It is irrefutable that the Fulani is not a cluster of tribes or a wandering nation. They are amalgamation of different groups of different origins, colors and traits made in collection camps, but not a nation at all.
The Fulani are groups made by and colluded with foreign small slavery and looting bandits from East and West Africa since the invasions of the Hyksos through Libya in 1500 BC, that is why there is no one particular specific homeland or region for the Fulani.
The Fulani were used by the Hyksos in 1500 BC; then by the Moors of the expelled colonizers of Spain and Portugal in 1500 AD both for Transatlantic slavery and for waging what claimed to be Jihadist invasions and colonization all over West and Central Africa and extended to Red Sea coasts to hunt and trade in humans and resources.
This second Fulani wave created the fictitious “Arabs” in the Nile Valley and Abyssinia to trade slavery to Arabia via what was made and named Fur, Funj and Ja’alyin groups
In 1820 AD Mohamed Ali recruited a lot of Fulani with assistance from the Fulani colonizers of North Nigeria (Sokoto) led by Usman Dan Fodio and from around Lake Chad.
This wave of Fulani led to the bloody regimes of Al Turkiyya and Al Mahdiyya for looting and slavery. From this wave came the regimes that led to today’s Janjaweed militias and the Umma and other forms that pretend to be political parties.
Alturabi, Omer Albashir, Sadiq Almahdi, Abdallah Khalil, Azhari, Daglo all who inherited the Condominium colony in 1956 and until today controlling politics and businesses are from earlier or recent Fulani groups.
Sudan has groups who claim without any support to be tribes and “Arabs”. Those who claim to be the “Arabs” of Sudan are, in fact, mixed indigenous local groups that have been dominated by small invading factions, and their native original affiliations and history were obliterated by slavery.
It is impossible to prove any existence of their “Arab” titles and groups’ names before the emergence of the colony of Funj in 1500 AD. The Funj was in persistent conflicts with the Black Kingdom of Berta, Gumuz and Shilluk, who are the original inhabitants of Aljazeera between the Blue and White Niles.
The first wave of those who claim to be Arabs in Sudan, their rulers were from the gangs of East and West Asia, who are the Bedouins of the Levant and Jordan with the Hyksos. They invaded North Africa and allied and mixed with the Berbers. These colonizing rulers are the oldest and less brown “Arabs”. They also mixed with the people of the kingdoms of the Karma civilization on the Nile at the time of Kush colony made in 785 BC. These are the older pale Fulani and they are the origin of Ja’alyeen groups
The second wave of Sudan’s “Arabs” is a mixture of East and West Asian gangs with West African slaves and mercenaries and their breeding from them produced Juhayna groups in West and Central Sudan. They are tanner than the Ja’alyeen group, except for Berbers who less mixed with West Africans
1- The Ja`alyeen groups (Ja`alyeen, Shaikiyah, Bdairiyah, Rubatab, Merifab) and Al-Batahin claim Abbasid and Qahtan origin. The Al-Batahin, east of the Nile, played the same role that the Jumu’iyya played in West Nile. The very wide spread of Ja’alyeen is from their work in human hunting and in West African Jallaba
2- Other “Arab” groups are Juhayna in the West, Al-Jazeera; plus Al-Shukria, Al-Ja’alyeen Daglal Al-Bunni Amer in the East; plus Al-Rashaydah from Eastern Arabian Peninsula