Great Ethiopians (Habashah, Abyssinians): 1- Kaleb of Axum
King Kaleb (ruled circa 514-543) is perhaps the best-documented and best-known, King of Axum (situated in modern-day Eritrea and North Ethiopia).
Procopius of Caesarea calls him “Hellestheaeus”, a variant of his throne name Ella Atsbeha or Ella Asbeha (Histories, 1.20). Variants of his name are Hellesthaeus, Ellestheaeus, Eleshaah, Ella Atsbeha, Ellesboas, and Elesboam, all from the Greek Ελεσβόάς, for “The one who brought about the morning” or “The one who collected tribute.”
Procopius, John of Ephesus, and other contemporary historians recount Kaleb’s invasion of Yemen around 520, against the Jewish Himyarite king Yusuf Asar Yathar (also known as Dhu Nuwas), who massacred Christians in Yemen. After much fighting, Kaleb and his soldiers totally eliminated Yusuf and his forces and appoint Sumuafa’ Ashawa'(Smeaf’ Ashwa’ ( سميفع أشوع)), a native Christian leader of Dhi Yazan (named Esimphaios by Procopius), as his viceroy of Himyar.
As a result of his protection of the Christians, he is known as St. Elesbaan after the sixteenth-century Cardinal Cesare Baronio added him to his edition of the Roman Martyrology despite his being a miaphysite. However, the question of whether Miaphysitism—the actual christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches (including the Coptic Orthodox Church)—was a heresy is a question which remains to this day, and other Oriental saints such as Isaac of Nineveh continue to be venerated by the Chalcedonian churches.
Axumite control of South Arabia continued until c.525 when Sumuafa’ Ashawa’ was deposed by Abraha (Abraha al-Ashram, أبرهة الأشرم, أبرهة الحبشي), who made himself king. While Abraha he was not Ethiopian Turko-Arabs still deliberately call him “(Abraha al- Habashi) the Ethiopian” just to accuse the Ethiopians of his criminal attempt to destroy The Holy Kaaba of Islam in Mecca. He ruled Yemen from 531 AD to 565 AD.
This accusation is clearly false since King Kaleb appointed a local Christian Yemeni to rule Yemen and was deposed by Abraha. The second reason is that all the Arabs in Arabia knew very well that Ethiopia was ruled by just kings whole tolerate no aggression, and that is why the first believers in Islam were advised to flee and take refuge in Ethiopia under the protection of their kings.
King Kaleb made several unsuccessful attempts to remove Abraha and restore order in Yemen; however, his successor gave up and negotiated a peace with Abraha. By these expeditions Axum overextended itself, and after this final intervention across the Red Sea Aksum gave up its position as a great power in the region.
Ethiopian tradition states that Kaleb eventually abdicated his throne, gave his crown to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and retired to a monastery. The Eastern Orthodox Church commemorates Kaleb as “Saint Elesbaan, King of Ethiopia” on 24 October (O.S.) / 6 November (N.S.).
Later historians who recount the events of King Kaleb’s reign include Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, and Tabari. Taddesse Tamrat records a tradition he heard from an aged priest in Lalibela that “Kaleb was a man of Lasta and his palace was at Bugna where it is known that Gebre Mesqel Lalibela had later established his centre. The relevance of this tradition for us is the mere association of the name of Kaleb with the evangelization of this interior province of Aksum.”
Besides several inscriptions bearing his name, Axum also contains a pair of ruined structures, one said to be his tomb and its partner said to be the tomb of his son Gabra Masqal (servant of the Cross). (Tradition gives him a second son, Israel, whom it has been suggested is identical with the Axumite king Israel).
This structure was first examined as an archaeological subject by Henry Salt in the early 19th century; almost a century later, it was partially cleared and mapped out by the Deutsche Aksum-Expedition in 1906. The most recent excavation of this tomb was in 1973 by the British Institute in East Africa.
Dhu Nuwas the Jewish of Yemen
Dhū Nuwās, (Arabic: ذو نواس) or Yūsuf Ibn Sharhabeel (Arabic: يوسف بن شرحبيل) Syriac Masruq; Greek: Dounias, was a Jewish warlord in Yemen between 517 and 525-27 CE, who came to renown on account of his military exploits against people of other religions living in Yemen.
Ibn Hisham’s Sirat Rasul Allah (better known in English as the Life of Muhammad), explains that Yūsuf was a Jew who grew out his sidelocks (nuwas meaning, “forelock” or “sidelock”), and who became known as “lord of the sidelocks.” The historicity of Dhū Nuwās is affirmed by Philostorgius and by Procopius (in the latter’s Persian War).
Procopius writes that in 525, the armies of the Christian Kingdom of Axum in Ethiopia invaded Yemen at the request of the Byzantine Emperor, Justin I, to take control of the Jewish kingdom in Ḥimyar, then under the leadership of Yūsuf Dhū Nuwās, who rose to power in 522. Jews were smitten, and their supremacy in all of Yemen, came to an abrupt end.
One Syriac source appears to suggest that the mother of Dhū Nuwās may have been herself a Jew hailing from the Mesopotamian city of Nisibis. If so, this would place her origins within the Sassanid imperial sphere, and would illuminate possible political reasons for his later horrendous crimes against the Christians of Arabia.
Many modern historians, though Christopher Haas is an exception, have argued that her son’s conversion was a matter of tactical opportunism, since Judaism would have provided him with an ideological counterweight to the religion of his adversary, the Kingdom of Aksum, and also allowed him to curry favour with the Sassanid shahanshah. This is another evidence of the Persian origin of Judaism.
Based on other contemporary sources, after seizing the throne of the Ḥimyarites in ca. 518 or 523 Dhū Nuwās burned Christian at Najrān and other places, and burning their churches. After accepting the city’s capitulation, he massacred those inhabitants who would not renounce Christianity.
According to the Arab historians, Dhū Nuwās then proceeded to write a letter to the Lakhmid king Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu’man of al-Ḥīrah and King Kavadh I of Persia, informing them of his crimes and encouraging them to do likewise to the Christians under their dominion. Al-Mundhir received this letter in January 519, as he was receiving an embassy from Constantinople seeking to forge a peace between the Roman Empire and al-Ḥīrha. He revealed the contents of the letter to the Roman ambassadors who were horrified by its contents.
The Ethiopian church in Ẓafâr, which had been built by previous king of Yemen some years earlier, and another church built by him in Aden had been seen by Constantius II during the embassage to the land of the Ḥimyarites (i.e. Yemen) in circa 340 CE. These churches were set on fire and razed to the ground, and Christians killed. Later, foreigners (presumably Christians) living in Haḏramawt were also put to death before they advanced to Najran in the far north.
Yusuf Asar Yathar led groups from Hamedan, Madh’hij, Kindah, and Murad to massacre Christians in Ẓafâr, Mokhā and Najran claiming that they were Abyssinians.
The Najran inscription of 518 AD gives brief details on the massacres of Christians in Yemen as follow:
God who owns the heavens and the earth bless king Yusuf Asar Yathar, king of all nations and bless the Aqials (Dhi Yazan leaders)
Who they stand with their master, King Yusuf Asar Yathar, when he burned the church and killed the Habashah (Abyssinians) in Dhofar and war on (Habashah) in Ash’aran and Rakban (regions) and Farasan
The king has succeeded in these battles in the killing of 12,500 and capturing 11,090
Booty of two hundred thousand camels, cows, sheep, and this Misnad (inscription) was written by Shrahal Dhi Yazan when camped in Najran
With the nation of Hamedan and the Arabs and the Yazaniin fighters and the A’rab (Nomads) of Kinda and Murad and Madh’hij and his brothers the Aqials who camped with the king
On the sea from the side of Habashah (Abyssinia) And they set up a series of fortifications in the Bab al-Mandab and all who mentioned in this Musnad they fought and took booty and camped in this mission
And they returned in the history of thirteen and Rahman (god) bless Sharhabal Ekml and Wh’an and Asar Bni Lhi’t
An article titled “Buried Christian Empire Casts New Light on Early Islam” By Matthias Schulz, translated from the German by Christopher Sultan, posted on December 21, 2012. It is full deceptive statements. While discussing the same period and place, it is deliberately silent about the Jewish horrible massacres of Christians and it tries to depict King Kaleb and the Ethiopians as conquerors and puppets, instead of a good faithful savior.
The main purpose of that despicable article to avert the blame on Jews and ask was there once a church in Mecca? It says: [These Sacred Heart imperialists confronted the Persian realm of the Sassanids, with its archers and armies of bearded soldiers clad in heavy metal armor. The Jews, who lived by the tens of thousands in the oases, were to some extent aligned with this power. It was a confrontation between east and west, and everyone was forced to choose a side.]
Please read the article to find out how history is a very serious security issue for the Jews. This certainly indicates that wars, mass displacement, and massacres are indeed usable tools to hide and forge Jewish history.
Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Mosque says King of Axum saved Islam
The Grand Imam spoke to the German Parliament, the Bundestag on Mar 17, 2016, reiterated if it wasn’t for Emperor Armaha of Axum Islam as a religion would have been destroyed. “Christianity was the first to provide sanctuary for Islam; without Abyssinia and its Christian king who protected the first Muslims, Islam would have been destroyed in its cradle,” he told the German Parliament.
The Grand Imam is referring to migration of 108 Muslims including the Prophet Muhammad’s daughter and uncle to Axum. The first Muslims crossed the Red Sea to seek refuge in the Christian Kingdom of Aksum. The Chiefs of Quraysh tried everything including sending gifts of gold and other precious things to Emperor Armaha to win him to side with them. They pleaded with him to send the Arab refugees back home explaining the new religion is against the teachings of Christ but, the wise king questioned both sides and he denied Quraysh’s request, rejected their gifts and granted the early Muslims asylum.
(Note: Ironically Islam did die only fifty years after birth in a great bloody civil war instigated by Turkic groups in Persia, Mesopotamia, Canaan, Yemen, and Mecca).