The origin and history of the Hyksos and Fulani groups are essential to understand the history and the present of West Africa.
The Fulani groups were the result of wide-spread slavery raids on West Africa since 1600 BC by the Hyksos who invaded and colonized Kmt (ancient Egypt) in 1630 BC or 1800 BC, and some of the Hyksos went further to invade North Africa and first created the Lebu (Libyans) who went back and founded the 22 and 23 Dynasties in Kmt (945 – 728 BC).
It is clear the western part of the Hyksos were devastated by the loss of route connecting them with West Asian markets and the Hyksos expelled to the east of Kmt. To reconnect the Hyksos in Libya had sought assistance from Troy and also took their slavery bandits to invade the southern Nile Valley. The Hyksos wanted to connect with their bandits that were raiding Arabia and also invade and regain Kmt from the south.
The created Fulani groups were used to invade the southern Nile Valley and first colonized the region which they called Kordofan then they occupied Kerma south of the 4th Cataract in 1500 BC. After raiding for 700 years the Hyksos with their Fulani destroyed north Kerma civilization and created in its place Kush in 785 BC, who invaded Kmt to assist the defeated Libyan dynasties and the expelled Hyksos in the Amorite east who were attacking Subar and Sumer; in the events that led to the fall of Sumer and the subsequent creation of Babylonia and the Jews.
The Hyksos were actually the same Akkadians who colonized Sumer and Subar (Fertile Crescent) in 2334-2154 BC. The Akkadians were Turkic Mongolian raiding bandits on horses and took foot soldiers from South Caucasus (Hurrians). Amorites joined the expelled Akkadians to form the Hyksos.
The same amalgam who invaded North Africa and started slavery in West Africa were the invaders and colonizers of Spain and Portugal from 711 AD and were expelled in 1492 AD. They shared and also took over power from their Fulani partner groups in West Africa who were their suppliers of wealth and slaves.
Songhai Empire c. 1464–1591 preceded by Mali Empire and Gao Empire and was succeeded by Saadi dynasty; Pashalik of Timbuktu and Dendi Kingdom.
Mali Empire c. 1230–1670 preceded by Ghana Empire and Gao Empire and was succeeded by Songhai Empire; Jolof Empire; Kaabu Empire and the Empire of Great Fulo
All these regimes were more or less dominated, created or influenced by the Fulani and their Hyksos masters of North Africa, who claim to be Amazigh; while the only true Amazigh are the Tuareg the arch-rival of Fulani and Hyksos. Indeed the history of West Africa is mainly around the history of Hyksos and Fulani slavery and looting.
In fact, “Pharaohs” was a term used by native people of Kmt during the Hyksos colonization (1630-1523 BC) to point to the foreign colonizers as “paɾuw (meaning that person in the great house)”.
Native people of Kmt refrained to call the Hyksos ruler and other foreign rulers as kings which is pronounces as “Nesso”. Nesso was reserved for genuine legitimate kings of Kmt origin. It was their smart way to resist occupation and show disregard.
In this sense, the Songhai were made up by, and related to, pharaohs who were Hyksos rulers. The Songhai were amalgam of local West African groups forced together by slavery; but were not descendants of Kmt. The Hyksos and their pharaohs were also related to the Amorite-Akkadian-Turkic-Hurrian bandits that colonized the Arabs in their homeland which is only in the Western and Southern coasts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Yemen, since 1300 BC after the Hyksos were driven out from Kmt in 1523 BC; then from Mittani and Sumer in 1300 BC.
Therefore, saying that the Songhai and the Fulani are somehow related to the pharaohs (Hyksos) and also to Yemen (Bedouin bandits who colonized Arabs) as their traditions say is reasonable since these were the only two sources for slaves, gold and horses markets and power used by the Fulani and other West African regimes to control the region.
The relationship of the Kushites and their collaboration to the Hyksos is evident in the first and second steles that Lord Carnarvon discovered in 1908 in Thebes and recounts the events of the war that Kamose waged against the Hyksos and the Kushites at the same time. It recalled a courier arrest and detention carrying a letter from the Hyksos leader named Abibi in Avares to his pact ally the leader of Kushites asking for urgent support against the threat posed by the armies of Kmt led by King Kamose against the Hyksos and the Kushites. The content of the Hyksos message to the Kushites was recorded by Kamose in the inscription recounting his victory in Karnak.
The name kes or kas (k3š) appeared in Kmt monuments for the first time in 1450 B.C., and it was meant that the Hyksos gangs that seized Sumar (the civilization of southern Iraq) and their name were the Kassites or the Kishites from Kish, Kas, Kash, or Kasu, and they were Hyksos gangs who occupied Mesopotamia from 1531 to 1155 BC .Clearly, the name Kush is close to Kassites.
It is possible that the formation of the Kush kingdom by someone called Al-Ara came as a result of the urgent need to invade Kmt from the south and to follow instructions that came to the southern Hyksos gangs and Fulani from their Libyan Hyksos partners of the 23rd family that were defeated and fell into the hands of the 24th Dynasty in 732 BC and continued to rule for 12 years only and fell to the invasion of the 25th Dynasty, whose name became the Kingdom of Kush, by the Hyksos gangs, who are of the same origin as the Kassite gangs in Babylon from 1531 to 1155 B.C. to attack Kmt from the south
So, of course, the names Kush, Ta-siti, and Ta-nehso refer to three different lands, not one region. Ta-siti means the land of the civilization of the people of Kerma. While Kush means the colonized part by the Hyksos and their Fulani slave. While Ta-nehso points to black slave areas, whether domestic or foreign.