The Soviet USSR has foreign roots and it did not come from Russia itself. The Bolsheviks damaged great peaceful harmony and many adorable gentle qualities of the Russians but it could not destroy them. Bolshevism and its perverted Communism succeeded in defaming and portray its ugly aggressive image upon Russia all over the World to majority of unaware persons. Bolshevik communist USSR does not resemble the Russian characters in many obvious ways. It is simply not Russian at all.
The so-called “Russian Revolution” of 1917 was designed and financed and managed by foreigners who hate Russia and its great history and heritage to destroy patriotism, create crises and steal wealth.
People can only either love Russia or not dislike Stalin and what he represents as Bolshevik communist USSR, but to admire both of them impossible is not only for Russian but also for people from all around the World.
The Bolsheviks were Khazarian Mafia revenge on the Russian Czar and the innocent Russian people. The words of Alexander Solzhenitsyn (Noble Laureant) support this opinion.
“What is the essential difference between (Oliver) Cromwell and (Joseph) Stalin? Can you tell me? No difference…(Cromwell’s) monument is standing, (and) no one is going to remove it. The essence is not in these symbols, but in the need to treat with respect every period of our history.” In the words of Russian President and leader Vladimir Putin. These words imply that the USSR was a shame but it is still part of the Russian history.
The Bolsheviks were actually created and deployed by the Khazarian Mafia (KM) as the essential part of their long planned revenge on the Russian Czar and the innocent Russian people for breaking up Khazaria in about 1,000 AD for its repeated robbery, murder and identity theft of travelers from countries surrounding Khazaria. This little known fact explains the extreme violence taken out on Russia as long standing revenge by the Rothschild controlled Khazarian Mafia (KM).
The collapse of USSR was a natural normal consequence of faulty foundation and leadership. Peter the Great (1672–1725); Catherine the Great (1762–1796); and the Romanovs are all extremely tall compared to Stalin. This is the real hero of Russia: Tsar Nicholas II, in the uniform of a Royal Navy Admiral of the Fleet, c. 1909.
Tsar Nicholas II, in the uniform of a Royal Navy Admiral
(The processes of inventing Jews, the Talmud, and Judaism is explained in the following article: The Invention of Judaism in Babylonian Iraq and in another article Replacing Semitic Judeans and Torah with Turkic Jews and Talmud )
In 1981, Nicholas and his immediate family were recognized as martyred saints by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. On 14 August 2000, they were recognized by the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. This time they were not named as martyrs, since their deaths did not result immediately from their Christian faith; instead, they were canonized as passion bearers. According to a statement by the Moscow synod, they were glorified as saints for the following reasons:
In the last Orthodox Russian monarch and members of his family we see people who sincerely strove to incarnate in their lives the commands of the Gospel. In the suffering borne by the Royal Family in prison with humility, patience, and meekness, and in their martyr deaths in Yekaterinburg in the night of 17 July 1918 was revealed the light of the faith of Christ that conquers evil.
Stalin’s birth name in Georgian was Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili He was born an ethnic Georgian – Ioseb’s father slid into alcoholism, which made him abusive to his family and caused his business to fail. He was a voracious reader and became a Georgian cultural nationalist. Out of school, Jughashvili briefly worked as a part-time clerk in a meteorological office, but after a state crackdown on revolutionaries, he went underground and became a full-time revolutionary, living off donations. Among other activities, he wrote and distributed propaganda, organized strikes, and raised funds through bank robberies, kidnappings, extortion, and assassinations. Jughashvili was arrested and exiled to Siberia numerous times, but often escaped. His skill, charm, and street-smarts won him the respect of Lenin, and he rose rapidly through the ranks of the Bolsheviks. Just like Hitler, Stalin was picked up from nowhere and polished and he was errected by foreign financiers, without any merits other than brutality and street-smarts.
Stalin played an active role in fighting the Russian government. Here he is shown on a 1911 information card from the files of the Russian police in Saint Petersburg:
Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili or Joseph Stalin as he called himself
In the night of July 16-17, 1918, a squad of Bolshevik secret police murdered Russia’s last emperor,
Tsar Nicholas II, along with his wife, Tsaritsa Alexandra, their 14-year-old son, Tsarevich Alexis, and their four daughters. They were cut down in a hail of gunfire in a room of the house in Ekaterinburg, a city in the Ural mountain region, where they were being held prisoner.
The daughters were finished off with bayonets. To prevent a cult for the dead Tsar, the bodies were carted away to the countryside and hastily buried in a secret grave. Bolshevik authorities at first reported that the Romanov emperor had been shot after the discovery of a plot to liberate him.
For some time the deaths of the Empress and the children were kept secret. Soviet historians claimed for many years that local Bolsheviks had acted on their own in carrying out the killings, and that Lenin, founder of the Soviet state, had nothing to do with the crime.
In 1990, Moscow playwright and historian Edvard Radzinsky announced the result of his detailed investigation into the murders. He unearthed the reminiscences of Lenin’s bodyguard, Alexei Akimov, who recounted how he personally delivered Lenin’s execution order to the telegraph office. The telegram was also signed by Soviet government Chief Yakov Sverdlov. Akimov had saved the original telegraph tape as a record of the secret order.
Radzinsky’s research confirmed what earlier evidence had already indicated. Leon Trotsky — one of Lenin’s closest colleagues — had revealed years earlier that Lenin and Sverdlov had together made the decision to put the Tsar and his family to death.
The massacred Tsar Nicholas II family
In recent years, Jews around the world have been voicing anxious concern over the specter of anti-Semitism in the lands of the former Soviet Union. In this new and uncertain era, we are told, suppressed feelings of hatred and rage against Jews are once again being expressed. According to one public opinion survey conducted in 1991, for example, most Russians wanted all Jews to leave the country. But precisely why is anti-Jewish sentiment so widespread among the peoples of the former Soviet Union? Why do so many Russians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians and others blame “the Jews” for so much misfortune?
Although officially Jews have never made up more than five percent of the country’s total population,5 they played a highly disproportionate and probably decisive role in the infant Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating the Soviet government during its early years. Soviet historians, along with most of their colleagues in the West, for decades preferred to ignore this subject. The facts, though, cannot be denied.
With the notable exception of Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov), most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in 1917-20 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed the Red Army and, for a time, was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon) was both the Bolshevik party’s executive secretary and — as chairman of the Central Executive Committee — head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky) headed the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading revolution in foreign countries. Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky.
Lenin himself was of mostly Russian and Kalmuck ancestry, but he was also one-quarter Jewish. His maternal grandfather, Israel (Alexander) Blank, was a Ukrainian Jew who was later baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church.
A thorough-going internationalist, Lenin viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with contempt. He had little regard for his own countrymen. “An intelligent Russian,” he once remarked, “is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in his veins.”
In the Communist seizure of power in Russia, the Jewish role was probably critical.
Two weeks prior to the Bolshevik “October Revolution” of 1917, Lenin convened a top secret meeting in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) at which the key leaders of the Bolshevik party’s Central Committee made the fateful decision to seize power in a violent takeover. Of the twelve persons who took part in this decisive gathering, there were four Russians (including Lenin), one Georgian (Stalin), one Pole (Dzerzhinsky), and six Jews.
To direct the takeover, a seven-man “Political Bureau” was chosen. It consisted of two Russians (Lenin and Bubnov), one Georgian (Stalin), and four Jews (Trotsky, Sokolnikov, Zinoviev, and Kamenev). Meanwhile, the Petersburg (Petrograd) Soviet — whose chairman was Trotsky — established an 18-member “Military Revolutionary Committee” to actually carry out the seizure of power. It included eight (or nine) Russians, one Ukrainian, one Pole, one Caucasian, and six Jews. Finally, to supervise the organization of the uprising, the Bolshevik Central Committee established a five-man “Revolutionary Military Center” as the Party’s operations command. It consisted of one Russian (Bubnov), one Georgian (Stalin), one Pole (Dzerzhinsky), and two Jews (Sverdlov and Uritsky).
Contemporary Voices of Warning
Well-informed observers, both inside and outside of Russia, took note at the time of the crucial Jewish role in Bolshevism. Winston Churchill, for one, warned in an article published in the February 8, 1920, issue of the London Illustrated Sunday Herald that Bolshevism is a “worldwide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality.” The eminent British political leader and historian went on to write.
There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews. It is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews. Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewish leaders. Thus Tchitcherin, a pure Russian, is eclipsed by his nominal subordinate, Litvinoff, and the influence of Russians like Bukharin or Lunacharski cannot be compared with the power of Trotsky, or of Zinovieff, the Dictator of the Red Citadel (Petrograd), or of Krassin or Radek — all Jews. In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews is even more astonishing. And the prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary Commissions for Combatting Counter-Revolution [the Cheka] has been taken by Jews, and in some notable cases by Jewesses
Needless to say, the most intense passions of revenge have been excited in the breasts of the Russian people. David R. Francis, United States ambassador in Russia, warned in a January 1918 dispatch to Washington: “The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a worldwide social revolution.”
The Netherlands’ ambassador in Russia, Oudendyke, made much the same point a few months later: “Unless Bolshevism is nipped in the bud immediately, it is bound to spread in one form or another over Europe and the whole world as it is organized and worked by Jews who have no nationality, and whose one object is to destroy for their own ends the existing order of things.”
“The Bolshevik Revolution,” declared a leading American Jewish community paper in 1920, “was largely the product of Jewish thinking, Jewish discontent, Jewish effort to reconstruct.”
As an expression of its radically anti-nationalist character, the fledgling Soviet government issued a decree a few months after taking power that made anti-Semitism a crime in Russia. The new Communist regime thus became the first in the world to severely punish all expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment. Soviet officials apparently regarded such measures as indispensable. Based on careful observation during a lengthy stay in Russia, American-Jewish scholar Frank Golder reported in 1925 that “because so many of the Soviet leaders are Jews anti-Semitism is gaining [in Russia], particularly in the army [and] among the old and new intelligentsia who are being crowded for positions by the sons of Israel.”
Quoting from Mark Weber: The Jewish Role in the Bolshevik Revolution and Soviet Regime
Jews and Bolshevism
Amongst themselves, the Jews are quite candid about their sympathy for and involvement in Bolshevism.
Jews and Bolshevism
On 4 April 1919 the Jewish Chronicle: “There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolshevists, in the fact that the ideals of Bolshevism at many points are consonant with the finest ideals of Judaism.” (Perhaps this explains why the Red Army uses a Jewish star as its symbol?)
Probably the best-known exposé of the Jewish role in the Bolshevik coup d’état was by Sir Winston Churchill, writing in the Illustrated Sunday Herald of 8 February 1920. Churchill wrote “With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of leading figures are Jews. Moreover the principal inspiration and the driving power comes from Jewish leaders.”
Communism was of course founded by Karl Marx whose grandfather was a rabbi by the name of Mordeccai. Marx was given his initial encouragement by a Communist-Zionist by the name of Moses Hess. As founder and editor of the Rheinische Zeitung, the main organ of leftist thought in Germany, he provided Karl Marx with his first important platform. Later, in Brussels, he collaborated with Marx on The German Ideology. It was Hess too who converted to Communism Friedrich Engels, the wealthy textiles magnate who later subsidised Marx from the profits of sweated labour in Britain and Germany.
When the Bolsheviks overthrew the short-lived democratic government in Moscow and St. Petersburg in October 1917, it was a virtual Jewish coup d’état. The most prominent Jewish Commissar was Trotsky, real name Bronstein. He had been married by a rabbi in 1900, and whilst in exile in New York he had worked for Novy Mir, described in the Church Times (23 January 1925) as a “Yiddish newspaper.”
The various reporters and diplomats who were there at the time of the “Revolution” have given evidence as to its Jewish nature. The widow of the Guardian’s correspondent Mrs. Ariadna Tyrkova-Williams wrote: “In the Soviet Republic all the committees and commissaries were filled with Jews.”
The most detailed description of Jewish influence in the Bolshevik ‘revolution comes from Robert Wilton, the Russian correspondent of The Times. In 1920 he published a book in French, Les Derniers Jours des Romanofs, which gave the racial background of all the members of the Soviet government. (This does not appear in the later English translation, for some odd reason.) After the publication of this monumental work, Wilton was ostracised by the press, and he died in poverty in 1925.
He reported that the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party was made up as follows: (NAME , NATIONALITY): Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew; Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew; Lourie (Larine) Jew; Ouritski Jew; Volodarski Jew; Rosenfeldt (Kamanef) Jew; Smidovitch Jew; Sverdlof (Yankel) Jew; Nakhamkes (Steklof) Jew; Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian; Krylenko Russian; Lounatcharski Russian;
“The Council of the People’s Commissars comprises the following: (MINISTRY NAME, NATIONALITY): President Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian; Foreign Affairs Tchitcherine Russian; Nationalities Djugashvili (Stalin) Georgian; Agriculture Protian Armenian; Economic Council Lourie (Larine) Jew; Food Schlichter Jew; Army & Navy Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew; State Control Lander Jew; State Lands Kauffman Jew; Works V. Schmidt Jew; Social Relief E. Lelina (Knigissen) Jewess; Public Instruction Lounatcharsky Russian; Religions Spitzberg Jew; Interior Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew; Hygiene Anvelt Jew; Finance Isidore Goukovski Jew; Press Volodarski Jew; Elections Ouritski Jew; Justice I. Steinberg Jew; Refugees Fenigstein Jew; Refugees (assist.) Savitch Jew; Refugees (assist.) Zaslovski Jew;
“The following is the list of members of the Central Executive Committee: (NAME NATIONALITY)
Sverdlov (president) Jew; Avanessof (sec.) Armenian; Bruno Lett; Babtchinski Jew; Bukharin Russian; Weinberg Jew; Gailiss Jew; Ganzburg Jew; Danichevski Jew; Starck German; Sachs Jew; Scheinmann Jew; Erdling Jew; Landauer Jew; Linder Jew; Wolach Czech; Dimanstein Jew; Encukidze Georgian; Ermann Jew; Joffe Jew; Karkline Jew; Knigissen Jew; Rosenfeldt (Kamenef) Jew; Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew; Krylenko Russian; KrassikofSachs Jew; Kaprik Jew; Kaoul Lett; Ulyanov (lenin) Russian; Latsis Jew; Lander Jew; Lounatcharski Russian; Peterson Lett; Peters Lett; Roudzoutas Jew; Rosine Jew; Smidovitch Jew; Stoutchka Lett; Nakhamkes (Steklof) Jew; Sosnovski Jew; Skrytnik Jew; Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew; Teodorovitch Jew; Terian Armenian; Ouritski Jew; Telechkine Russian; Feldmann Jew; Froumkine Jew; Souriupa Ukranian; Tchavtchevadze Georgian; Scheikmann Jew; Rosental Jew; Achkinazi Imeretian; Karakhane Karaim (Jew); Rose Jew; Sobelson (Radek) Jew; Sclichter Jew; Schikolini Jew; Chklianski Jew; Levine (Pravdine) Jew
“The following is the list of members of the Extraordinary Commission of Moscow: (NAME NATIONALITY): Dzerjinski (president) Pole; Peters (vice-president) Lett; Chklovski Jew; Kheifiss Jew; Zeistine Jew; Razmirovitch Jew; Kronberg Jew; Khaikina Jewess; Karlson Lett; Schaumann Jew; Leontovitch Jew; Jacob Goldine Jew; Glaperstein Jew; Kniggisen Jew; Latzis Lett; Schillenkuss Jew; Janson Lett; Rivkine Jew; Antonof Russian; Delafabre Jew; Tsitkine Jew; Roskirovitch Jew; G. Sverdlof Jew; Biesenski Jew; Blioumkine Jew; Alexandrevitch Russian; I. Model Jew; Routenberg Jew; Pines Jew; Sachs Jew; Daybol Lett; Saissoune Armenian; Deylkenen Lett; Liebert Jew; Vogel German; Zakiss Lett
Although Lenin is described as a “Russian,” in fact he was a mixture of various nationalities. It is likely that he was one-quarter Russian, one-quarter German, one-quarter Jewish and at least one-quarter Kalmuck (Mongol), which accounts for his Mongol appearance. Various authorities allege that his wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya was a Jewess and that her family spoke Yiddish in the home.
A report sent to the British government in 1918 by Mr. Oudendyke, the Dutch consul in St. Petersburg, said that “Bolshevism is organised and worked by Jews.” The report was included in a pamphlet published as a government White Paper in April 1919 entitled Russia No. 1 (1919) A Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia. However, the pamphlet was quickly withdrawn and reissued with various excisions and alterations made.
In the War Records Division of the United States National Archives there is filed a report from an American Intelligence operative in St. Petersburg. Under Record Group 20; Records of the American Expeditionary Forces Capt. Montgomery Schuyler, G2 Intelligence wrote, “The Bolshevik movement is and has been since its beginning, guided and controlled by Russian Jews of the greasiest type.”
Also in the U.S. National Archives are two telegrams sent by American diplomats in Russia. State Department document 861.00/1757 sent on 2 May 1918 by U.S. Consul Summers in Moscow relates, “Jews predominant in local Soviet government, anti-Jewish feeling growing among population.” Document 861.00/2205 from Consul Caldwell in Vladivostock on 5 July 1918 describes, “Fifty per cent of Soviet government in each town consists of Jews of worst type.”
In January, 1924, Lenin died from causes variously described as ‘a heart attack,’ brain hemorrhage’ and ‘syphilis.’ His comrades immediately began fighting amongst themselves to see who was to become his successor.
A relative outsider, Joseph Stalin, came to the fore and purged all competition either by exiling or executing them. Since Stalin was not Jewish, yet nearly all his opponents were, it is often suggested that Stalin was anti-Semitic. This is far from the truth.
Stalin had three wives, all of them Jewesses. The first was Ekaterina Svanidze who bore him one son, Jacob. His second wife was Kadya Allevijah. She bore him a son Vassili and a daughter Svetlana. His second wife died in mysterious circumstances, either by committing suicide or murdered by Stalin. His third wife was Rosa Kaganovich, the sister of Lazar Kaganovich, the head of Soviet industry. Stalin’s daughter (who in 1967 fled to the USA) then married Lazar’s son Mihail i.e. her step-mother’s nephew. Svetlana Stalin had a total of four husbands, three of them Jewish.
Stalin’s vice-president Molotov was also married to a Jewess, whose brother, Sam Karp, runs an export business in Connecticut. Just to complicate things even more, the Molotov’s (half-Jewish) daughter also called Svetlana was engaged to be married to Stalin’s son Vassili.
After the death of Stalin, his successors kept up the tradition, for a report in the B’nai B’rith Messenger relates: “To show that Russia treats its Jews well, Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev this week remarked at a reception at the Polish Embassy that not only he himself and Soviet President Klementi Voroshilov, but also half the members of the Praesidium have Jewish wives. Mr. Kruschev made this remark to Israeli Ambassador Joseph Avidar, who was amongst the guests.” (Kruschev’s wife was yet another Kaganovitch.)
According to a report in The Canadian Jewish News of 13 November 1964 the present Soviet boss Leonid Brezhnev is married to a Jewess, and his children are brought up as Jews. There are a number of prominent Jews in the Soviet government, including Dimitri Dymshits in charge of industry, Lev Shapiro regional secretary of Birobidjan, and Yuri Andropov in charge of the secret police, the KGB. In fact, every secret police chief in Soviet history has been a Jew, from the first Uritsky to the most recent, the murderous Beria. A Jew is also in charge of the Soviet economy – Leonid Kantorovich.
It is a well-known fact that the Bolsheviks were and are financed by Jewish interests in the West.
At a Bolshevik celebration rally in New York’s Carnegie Hall on the night of 23 March 1917, a telegram of support from Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was read out. The telegram was reprinted in the next morning’s New York Times. Schiff later tried to deny his involvement, but thirty years later his grandson John admitted in the New York Journal-American (3 February 1949) that the old man had sunk twenty million dollars into the Bolshevik cause.
Another Western bankers who poured funds into Bolshevik Russia was Olaf Ashberg of the Stockholm Nia Banken. He remained the Soviets’ paymaster until the late 1940s. The London Evening Standard of 6 September 1948 reported a visit by Ashberg to Switzerland “for secret meetings with Swiss government officials and banking executives. Diplomatic circles describe Mr. Ashberg as the ‘Soviet banker’ who advanced large sums to Lenin and Trotsky in 1917. At the time of the revolution, Mr. Ashberg gave Trotsky money to form and equip the first unit of the Red Army.”
The Bolsheviks also received assistance from Armand Hammer, who still commutes back and forward between New York and Moscow to take care of his business interests in both communities. Hammer’s Occidental Oil Company is at the moment building a 1600 mile chemicals pipeline in southern Russia. He is also on such good terms with the Soviets that he personally arranges for Soviet art galleries to lend paintings to America.
Another American-based businessman to help out the Soviet economy is Michael Fribourg, who owns the massive Continental Grain Company. Together with the Louis Dreyfus Corporation, these Jewish speculators were able to buy up vast quantities of cheap American grain in 1972, sell it to the Soviets at a vast profit, and collect an export subsidy from the U.S. taxpayer.
In every other East European country, it is exactly the same story:
In Hungary a Communist revolution was staged in 1919, instigated by the Jew Bela Kun (Cohen). During the three month regime, the country was turned upside down in a reign of murder and terror. Here again, the government was composed almost entirely of Jews. And it was this factor which brought about the regime’s downfall, as the ordinary Hungarians detested Jewish dictatorship. Kun was deposed and fled to the Soviet Union, where he became chief of the secret police, the Cheka, in southern Russia.
It was not until 1945 that the Jews were able to regain control. Three Russian Jews were installed as the ruling triumvirate, Matyas Rakosi (Rosencranz), Erno Gero (Singer) and Zoltan Vas. Both Rakosi and Gero had been members of Kun’s bloody government.
In Germany, the Jews also tried to take over there in the chaos that followed the First World War. Aided by funds from the Soviet Ambassador Joffe, Rosa Luxemburg’s Spartacus Bund attempted to overthrow the government. The revolt was quelled and its leaders Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht executed.
The post-war dictator of Roumania, Anna Pauker, was the daughter of a Bucharest kosher butcher. For a time she earned her living teaching Hebrew. Her father and brother now live in Israel.
Although Tito was the only non-Jewish dictator behind the Iron Curtain in the late 1940s, he was tutored by the Jew Mosa Pijade. According to John Gunther in Behind the Iron Curtain, “He is Tito’s mentor… Whatever ideological structure Tito may have, he got it from the shrewd old man.”
Moscow’s puppet government in Czechoslovakia in the late 1940s was run by another Jew, Rudolph Slansky.
In Poland too, Jews occupied virtually every position of authority in the post-war Communist regime. Prominent among these were Minc, Skryesewski, Modzelewski and Berman. Jacob Berman gradually eclipsed the others until he became supreme dictator by himself. Also, Gomulka’s wife was a Jewess.
Even in China, Soviet Jews were at work helping Mao Tse Tung. High up in the Political Department of the Red Army in China were W. N. Levitschev and J. B. Gamarnik.