 16, 2011, up to October 10, 2013 , was 104,551 visits (4,182 -visit monthly average) with 5,091 visits in the last the month only.

All the posts and pages for the period are listed in descending order below :


Title                                   Views

Obama – Product of Illuminati Breeding Program?     15,667
Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins?         12,261
Home page / Archives         7,940
Anti-Fungal Treatment for Candida and Intestinal Yeast Overgrowth 5,965
Leo Zagami, Ex-Illuminati Issued Dire Warning         4,467
Best Articles on the Wonderful Sodium Bicarbonate     4,045
Illuminati Showdown in Middle East         1,972
US Debt in Graphs and Charts         1,845
The Swadeshi Movement         1,781
U.S. Mass Incarceration of Black Men         1,703
Globalists Created Wahhabi Terrorism to Destroy Islam and Justify a Global State 1,468
Who Killed John F. Kennedy?         1,378
American Militarism and Hegemony of Military Establishment     1,240
The Illuminati Plan for 2012: Newt Gingrich vs. Barack Obama     1,178
Check Here How Healthy Is Your Diet and Nutrients Sources     1,080
Yeast is Magical and Vital to Human Health         1,066
US Federal Government Major Corruption & Scandals Since 1945     1,025
Truth, Propaganda & Media Manipulation         973
America Supports “Democracy” by Hook and Crook         909
Muslim Brotherhood- Illuminati Tools         891
Best Essential Free Software (Freeware) For Personal Computers     867
Overview and Types of Fungal Infections         825
Political Assassinations in the World         661
The House of Rothschild         622
More Than One Assassin Killed J.F.Kennedy         606
Illuminati Assassins         602
The West With Islamists Fake Spring Targets Nationalism; Russia and Iran 550
When The Rothschilds Dial 911         545
Nigeria’s Boko Haram Could Be a Western-backed Insurgency     531
Human Rights Investigations HRI on Crimes of Obama & His NATO in Libya     502
Racial Inequality in Modern United States of America         496
Ashamed America and Corrupt Liberal Democracy         476
Anglo-Saxon Economy Is Most Dangerous Threat for World Peace     470
A Chat Between Christian and Muslim in Lebanon         457
Contact Form         440
ARAMCO & The House Of Saud         426
Successful Treatment for Vitiligo and Arthritis and Others     424
What Are Qatar Regional Political Roles & Ambitions?         421
Why Africa Must Trash Western Liberal Democracy?…..& Their Way of Life Too?     405
The RAND Corporation: America’s University of Imperialism     376
Neoliberalism: Origins, Theory, & Definition Part One/ Four Parts 370
Hillary Clinton Personality Prompt Desire to Pursue Fights     368
Quotes and Comments Attributed to Prince Philip         368
Europe Soverien Debt Crisis Explained. Who Owes Who What?     343
About Tarig Anter         340
The Gulf Cooperation Council: Rockefeller/Rothschild Puppet Monarchy 340
Any Form of Imperialism Is Utterly Evil         338
Islamist Libyan Rebel Sodomized Gaddafi with a Knife         327
Liberal Nationalism: Healthy Balance between Nationalism and Liberalism 322
Illuminati, Nazis & the Illegal State of Israel         316
The Energy Vampires         310
America’s Guide for “Unconventional” Warfare (Insurgencies) P2     308
The West is Going Too Far Against Syria         302
“End the FED” and Ron Paul Political Positions         301
The Speech That Killed John F. Kennedy         295
Global Banking Monopoly         293
Baking soda, cancer and fungus         292
IMF Orders African Governments to Remove Fuel Subsidies     290
Swiss Bankers, BIS & The House Of Rockefeller         279
War is Business and Business is Good: the USA Rule         276
Zionists Control World Finances; Shocking Facts from Dr. David Duke 268
Who Really Control the World?         255
The world suffers a lot because of the silence of good people     252
Swindles of Modern Liberal Democracy         246
Afghan History Suppressed: Part III: The Central Asian Grand Chessboard 236
America Bully the World by Regimes Change         233
CIA Created Afghan Heroin Trade         226
Sodium Bicarbonate Rich Man’s Poor Man’s Cancer Treatment     220
Young Turks to Permanently Control Middle East         215
India Wary as Qatari-based Islamist Yusuf al-Qaradawi Emerges as Peace Broker  212
America’s Guide for “Unconventional” Warfare (Insurgencies) P1     212
“Westerns” Panic from Thabo Mbeki Attack on Neo-imperialism in Africa     211
The CIA-MI6-Mossad Installed Muslim Brotherhood into Power     210
Trash Western Liberal Democracy and Their Way of Life Too!     200
Barack H. Obama: The Unauthorized Biography         198
Liberal Nationalism against Left and Right Politics in Africa     196
The Nameless War: Contineous International Thuggery         195
The Three Pillars of National Liberalism         194
Secret Societies & the New World Order         189
Inbred Oil Kings, Bush-League Crime & The End Of The Energy Oligopoly     183
Most Popular Posts on This Blog         183
Gulf Arab States Must Be Democratized Now         179
The European Union Is an Evil Plan         175
Big Oil & Their Bankers In The Persian Gulf         173
Ghana Commemorates Christiansborg Crossroad Shooting     172
“Occupy Wall Street” Movement         171
New Understanding of Fascism is Needed Now         171
Red Scare on America         165
“President Goodluck Jonathan Is A Waste Of Time” Says Isaac Osuoka 164
Once Again It Is All About Lebensraum and not Europe     161
The Rothschild’s South Sudan Oil Grab         160
Terrorism and the Illuminati: A Three Thousand Year History 159
The Four Horsemen of Banking         159
The World’s Healthiest Foods         156
Islamist Western Secret Societies of Turkey         152
America Humanitarian Imperialism in Uganda         151
Rothschild’s Saudi Lapdog Arms Libyan Rebels         150
Religions Against Faith         148
HSBC: The World’s Dirtiest Bank         146
The Four Horsemen Behind The Oil Wars         146
Imperialism will be buried in Africa – Resistance in Libya, Part 1 / 2     142
Best wishes for Russia and Putin         142
Rich Countries Are Draining Poor Countries from Human Resources 137
Was Gaddafi With or Against Africa?         136
David Livingstone’s blog         134
Mubarak & Other Sleep-Deprived Middle East Despots         133
Obama and Erdogan of Turkey; Oddly Effective Couple in a New Arab World 132
Bin Laden & The 911 Illusion: Part II: Deutsche Bank & Blackstone     130
Relationships Between Homosexuality and Mass Crimes         130
Best Essential Free Software (Freeware) For Personal Computers     127
Restoration of Normal Flora in the Body by ANTI-FUNGAL DIET     126
Qatar Admits It Fought Alongside Libyan Rebels against Gaddafi     126
For God Sake US Economy Must Be Corrected         125
Who Really Controls the World?         124
Exposing Capitalism; Communism; & International Secret Societies 121
The Lawsuit that Could End the Gangster Rule of Western Civilization     113
The International: Oil, Drugs, Guns & Kissinger Associates     111
The Dying God: The Hidden History of Western Civilization     109
The new democracy: Goldman Sachs conquers Europe         108
The Three Pillars of National Liberalism         108
US Crazy War Machine         107
The Globalists and the Islamists         107
Invest in a New Desktop Chassis/Case Design         106
Thanks To Obama, The Al-Qaeda Flag Is Now Flying High And Proud Over Libya 105
The Invisible Government in America         104
Obama Should Be Impeached For Committing ‘War Crimes’, Said Ralph Nader 102
Ghana: Honor the Big Six         101
Goldman Sachs: A Criminal Enterprise         100
Description of Windows 7 and Windows 8 Services     100
Even if I got a visa for Europe…I wouldn’t go         98
Time To Nationalize Four Horsemen Of Oil         97
Sick from BBC, CNN, France 24 and JSC Lies?         97
Obama is a Killer: Election Campaign Credential     95
The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part 1 of Five         94
Thabo Mbeki Urges Africans to Protect Right of Self-determination from Neo-imperialism 88
How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part One/ 5 Parts         85
We Are Not Alone in This Endless Universe!         85
The Age of Deception: Nuclear Diplomacy in Treacherous Times     84
Do we really need the Politician?         84
Break Up the Four Horsemen of Banking         83
Neoliberalism: Origins, Theory, & Definition Part 3/ Four Parts 83
USA Liberal Democracy is Like $#!T         83
Afghan History Suppressed: Part I: Islamists, Heroin and the CIA 83
Afghan History Suppressed: Part II: Socialism, al Qaeda and Chevron 83
The World’s Healthiest Foods         82
Global Underdevelopment: Montana and the Third World         81
President Mugabe Rejects Western Brutal Intrusion on Africa     80
USA-EU; Gulf Arab States and Turkey Arming Violence in Syria     80
All Universal Religions Are Fake!         80
Google Apologize Unreservedly for Malpractices to Mocality-Kenya 80
Trillion Dollar Crime Trial leads to United Nations         79
Revolution against Corporate Greed Started in the USA         78
Western Democracy is a Financiers’ Joke         76
Surrendering Islam         74
Wall Street “Half-wayers” of Generations         74
Financiers’ Reich is Buying Some European Countries         73
Federal Reserve Transparency Act- AUDIT the FED!         73
Proposal of Tower Desktop New Design         72
World Revolution for Real Democracy         71
Globalist Infiltration: Obama, Israel and the Muslim Brotherhood 70
Three-dimensional Democracy (XYZ Democracy)         69
Neoliberalism: Origins, Theory, & Definition Part 2/ Four Parts 69
Ethical Corporatism Tagging System         66
Timeline of Occupy Wall Street         65
The Corruption of Western Liberal Democracy         65
Corporate Globalists Are Targeting Africa to Plunder         64
Modern History Awareness Film Program         64
Top Ten Healthy and Cheap Foods and Supplements         63
Nigeria Rejects Dancing On The Brink to American Rhythm     62
Gene Sharp and the Theory of Soft and Undercover Coups d’États     62
U.S. Constitution no longer model for developing democracies     61
U.S. Creates a Problem, Causes a Reaction, then Provides the Solution     61
Shut Er’ Down!         60
EU and Banks are Weapons of Mass Slavery         59
The Saudi Paymaster         58
Neoliberal Corporations & Sunnite Islamism Attacking Nationalism 57
The Ad That May Kill the Next USA President         57
The Illuminati Depopulation Agenda         55
Liberal Nationalism against Left and Right Politics in Africa     55
The Financial Times Admits Agenda For Centralized Dictatorial Global Government 55
The African Union Is Starting Its Independence         55
Barack “Money Bags” Obama Can’t Run on the 99 Percent Ticket     54
History of the New World Order – Part 1 / 3         54
Top Ten Basic and Cheap Foods and Supplements for Best Health     53
Pougala Answers The Real Reasons for the War in Libya         53
Africa Lies Naked to Euro-American Military Offensive         52
British Petroleum BP: A History: Part III         52
Earth Is a Better Place Without the Super-rich         52
The American Revolution of September 17, 2011         51
Neoliberalism: Origins, Theory, & Definition Part 4/ Four Parts 50
Nationalize The Federal Reserve         50
Bin Laden & The 911 Illusion: Part I: Patsies & Beneficiaries     50
Arab Spring and the Beasts of Globalization         49
What To Do To Candida & Fungal Overgrowth?         49
Centre for Research on Globalisation (CRG)         49
The International: The Offshore Petroleum Standard         49
NATO War in Libya a Face of “Neo-Colonialism”         49
Exposing Capitalism; Communism; & International Secret Societies 47
Slain US Ambassador to Libya Chris Stevens and EU Nobel Prize     46
Speculators, Cartels & Myths of Scarcity         46
US Corrupt Diplomacy Assisting Islamists and Activists in Syria 46
Economic Choices for Sensible Humans         45
Assaults on Remaining Old Decency in Europe         44
Washington Rules, America’s Path to Permanent War         44
Return Libya & North Africa to Africa!         43
Gulf of Guinea Area of “Vital Interest” to USA         43
The World Versus the USA; Britain; Israel; and Germany (BIGS)     43
Marriage in Western Liberal Democracy         43
SYRIA: NATO’s Next “Humanitarian” War?         43
Nationalism – How It Works & Why the Corporate Elite Want to Kill It?     42
Ghanians; Prepare Yourself for a new President         42
How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Three/ 5 Parts     41
Wicked So-called Skilled Workers Endemic         41
Imperialism will be buried in Africa – Resistance in Libya, Part 2 / 2     41
How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Five/ 5 Parts         40
Rigging the Rules: unfair land deals in South Sudan         39
Greece and Exiting European Hotel California         39
Are Arabs and Hebrews Antisemitists?         37
NO Legitimacy For Foreign Regime Change         37
History of the New World Order – Part 3 / 3         37
The Dangers of USA Economy         37
OccupyWallStreet Movement Spreads in USA and the Globe         36
Western Intelligences Partner Islamist to Create Terrorism     36
Report Bad Public Service Blog         36
Operation Sarkozy (Mr Sarkozy and the CIA)         35
Confessions of An Economic Hit Man – New Revelations     35
Three-dimensional Democracy (XYZ Democracy)         35
Create and Sell the Businesses Themselves         35
Who Gassed the Syrian People?         35
#2911 (untitled)         34
Assessing Risks to Stability in Sub-Saharan Africa     34
Better Aircraft Wings Designs Are Needed         33
Occupation of New York City         31
To Be Part of the Global “WE”? Sell The Arabs! (Turkey’s Policy) 31
Gulf Arab Countries Must Be Democratized Now         31
British Petroleum BP: A History Part I, Colonial Waster     30
Save North Africa from Arab Emirs and NATO         30
Homeland Security Searches Your Facebook and Twitter         29
US Military; Intelligence; and Administrations are # 1 Terrorists 29
Oppose Internet Censorship: Help Defeat PIPA And SOPA     29
The Partisan Ranger Blog         28
Costa Concordia Wreck Removal Alternative Proposal     28
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 16 Jan. 2013     28
About: Living Economies Forum         27
The American Revolution of 917-2011         26
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 16 May 2012 26
The Rich are nice Not for You Stupid Immigrant! It Is for the Kids 25
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 14 August 2012     25
The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part 3 of Five         25
National and Correct Policy of Privatization         25
France Lost Principles & Honor in Libya         24
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to Sept 15 2012 24
How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Four/ 5 Parts 24
How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Two/ 5 Parts     24
How America Went Rogue         23
Nothing Is Working Properly In Sudan         23
Germany After the 1848 Spring of Nations Is NO Longer German; Neither Europe     23
Why I’m suing Obama administration over Libya; Says: Ron Paul     23
The Electoral Victory of Political Islam in Egypt     23
Bizarre Claim for $1 Trillion         23
The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part 2 of Five         23
British Petroleum BP: A History: Part II         23
Nicolas Sarkozy’s Scandals: a Guide         22
Strauss-Kahn & The IMF/BCCI Mugger         22
Was Israel Behind Norway Terror Attacks?         21
For God Sake US Economy Must Be Corrected         21
Squares and Rectangles Are Not Natural Forms For Buildings 21
Sarkozy Received Cash Handouts         21
The White Race Is Full of Evil & Shit         20
Is Obama America’s First Elected Dictator? says: Ron Paul 20
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 16 March 2012 20
Ron Paul: America’s Last Chance         20
The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part 4 of Five         20
The Politician 2.0 and an introduction to post-Democracy 20
Crazy Wrong Side of Civilisations         20
History of the New World Order – Part 2 / 3         20
Our moral decline: Blood-lust in the streets of Libya suffices for justice 19
Libyan Rebel NTC Threaten big Algeria!!         18
DIY Western Guides: How to make a Dirty, but pretty, Revolution? 18
Swindles of Modern Liberal Democracy         17
Optimum-cost Housing Companies Proposal         16
Reinvent Democracy by creating 3D Democracy!         16
New All-in-One Desktop Computer Design         15
Ten Myths in the War Against Libya         15
Slash Public Service but not the Services         15
Most Popular Posts on This Blog up to 17 Feb 2012     14
How Many Will Mourn Obama, Sarkozy, or Merkel ?     14
Gallup: Obama Job Approval Average Slides to New Low     14
Gene Sharp, The 83 Year Old Who Toppled Egypt         14
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 20 April 2012 14
NATO, USA, France & UK Are Protecting These “Civilians”! 14
Putin Says US is ‘parasite’ on Global Economy         13
Why Many People Hate America?         13
Gulf Arab Regimes Must Be Democratized Now         13
American-Israeli Biological Weapons Made from Fungus     12
USA Missing Money         11
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog from Sept 16, 2011 to Jan 16, 2012 11
Mr. Gbagbo the Messiah of Ivorian Democracy         11
Ron Paul Questioned the US Policies for Decades     10
US Military Spending         10
Call Off The Pentagon Dogs         9
Capital City Inhabitants Must Not Be Allowed to Vote     9
Nicolas Sarkozy suspected of financial fraud         9
3D Democracy for People Participation in Alternative System blog in 2012 9
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog up to 15 April 2013 8
#3093 (untitled)         8
Most Popular Posts on Tarig Anter Blog from Sept. 16 to Dec. 15, 2011     7
My 2012 annual report.         7
Are Humans Really Intelligent Creature?         7
Occupy’s Pledge to FIGHT BACK         7
Overweight IS Ugly and Harmful         6
Gaddafi’s Message to the world, April, 2011         6
(unknown or deleted)         6
Citizens on Top of Governments         5
The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part 5 of Five         5
Canada Shipping Quietly Bomb-grade Uranium to U.S.     5
It Is High Time to Fight Back         4
Hello world!         4
Most Popular Posts on This Blog from Sept. 16 to Nov. 6, 2011     3
Universal Code of Conduct for Political Parties         2
(unknown or deleted)         1
Calls for NATO Occupation of Libya from Council on Foreign Relations President         1


American-Israeli Biological Weapons Made from Fungus

Extensive ulceration on left forearm after 50 days - from the lesion had started with a macula that progressed to ulceration

Extensive ulceration on left forearm after 50 days – from the lesion had started with a macula that progressed to ulceration

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

In February of 2009, Baxter pharmaceutical had accidentally contaminated samples with the bird flu virus. The contamination was discovered when ferrets at a lab in the Czech Republic died after being inoculated with vaccine made from the samples. The virus material was supposed to contain a seasonal flu virus and was contaminated after “human error,” according to Baxter.

In August, 2009 An Israeli-American Professor “Joseph Moshe” called into the Dr True Ott Show on Republic Broadcasting and said he was a microbiologist who wanted to hand over evidence to a States Attorney regarding tainted H1N1 vaccines being produced by Baxter pharmaceutical. He claimed that that Baxter’s lab in the Ukraine was in fact preparing a bio-weapon disguised as a vaccine. He maintained that the vaccine contained both adjuvants designed to weaken the immune system, and replicated RNA from the virus responsible for the 1918 global pandemic.

He made no threat against The White House, nor said anything about bombs or any attack. The following day on August 14, 2009, several Los Angeles police cruisers and an unmarked armored vehicle pursued Joseph Moshe as he drove his red VW automobile several miles through downtown Los Angeles before his car’s engine was reportedly knocked out by an electromagnetic pulse. Moshe refused to exit his car when ordered several times by the police, and after the driver’s window of his VW was smashed out by a robotic arm and several rounds of tear gas and pepper gas were fired into the vehicle

Joseph Moshe, 56 years old, may have conducted covert studies with the fungus while he was living in California. He claimed to be “a former MOSSAD microbiologist”compounding the mystery surrounding the Moshe case is that there is another scientist named Moshe Bar-Joseph who works in Israel and who looks remarkably like Joseph Moshe, except that he is about 20 years older.
After his apprehension, Moshe was taken to the Patton State Mental Hospital and then to the Twin Towers Correctional Facility in Los Angeles. Sometime about 60 days later, Moshe was quietly released and his current whereabouts are unknown. He was immediately extradited to Israel, where he has dual-citizenship, and hasn’t been heard from since.

Court Notice:     
[Name: Moshe, Joseph    Type of Case: Threats    Next Court Date: 8/24/2010    Action: Mental Status    Courthouse: Airport    Case Status: Pending   Description: Joseph Moshe was the focus of a stand-off outside the Federal Bldg. in Westwood on Aug. 12, 2009, following a pursuit that began in Westchester after he was accused of making threats against the White House.]

on April 24, 2010, Media outlets across the Northwest United States and the Canadian province of British Columbia began reporting  that a strange, previously unknown strain of virulent airborne fungi that killed at least six people in Oregon, Washington and Idaho is spreading throughout the region

The airborne fungus, called Cryptococcus gattii, usually only infects transplant and AIDS patients and people with otherwise compromised immune systems, but the new strain is genetically different, the researchers said.

“This novel fungus is worrisome because it appears to be a threat to otherwise healthy people,” said Edmond Byrnes of Duke University in North Carolina, who led the study.

Several researchers in California also note that the Cryptococcus gatti fungus has been researched for decades, extending back to the 1950’s, at the US Army’s biological warfare center, Fort Detrick, in Frederick, Maryland. One microbiologist at the University of California at Los Angeles recounted that the fungus was first brought to the attention of Fort Detrick researchers by British scientists experimenting with the bark of eucalyptus trees from Australia.
Army biological warfare reports obtained through the Freedom of Information Act reveal that beginning around 1952 the Army mounted a huge research program involving numerous plant and fungi products, and that well over 300 long-term contracts and sub-contracts were let with over 35 US colleges and universities to carry out this multifaceted research. Examples of this early research in California included experiments and projects at Camp Cooke; Port Huemene; Harpers Lake; Oceanside, and extensive experimentation with wheat stem rust and “various spores” including “several from tropical locations” and cereal rust spores and dyed Lycopodium spores. Several Army reports reveal that private-sector corporations that participated or assisted in these projects were the American Institute of Crop Ecology; the American Type Culture Collection Inc.; University of California; Bioferm Inc. and the Kulijian Corporation.

The same microbiologist, who declined to speak on the record and who recounted extensive fungus work at Fort Detrick, also stated that researchers at Israel’s Institute for Biological Research, located in Ness-Ziona about 20 km from Tel Aviv, have worked with the Cryptococcus gatti fungus.

Physicians in the Pacific Northwest are reporting that an undetermined number of people in the region are ill from the effects of the strange strain. Physicians also say that the virulent strain can infect domestic animals as well as humans, and symptoms do not appear until anywhere from two to four months after exposure. Symptoms in humans include a lingering cough, sharp chest pains, fever, night-sweats, weight-loss, headaches and shortness of breath. The strain can be treated successfully, if detected early enough, with oral doses of anti-fungal medication, but it cannot be prevented, and there is no preventative vaccine. Undiagnosed, the fungus works its way into the spinal fluid and central nervous system and causes fatal meningitis.

The estimated mortality rate is about 25 percent of 21 cases analyzed. Several newspapers and media outlets in the US and overseas quote a researcher at Duke University’s Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Edmond Byrnes, as stating: “This novel fungus is worrisome because it appears to be a threat to otherwise healthy people. Typically, we see this fungal disease associated with transplant recipients and HIV-infected patients, but that is not what we are seeing.”

Microbiologists and epidemiologists studying the strain say the mystery fungus came from an earlier fatal fungus that was first found on British Columbia’s Vancouver Island in the fall of 2001, and perhaps as early as 1999. There the fungus infected and killed dogs, cats, horses, sheep, porpoises and at least 26 people. The disease spreads through spores carried by breezes and wind and when people and animals encounter infected ground where the fungus is present. A number of microbiologists say that the disease has “the potential to essentially travel anywhere the wind or people can carry it.” Reads an alarming study authored in part by Duke University’s Edmond Byrnes: “The continued expansion of C. gatti in the United States is ongoing, and the diversity of hosts increasing.”

The United States biological weapons program officially began in spring 1943 on orders from U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt. Research continued following World War II as the U.S. built up a large stockpile of biological agents and weapons. Over the course of its 26 year history, the program weaponized and stockpiled the following seven bio-agents (and pursued basic research on many more):

  •     Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
  •     Francisella tularensis (tularemia)
  •     Brucella spp (brucellosis)
  •     Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever)
  •     Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE)
  •     Botulinum toxin (botulism)
  •     Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

Throughout its history the US bioweapons program was secret. It became controversial when it was later revealed that laboratory and field testing (some of the latter using simulants on non-consenting individuals) had been common. The official policy of the United States was first to deter the use of bio-weapons against U.S. forces and secondarily to retaliate if deterrence failed. There exists no evidence that the U.S. ever used biological agents against an enemy in the field.

In 1969, President Richard Nixon ended all offensive (i.e., non-defensive) aspects of the U.S. bio-weapons program. In 1975 the U.S. ratified both the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) — these are international treaties outlawing biological warfare. Recent U.S. biodefense programs, however, have raised concerns that the U.S. may be pursuing research that is outlawed by the BWC.

Israel is believed to have developed an offensive biological warfare capability. The US Congress Office of Technology Assessment records Israel as a country possessing a long-term, undeclared biological warfare program. Israel is not a signatory to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). It is assumed that the Israel Institute for Biological Research in Ness Ziona develops vaccines and antidotes for chemical and biological warfare. It has not been possible to conclude whether Israel currently maintains an offensive biological weapons program; it is speculated that Israel retains an active ability to produce and disseminate biological weapons.

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