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The popular vote in favour of the main nationalist party by European countries

The popular vote in favour of the main nationalist party by European countries

Nationalist parties in Europe have been on the rise since the early 2010s due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.

Ruth Wodak (Austrian linguist author of: The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean, 2015) stresses that the rise of populist parties across Europe has different reasons in different countries. In a March 2014 article she divided these parties into four groups:

  1. Parties that gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts” (anti-Jewish) (e.g., in Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France),
  2. Parties that “focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam” (e.g., in the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland),
  3. Parties that “restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities” (e.g., in Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom)
  4. And 4. Parties that “endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda” (e.g., in Poland, Romania and Bulgaria). According to the Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the national culture is under threat.

Nationalist parties are the ruling parties in the two former Yugoslav countries. In the Republic of Macedonia, the VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country. The Serbian Progressive Party (SNS), founded in 2008 by former Serbian Radical Party members and is led by Tomislav Nikolić. The SNS won plurality in the 2012 parliamentary election and is since the senior party in the Serbian government. In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition.

The 8 Most Prominent Nationalist Parties in Europe:

Germany, Alternative for Germany started in 2013 and won up to 25 percent of the vote in German state elections in March. In September, the party took second place in the Legislature in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the home state of Chancellor Angela Merkel. The party’s policy platform says “Islam does not belong in Germany” and calls for a ban on the construction of mosques.

France, the National Front is a nationalist party promotes anti-immigration and anti-European Union positions. The party favors protectionist economic policies and would clamp down on government benefits for immigrants, including health care, and drastically reduce the number of immigrants allowed into France. The party was established in 1972 and now is led by Marine Le Pen

The Netherlands, Party for Freedom is anti-European Union, anti-Islam. In early November, the party was leading in polls ahead of next year’s parliamentary elections. The Party for Freedom is led by Geert Wilders, one of Europe’s most prominent far-right politicians. The party holds 15 seats in the lower house, down from the 24 it won in elections in 2010.

Greece, Golden Dawn was founded in 1980, came to international attention in 2012 when it entered the Greek Parliament for the first time, winning 18 seats and becoming the country’s third-largest party. In September 2013, the Greek authorities arrested dozens of senior Golden Dawn officials, including members of Parliament and the party’s leader, Nikos Michaloliakos. It was largely silent as the migrant crisis in Greece began, and hailed Mr. Trump’s election as a victory against “illegal immigration”.

Hungary, Jobbik is an anti-immigration and economic protectionist party, won 20 percent of the vote in parliamentary elections in 2014, making it Hungary’s third-largest party. Its policy platform includes holding a referendum on membership in the European Union and a call to “stop hushing up such taboo issues” as “the Zionist Israel’s efforts to dominate Hungary and the world.” In a 2012 bill targeting homosexuals, the party proposed criminalizing the promotion of “sexual deviancy” with prison terms.

Sweden, the Sweden Democrats party, won about 13 percent of the vote in elections in September 2014, which gave it 49 of the 349 seats in Parliament. Because none of the mainstream parties would form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats, the country is governed by a shaky minority coalition of Social Democrats and the Green Party. The Sweden Democrats’ platform calls for heavily restricting immigration, opposes allowing Turkey to join the European Union and seeks a referendum on European Union membership. The party, led by Jimmie Akesson, was Sweden’s most popular in some opinion polls in the winter. A poll on Nov. 16 showed the party vying for second place, with support from 21.5 percent of voters. In an interview with Swedish TV after Mr. Trump’s victory, Mr. Akesson said, “there is a movement in both Europe and the United States where the establishment is being challenged. It is clearly happening here as well.”

Austria, Freedom Party, Norbert Hofer of the nationalist and anti-immigration Freedom Party emerged as the clear front-runner in the first round of the presidential election in Austria in late April, winning 35 percent of the vote. He lost in the first runoff against Alexander Van der Bellen, an economics professor and former Green Party leader. Mr. Van der Bellen won 50.3 percent of the vote, Mr. Hofer 49.7 percent, a difference of just more than 30,000 votes. In June the party challenged the results of the presidential runoff election, citing “numerous irregularities and failures” in the counting of votes. In July, Austria’s highest court ordered a repeat of the runoff election on Dec. 4. This time, Mr. Van der Bellen won a decisive victory — by 6.6 percentage points. Mr. Hofer had campaigned on strengthening the country’s borders and its army, limiting benefits for immigrants and favoring Austrians in the job market. On the social front, one of the party’s policy points is “Yes to families rather than gender madness.” The party, whose motto is “Austria first,” holds 40 of the 183 seats in the National Council.

Slovakia, People’s Party-Our Slovakia won 8 percent of the vote in March elections, securing 14 seats in the country’s 150-member Parliament. The party’s leader, Marian Kotleba, has called NATO a “criminal organization.” The party favors leaving the European Union and the Eurozone.

List of Biggest 45 Nationalist parties, arranged according to country name

Country – Party – Date established – % of popular vote (year) – Votes – Seats – Ideology description

Armenia              Armenian Nationalist party          1890       5.7% (2012)         85,550   5 / 131  Armenian nationalism, United Armenia

Austria Freedom Party of Austria              1956       20.5% (2013)      962,313                 40 / 183                National conservatism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism

Belgium New Flemish Alliance   2001       20.3% (2014)      1,366,397             33 / 150 Flemish nationalism

Belgium               Flemish Interest               2004       3.7% (2014)         247,738                 3 / 150  Flemish nationalism

Bulgaria Attack 2005       4.52% (2014)      148,262                 11 / 240 Bulgarian nationalism, ultranationalism

Bulgaria               National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria           2011       7.28% (2014)      239,101                 10 / 240                Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism

Bulgaria               IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement   1999  8 / 240      Bulgarian nationalism, conservatism, traditionalism

Croatia Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević             2009       2.8% (2011)         66,150   1 / 151  National conservatism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism

Croatia Croatian Party of Rights 1990       3.0% (2011)         72,360   0 / 151  Croatian nationalism

Cyprus National Popular Front  2008       3.71% (2016)      13,041   Feb-56  Greek nationalism

Denmark            Danish People’s Party     1995       21.1% (2015)      741,746                 37 / 179                National conservatism, Danish nationalism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism

Estonia Conservative People’s Party of Estonia    2012       8.1% (2015)         46,772   7 / 101  National conservatism, anti-immigration, Euroscepticism

Finland Finns Party          1995       17.7% (2015)      524,054                 38 / 200                Finnish nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism

France National Front   1972       13.20% (2017)    2.46246                 8 / 577  French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism

Georgia               Conservative Party of Georgia    2001       part of Georgian Dream alliance                 6 / 150  Georgian nationalism, National conservatism

Germany National Democratic Party 1964             1.5% (2013)         635,135 0 / 631 German nationalism

Germany            Alternative for Germany               2013       4.7% (2013)         2,056,985             0 / 631  Euroscepticism, National conservatism

Greece Golden Dawn     1993       6.99% (2015)      379,581                 18 / 300                Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Megali Idea

Hungary              Jobbik   2003       20.2% (2014)      985,029                 23 / 199                Hungarian nationalism, Anti-Zionism, Greater Hungary

Ireland Sinn Féin              1905       13.8% (2016)      295,319                 23 / 166                Irish republicanism, Left-wing nationalism, Democratic Socialism

Italy      Brothers of Italy – National Alliance 2012 2.0% (2013) 666,035     9 / 630  Italian nationalism

Italy      Lega Nord           1991       4.08% (2013)      1,390,156             18 / 630                Regionalism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism, Anti-globalization

Latvia   National Alliance 2010    16.6% (2014)      151,567                 17 / 100                Latvian nationalism

Lithuania Order and Justice 2002 5.33% (2016)   67,794   5 / 141  Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism

Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party 1987 6.6% (2013)         217,683  3 / 60 conservatism

Macedonia VMRO-DPMNE         1990       38.1% (2016)      481,615                 51 / 123  Macedonian nationalism, Christian democracy, National conservatism

Netherlands      Party for Freedom           2006       13.1% (2017)      1,372,941             20 / 150                Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Euroscepticism

Norway               Progress Party   1973       16.3% (2013)      463,560                 29 / 169                Conservative liberalism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism

Norway               Centre Party       1920       5.5% (2013)         155,357                 10 / 169                Norwegian nationalism (Civic nationalism), Euroscepticism, Agrarianism

Poland Law and Justice 2001       37.6% (2015)      5,711,687             235 / 460             National conservatism, Christian democracy, soft euroscepticism

Poland Coalition for the Renewal of the Republic–Liberty and Hope         2015       4.76% (2015)      722,999                 0 / 460         Euroscepticism

Poland National Movement       2012       part of Kukiz’15 alliance                 5 / 460  Polish nationalism, national conservatism, anti-globalization

Romania             Greater Romania Party  1991       1.5% (2012)         108,911                 0 / 137  Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment

Romania United Romania Party 2015       2.8% (2016)         196,397                 0 / 137  Romanian nationalism

Russia  LDPR      1991       11.7% (2011)      7,664,570             56 / 450                Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, Anti-Americanism

Serbia  Serbian Radical Party      1991       8.1% (2016)         306,052                 22 / 250                Serbian nationalism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Russophilia

Slovakia               Kotleba – People’s Party Our Slovakia       2011       8.04% (2016)      209,779                 14 / 150                Slovak ultra-nationalist, extremist

Slovakia               Slovak National Party      1989       8.64% (2016)      225,386                 15 / 150                Slovak ultra-nationalist, extremist, Hungarophobia, Antizionism

Slovenia Slovenian National Party            1991       2.2% (2014)         19,218   0 / 90     Slovenian nationalism

Sweden              Sweden Democrats         1988       12.9% (2014)      801,178                 49 / 349                Swedish nationalism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism

Switzerland       Swiss People’s Party        1971       29.4% (2015)      740,954                 65 / 200                National conservatism, Economic liberalism, Agrarianism, Euroscepticism

Ukraine               Right Sector        2014       1.8% (2014)         284,943                 1 / 450  Ukrainian nationalism

Ukraine Svoboda 1991   4.7% (2014)         742,022                 7 / 450  Ukrainian nationalism, Anti-Russian

United Kingdom              United Kingdom Independence Party      1993       12.6% (2015)      3,881,129             1 / 650  Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism

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