Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt c. 3000 to c. 300 BC, from the Old Kingdom of Egypt until roughly the beginning of Hellenistic Egypt. The ancient Egyptians utilized a numeral system for counting and solving written mathematical problems, often involving multiplication and fractions. Evidence for Egyptian mathematics is limited to a scarce amount of surviving sources written on papyri. From these texts it is known that ancient Egyptians understood concepts of geometry, such as determining the surface area and volume of three-dimensional shapes useful for architectural engineering, and algebra, such as the false position method and quadratic equations.
Evidence indicates that Egyptians made use of potter’s wheels in the manufacturing of pottery from as early as the 4th Dynasty (2600 BC). It is certain that Egyptians invented and used carts driven by ox and donkey. After the Egyptians were invaded by barbaric nomadic Hyksos riding horse-back, Egyptians invented light single-horse chariots and used them for war.
The Hyksos were Turkic Mongolians with their slaves and mercenaries from defeated nations (mainly Iranian Kurds as foot soldiers, mercenaries, and concubines). Only with the invention of the light chariot with spoked wheels did the horse take on military significance. And that is exactly what the Egyptians did and used to defeat the horse-riding Hyksos.
The claims of Alfred S. Bradfrod that the Hyksos introduced to Egyptians chariot are baseless. [Around 1700 BCE an outside nation, known as the Hyksos, invaded Egypt and slowly took control both militarily and politically. The Hyksos people introduced to Egyptians the horse, chariot and modern Bronze Age weapons. The chariot developed around 2000 BCE, and the Indo-Iranians were the first to use a chariot similar to those of the Hyksos—“light, two wheeled and spoked.”] With Arrow, Sword and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 2001), page 13.
The Chariot: A Weapon that Revolutionized Egyptian Warfare, by Richard Carney, says: [Around 1700 BCE an outside nation, known as the Hyksos, invaded Egypt and slowly took control both militarily and politically. The Hyksos people introduced to Egyptians the horse, chariot and modern Bronze Age weapons. ] While admitting that Egypt is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, it is illogical that scientists and historians could write that the Hyksos brought or introduced chariots to Egypt. (Read: The Chariot).
The main points here are: 1. The Hyksos didn’t introduce the chariot to Egypt; 2. Using chariot in war was invented by Egyptians; and 3. Peaceful usage of carts, coaches, and wagons were known much earlier both in Central Asia, China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and elsewhere.
The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. (I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, October 2012) a book by Christoph Baumer is helpful in relating different vehicles to different regions and usages.