The House of Hanover was founded in 1635 by George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (February 1582, Celle –April 1670, Hildesheim). The House of Hanover ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover. It brought the dynasty that ruled Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. George I of Great Britain, (1660 – 1727), was the first Hanoverian to rule Britain. He was not ethnically German, and he didn’t speak English when he was appointed King of England in 1714.
Upon Victoria’s death, the British throne passed to her eldest son Edward VII, who was considered member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha through his father only. The British Monarchy (the House of Windsor) says that they are from the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha but actually they are still from the House of Hanover.
The Roman House of Este the Origin of House of Hanover
Este was a Roman town in Italy. The ruling house in Este became the ruling house in Brunswick-Lüneburg in Germany. It was founded in Este in 951 by an Italian called Adalberto III Obertenghi, from a Roman Attii family, which migrated from Rome to Este.
Memories of the House of Este in England , The Royal House of Windsor, in their veins runs the blood of
the oldest Italian Dynasty, By THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION AND ASSOCIATION ON NOBILITY (TICAN), Download a 13-page pdf file from here
The House of Welf is the senior branch of the House of Este, a dynasty whose earliest known members lived in Lombardy in the late 9th/early 10th century, sometimes called Welf-Este. The first member was Welf IV; he inherited the property of the Elder House of Welf when his maternal uncle Welf III, Duke of Carinthia and Verona, the last male Welf of the Elder House, died in 1055. Welf IV was the son of Welf III’s sister Kunigunde of Altdorf and her husband Albert Azzo II of Este, Margrave of Milan. In 1070, Welf IV became duke of Bavaria.
The Roman rulers of Brunswick-Lüneburg had also a cadet branch, which became the House of Hanover. Welf Albert Obertenghi became Duke of Bavaria and founded the House of Welf in 1070. In 1884 the House of Welf which was the senior branch became extinct. Then the House of Hanover became formally named the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line, as it the only surviving branch after the extinction of the Wolf House. (A cadet branch is a noble House that descends from another noble House.
They are usually created when a younger member of a noble House, who is not the current heir of the family seat, is granted lands and titles of his own. Bastards, if legitimized, or trueborn descendants of legitimized bastards, when granted lands and titles of their own, also found cadet branches. )
In 1180 Henry the Lion refused to give military support to Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor against the cities of the Lombard League. An imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was then allowed to stay on the (allodial) estates inherited from his mother’s side until the end of his life.
The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion. Its name came from the two largest towns in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.
The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but the rulers all continued to be styled as the “Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg” in addition to their various particular titles. The individual principalities making up the duchy continued to exist until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the territories became part of the Kingdom of Hanover and Duchy of Brunswick.
The Hanover branch produced Britain’s Hanoverian monarchs and one Emperor of Russia (Ivan VI). The younger branch of the House of Este included rulers of Ferrara (1240–1597), and of Modena and Reggio (1288–1796).
According to Edward Gibbon the House of Este originated from the Roman Attii family, which migrated from Rome to Este to “defend” Italy by subduing the Ostrogoths.
The word gens (English = genus) is sometimes translated as “race” or “nation”, meaning a people descended from a common ancestor (rather than sharing a common physical trait). It can also be translated as “clan” or “tribe”. All Roman gentes ends with (-ia). This is a Turkic feature. Gens or “Jins” in Arabic means race, tribe, or sub-tribe. Male members of Attia gens were collectively called Attii. In Arabic Attia means gift. In Hebrew (עטיה = Gift = pronounced Atiya, Atiyah, or Attiya).
Each gens functioned as a state within a state, governed by its own elders and assemblies, following its own customs, and carrying out its own religious rites. Certain cults were traditionally associated with specific gentes. The gentile assemblies had the responsibility of adoption and guardianship for their members. If a member of a gens died intestate and without immediate family, his property was distributed to the rest of the gens.
When Jews first went Munich, the capital of Bavaria, is not known, but since by 1158 Duke Henry the Lion had made it an important commercial center, the presence there of Jewish merchants in the twelfth century may safely be assumed. The first authentic reference to a Jew of Munich is dated 1229, when Abraham de Munichen acted as a witness to the sale of a house in Ratisbon.
According to other documents, Ludwig I. (1174-1231) permitted the Jews to build a synagogue (1210) and acquire a cemetery (1225). The Jews’ street soon developed into a ghetto, beyond which the Jews were not permitted to live until 1440; the ghetto contained, besides the synagogue, a communal house, a ritual bath, a slaughter-house, and a hospital.
By the second half of the thirteenth century the community had increased to 200. If the documents are authentic, the Jews of Munich loaned money to Duke Otto I. (1120-83) to build Landshuth, and received in return special privileges, which were confirmed by Ludwig I., who in 1230 granted them the right to elect the so-called “Jews’ judge.”
George Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714. The dynasty provided six British monarchs:
Of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland:
George I (r.1714–27) (Georg Ludwig = George Louis)
George II (r.1727–60) (Georg August = George Augustus)
George III (r.1760–1820)
Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:
George III (r.1760–1820)
George IV (r.1820–30)
William IV (r.1830–37)
The House of Hanover were always ethnically and politically different from the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha which was created in 1826. Upon Victoria’s death, the British throne passed to her eldest son Edward VII, a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha through his father only.
An indication of the Turkic Jewish origin is the British Royal Family is the Circumcision Tradition; plus a long list of British Jewish nobility and gentry. The British Royal Family’s Circumcision Tradition: Genesis and Evolution of a Contemporary Legend By: Robert Darby and John Cozijn
Queen Victoria believed the British royal family, and thus herself, to be descended from King David, and accordingly circumcised all her male children, beginning with Albert Edward (later Edward VII). This story was retold in countless media features, websites and blogs at the time of Prince George’s birth, and can also be found in several academic publications, such as Shalom Goldman’s God’s Sacred Tongue (2004).
‘Circumcision is one of the oddities of the Royal Family‘ By Harry Wallop, 31 Mar 2015, The Telegraph, UK.
List of main members of the House of Hanover
George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582 – 1641, had 4 sons;
1. Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1622 – 1665, died without issue
2. George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1624 – 1705, died without male issue
3. John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1625 – 1679, died without male issue
4. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629 – 1698, had 6 sons;
A. George I of Great Britain, 1660 – 1727, had 1 son;
I. George II of Great Britain, 1683 – 1760, had 3 sons;
a. Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707 – 1751, had 5 sons;
i. George III of the United Kingdom, 1738 – 1820, had 9 sons;
1. George IV of the United Kingdom, 1762 – 1830, died without male issue
2. Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, 1763 – 1827, died without issue
3. William IV of the United Kingdom, 1765 – 1837, died without issue
4. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, 1767 – 1820, died without male issue
5. Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, 1771 – 1851, had 1 son;
A. George V of Hanover, 1819 – 1878, had 1 son;
I. Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845 – 1923, had 3 sons;
a. Prince Georg Wilhelm of Hanover and Cumberland, 1880 – 1912, died without issue
b. Prince Christian of Hanover and Cumberland, 1885 – 1901, died without issue
c. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887 – 1953, had 4 sons;
i. Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover, 1914 – 1987, had 3 sons;
1. Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954, has 2 sons;
A. Ernst August, Hereditary Prince of Hanover, b. 1983
B. Prince Christian of Hanover, b. 1985
2. Prince Ludwig Rudolph of Hanover, 1955 – 1988, had 1 son;
A. Prince Otto Heinrich of Hanover, b. 1988
3. Prince Heinrich Julius of Hanover, b. 1961, has 3 sons;
(A)1. Oscar Heinrich Julius Ferdinand Nick Hannover b.1996 (illigetimate son of Pr. Heinrich Julius and Désiree Nick)
A. Prince Albert of Hanover, b. 1999
B. Prince Julius of Hanover, b. 2006
ii. Prince George William of Hanover, 1915 – 2006, had 2 sons;
1. Prince Welf Ernst of Hanover, 1947 – 1981, died without male issue
2. Prince George of Hanover, b. 1949, died without male issue
iii. Prince Christian Oscar of Hanover, 1919 – 1981, died without male issue
iv. Prince Welf Henry of Hanover, 1923 – 1997, died without issue
6. Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, 1773 – 1843, died without legitimate issue
7. Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, 1774 – 1850, had 1 son;
A. Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, 1819 – 1904, died without legitimate issue
8. Prince Octavius of Great Britain, 1779 – 1783, died in infancy
9. Prince Alfred of Great Britain, 1780 – 1783, died in infancy
ii. Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, 1739 – 1767, died without issue
iii. Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, 1743 – 1805, had 1 son;
1. Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, 1776 – 1834, died without issue
iv. Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, 1745 – 1790, died without issue
v. Prince Frederick of Great Britain, 1750 – 1765, died without issue
b. Prince George William of Great Britain, 1717 – 1718, died in infancy
c. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, 1721 – 1765, died without issue
B. Frederick Augustus, 1661 – 1690, died without issue
C. Maximilian Wilhelm, 1666 – 1726, PROBABLY died without issue
D. Karl Philipp, 1669 – 1690, died without issue
E. Christian Henry, 1671 – 1703, died without issue
F. Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, 1674 – 1728, PROBABLY died without issue