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Bab-el-Mandeb

Bab-el-Mandeb

The history of what became the modern State of Israel could be viewed in two two-thousand years parts. The first period before the Ministry of Jesus Christ (Yeshua) and the second is from that year until today.

The first part of Israeli history is marked by four distinct periods. These periods are:
1. The Hebrew Israelite Yemeni Period (2006 to 1876 BC),
2. The Hebrew Israelite Ethiopian Period (1876 to 1446 BC),
3. The Hebrew Israelite Canaanite Period (1446 to 605 BC), and
4. The Jewish Turkic Persian Period (605 BC to 66 AD).

The second part of Israeli history is marked by four overlapping periods. These periods are:
1. The Turkic Jewish Roman Period (66 AD to today),
2. The Turkic Pagan-Jewish-Muslim Khazar Period (350 AD to 1783 AD),
3. The Turkic Jewish Germano-Sorbian-Pannonian Period (450 AD to today),
4. The Turkic Muslim Ottoman Empire and Turkish State (1299 AD to today)
5. The Hebrew Israelite Iberian Period (711 AD to today),
6. The Turkic Jewish American Period (1492 AD to today).

I started writing this article and it is getting lengthy. Therefore, I post this is as the first part.

The Israeli Government carried out Operation Moses to evacuate Ethiopian Jews (known as the “Beta Israel” community or “Falashas”) via Sudan in 1984. Originally called Gur Aryeh Yehuda (“Cub of the Lion of Judah”) by Israelis, the United Jewish Appeal changed the name to “Operation Moses”.
So what does the name refer to? It indicates an Exodus like the one Moses did. But wait do the Israelis admit that “Beta Israel” community or “Falashas” are ethnic Israelite? Do they mean that the biblical Exodus started from Ethiopia and not Egypt?

The most important questions are why this evacuation now? And what are the real intentions of the Israelis towards “Beta Israel” community? Do they want to protect and help them? If yes why not in Ethiopia? And why “Beta Israel” community are not happy?
It could be very serious if the real intention is to make them and their faith and history extinct to cover up unwanted history.

These questions raise serious concerns about the safety of nations and histories of countries related to the long track of Hebrew Israelite and Turkic Jewish nomadic wandering. This includes Yemen, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, Libya, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and many more in West Asia and North Africa.

Map of Aksum and South Arabia ca. 230 AD

Map of Aksum and South Arabia ca. 230 AD

The Hebrew Israelite Ethiopian Period (1876 to 1446 BC)
The Hebrew Israelite were nomadic herders who lived in Yemen. Suffered from shortage of pasture land and draughts they decided to cross The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, lit. “Gate of Tears”) or Mandeb Strait to Ethiopia in 1876 BC.

Patriarch Joseph was sold four times, the first was in Yemen and he ended up to be raised in a rich Ethiopian house. Later he was imprisoned then became the king’s chief assistant in a small Ethiopian kingdom. Few decades later the Israelite fled drought and lack of pastures in Yemen to Ethiopia and they were treated with generosity and given land in Ethiopia.

The Israelite also moved beyond Ethiopia and Eritrea to reach to Somalia and Sudan. In Sudan they settled in east Sudan (Beja land); North Sudan (Upper Nubia); central Sudan (Al-Gezera (between Blue and White Niles)); and they reached west to Kordofan.

In each of their settlements the nomadic Israelite caused profound changes in these regions. In Al-Gezera the Shilluk (Shilluk: Chollo), a major Luo Nilotic group, were pushed south to Rabak town.
In Kordofan, the Israelite engaged in large scale enslavement that caused massive displacement of the Kordofanians to Nubia and Darfur, but mainly to the south to the Nuba Mountains.

The Israelite took the city of Soba, or Meroë, which was built at the confluence of Blue and White Niles. Having successfully laid siege to the city, the city was eventually subdued by betrayal of the prince’s daughter, who had agreed to deliver the city to Israelite. Hebrew oral tradition avers that Moses, in his younger years, had led an Egyptian military expedition into Sudan (Kush), as far as the city of Meroë, which was then called Saba.

The Israelite also caused Upper Nubia to struggle with Lower Nubia. Lower Nubia requested assistance from the Ancient Egyptians. King Psamtik II (595 BC – 589 BC) led a joint foray into Upper Nubia in 592 BC. The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC. The dynasty’s reign (664–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.

After the successful defeat of Israelite king Aspelta (600 – 580 BC), the Nubian ruler of the Kingdom of Kush, moved the capital from Napata considerably farther south to Meroë in 591 BC.

Later on the major changes resulted in the disintegration of the Kingdom of Kush (1070 BC–AD 350) into three separate kingdoms (Nobatia, Makuria, and Alodia). Further troubles in Nubia forced the King Ezana of Axum (320s – c. 360 AD) to wage a campaign into Nubia. He was first monarch of Axum to embrace Christianity. Along with his brother, Se’azana, Ezana is regarded as a saint by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, with a feast day of October 1. He himself employed official title “king of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan”.

The last period of Nubia is marked by the victory stele of an unnamed ruler of Aksum (almost certainly Ezana) erected at the site of Meroë; from his description, in Greek, that he was “King of the Aksumites and the Omerites”. King Ezana invaded Nubia to support the Nubians as they had previous bad experience with the Israelite during their refuge in Ethiopia (1876 to 1446 BC).
He commemorated his victories on stone tablets in praise of God. These liturgical epigraphs were written in various ancient languages, including the Ethiopian Semitic Ge’ez, the South Arabian Sabaean, and Greek. His carvings in stone provided a trilingual monument in different languages, similar to the Rosetta stone.

A pair of inscriptions in Ge’ez have been found at Meroe, which is understood as evidence of a campaign in the fourth century, either during ‘Ezana’s reign, or by a predecessor like Ousanas.
A surviving letter from the Arian Roman Emperor Constantius II is addressed to ‘Ezana and his brother Se’azana, and requests that Frumentius be sent to Alexandria to be examined for doctrinal errors; it is believed that King Ezana either refused or ignored this request.

The Meroitic language was spoken in Meroë and the Sudan during the Meroitic period (attested from 300 BC) and became extinct about 400 AD as a result of disorder that was brewed by Israelite for 2000 years.
Nubian Sudan entered a dark age called the X group. This age must be the product of Israelite damages in Nubia. The end of the Meroitic period was not spontaneous, it was rather gradual and is most evident in the shift of building materials from more durable to more perishable ones.

The post-Meroitic period, which starts approximately after 350 AD, is distinguished by the emergence of a new culture in Sudan labeled as the X-Group; the culture is associated with nomadic tribes who migrated from the deserts neighboring the Nile Valley. This is most evident in burial traditions where X-Group rulers were buried in tumuli structures, just like the rulers of Kerma in the past.

In Ballana and Qustol, in Lower Nubia, and at el-Hobagi, Jebel Adda, Jebel Quisi, and Meroe, in Sudan, X-Group tumuli were located in large numbers; however, most of those in Sudan have not yet been excavated. The sizes of the tumuli varies to a great degree.

Ezana’s inscriptions are very important and significant but all the stone records are poorly translated and kept. It is impossible to assume that his campaign could ignore the presence of Israelite in Nubia particularly with their hostile experience, the deep Christian faith of King Ezana, and most importantly the massacres of Christians in Najran by the Jewish king Yusuf As’ar Dhu Nuwas in 524 AD.

Dhū Nuwās, (Arabic: ذو نواس‎‎) or Yūsuf Ibn Sharhabeel (Arabic: يوسف بن شرحبيل‎‎) Syriac Masruq; Greek Dounaas (Δουναας), was a Judaic warlord in Yemen between 517 and 525-27 CE. He was a Jew who grew out his sidelocks (nuwas meaning, “forelock” or “sidelock”), and who became known as “lord of the sidelocks”. After coming to the throne through a coup d’état, Dhu Nuwas launched a campaign which where a church was put to the torch, and then invaded the Tihāma coastal lowlands where a partially Christianized population dwelt, and where he took over key centers as far as the Bab el-Mandeb.

He sent one of his generals, a Jewish prince, north to Najran in order to impose an economic blockade on the oasis by cutting off the trade route to Qaryat al-Faw in eastern Arabia and the Christians of Najran were massacred
St. Arethas or Aretas (Arabic: آل الحارث‎‎ “al-Haarith”) was the leader of the Christian community of Najran in the early 6th century. He was executed during the persecution of Christians.

He is known from the Acta S. Arethae (also called Martyrium sancti Arethae or Martyrium Arethae) which exists in two recensions: the earlier and more authentic, which was found by Michel Le Quien and was subsequently dated as no later than the 7th century; the latter, revised by Simeon Metaphrastes, dates from the 10th century. The Ge’ez and Arabic versions of the text were published in 2006 and the Greek version in 2007. Feastday: 27 July (Roman Catholic Church) In Eastern Orthodox Church his feastday is 24 October (6 November O.C.).

In 525, the armies of the Christian Kingdom of Axum in Ethiopia invaded Yemen to take control of the Jewish kingdom in Ḥimyar to save Christians. With this invasion the Jewish religion in all of Yemen, came to an abrupt end.

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