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HISTORY OF IRAN- HIGHLIGHTS


The five main dynasties which ruled over Iran: PESHDADIAN (Pre-historic – c.10,000-7,500 BC) KAYANIAN (Pre-historic – c. 7,500-6,500 BC). (History of the period between Kayanian and Ach…

Source: HISTORY OF IRAN- HIGHLIGHTS

Prophet Zarathushtra Spitama – Life Story


Prophet Zarathushtra Family of the prophet Divine appointment Birth Childhood Divine Revelation Early Struggle The court of King Vishtasp The king’s horse Aspe-Sihā Gifts for the King Gifts for the…

Source: Prophet Zarathushtra Spitama – Life Story

Princess Mandana Defeated the Medians and Destroyed Iranians


achaemenid-provinces-during-the-rule-of-darius-iThe history of Iran (Aryan) starts with the ancient “Shoosh Civilization” 6000 B.C.E. Susiana Civilization

The original populations in Northwest Iran were the Median people of “Mede”.

Zoroaster was the prophet of Ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion, Zoroastrianism, inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Iran. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.

The religion, Zoroastrianism, was founded by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek; Zarthosht in India and Persia). Conservative Zoroastrians assign a date of 6000 BCE to the founding of the religion; other followers estimate 600 BCE. Historians and religious scholars generally date his life sometime between 1500 and 1000 BCE on the basis of his style of writing.

Some say Zoroaster’s birthday falls on March 26th 1767 B.C.E. Zarathushtra was the first prophet to introduce the concepts of: monotheism, equality, duality of good and evil (struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu), mankind’s free choice between the two alternatives, messianic redemption, resurrection, final judgment, heaven (the word “Paradise” comes from Old Persian), hell and the notion of an almighty, kind, loving and forgiving God. He believed man’s salvation in life and in the afterlife could only be ensured through Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds. Many of these concepts had a profound influence on Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

The basic moral principles that guide the life of a Zoroastrian are three: Humata, “Good Thoughts,” the intention or moral resolution to abide by Asha, the right order of things. Hukhata, “Good Words,” the communication of that intention. Havarashta, “Good Deeds,” the realization in action of that intention.

The dates given for Zoroaster by ancient and modern writers differ considerably. The oldest parts of the Zoroastrian scriptures are the Gathas, which are the direct teachings of Zoroaster and his conversations with Ahura Mazda in a series of visions. According to tradition, Zoroaster died when he was 77 years and 40 days. The later Pahlavi sources like Shahnameh, however claim an obscure conflict with Tuiryas (Turan / Turk) people, in which Zoroaster was murdered by karapan (old religion priest) Brādrēs in Balkh (now in Afghanistan). (The Arabs called Balkh Umm Al-Belaad or Mother of Cities due to its antiquity.)

The 10th/11th century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiya, the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya, among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster.

The Turkic Persians starting from Cyrus the Great corrupted the monolithic religion of Zoroastrianism and replaced it with an antithesis of Magi cult (magic) and they became known as Magus.

Much like the Roman religion for Rome, it was adopted in differing forms as the generally inclusive overarching state religion of the Achaemenid Empire and subsequent Parthian and Sasanian empires, lending it immense prestige in ancient times.

693 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroyed Susa. The glorious, ancient, biblical and historical city of Susa in Persia was captured and razed to ground by the notorious army of Ashur Banipal. The Assyrians had built a very strong army that ruled over a vast area without any tolerance for other civilizations. Their source of wealth was plundering the weak and not let them regain power. They enslaved many nations including the Jews and the entire Iranian plateau. Assyrians destroyed the Elam kingdom leaving behind an ancient ruin called the Burnt City. This marked the end of 2000 years of Elamite kingdom and the Start of a New Era for the Persian nomads.

The beginning of foreign influence in the Aryan Monarch led to Persia.

600–559 B.C.E. Princess Mandana was reportedly a granddaughter to both Cyaxares of Media and Alyattes II of Lydia of the Mermnads dynasty in western Anatolia. According to Herodotus, Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, King of Media and Aryenis (the daughter of King Alyattes of Lydia). The Mermnads dynasty in Lydia was established by Gyges who Bible scholars believe that he was the Biblical character Gog, ruler of Magog, who is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation. Mandana was not from pure Iranian origins and she could be from non-Lydian descent (she could be of Turkic Cimmerian from her mother’s side). Mandana (Mandane) was a Median princess, daughter of the mighty King Astyages and later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great. Queen Mandana is a central character in legends describing Cyrus the Great’s early years.

Shortly after Mandana’s birth, Herodotus reports that Astyages had a strange dream where his daughter urinated so much that Asia would flood. He consulted the “Magi” (Court Magician) who interpreted the dream as a warning that Mandane’s son would overthrow his rule. To forestall that outcome, Astyages betrothed Mandane to the vassal prince, Cambyses I of Anshan, “a man of good family and quiet habits”, whom Astyages considered no threat to the Median throne. Astyages had a second dream when Mandane became pregnant where a vine grew from her womb and overtook the world. Terrified, he sent his most loyal court retainer, Harpagus, to kill the child. However, Harpagus was loath to spill royal blood and hid the child, Cyrus II, with a shepherd named Mitradates. Years later, Cyrus would defy his grandfather Astyages, leading to war between them; a war that Cyrus would have lost, but for Harpagus’ defection at the battle of Pasargadae, leading to the overthrow of Astyages, as the dream had forecast.

There are references to Mandana’s death as 559 BC; however, as this year is considered the date of her husband’s death (Cambyses I), it is unknown if that is the actual date of her death or when she changed status from Queen Consort to Queen Mother. King Darius the Great named his daughter “Mandana” after her.

The history of Mandana ancestry is important to understand her character and motivations. The Greeks of Homer’s time knew Lydia as Maeonia, which was probably an earlier name for the country. Three dynasties are mentioned by the ancient sources; the first is entirely mythical, the second begins with myth but is partly historical, and the third is entirely real. List of kings of Lydia shows that the dynasties were the Atyads (Tantalids), the Tylonids (Heraclids), and the Mermnads.

Mandana’s mother (Aryenis) is the granddaughter of Sadyattes 629–617 BC (or c. 625 – c. 600) son of Ardys II son of Gyges of Lydia. Gyges is the founder of the Mermnads dynasty c. 700 BC. Aryenis was the sister of King Croesus (Kroisos) of Lydia 560–546 BC (or 560, 547) who was defeated by Cyrus the Great who is his grandson from her daughter Mandana.

Gyges was the son of Dascylus. Dascylus was recalled from banishment in Cappadocia by the Lydian king Candaules and sent his son back to Lydia instead of himself. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Gyges soon became a favourite bodyguard of King Candaules.

According to The Histories of Herodotus, King Candaules bragged of his wife’s incredible beauty to his favorite bodyguard, Gyges of Lydia. “It appears you don’t believe me when I tell you how lovely my wife is,” said Candaules. “A man always believes his eyes better than his ears; so do as I tell you—contrive to see her naked.” Gyges refused; he feared what the King might do to him if he did accept.

Candaules was insistent, and Gyges had no choice but to obey. Candaules detailed a plan by which Gyges would hide behind a door in the royal bedroom to observe the Queen disrobing before bed. Gyges would then leave the room while the Queen’s back was turned.

That night, the plan was executed. However, the Queen saw Gyges as he left the room, and recognized immediately that she had been betrayed and shamed by her own husband. She silently swore to have her revenge, and began to arrange her own plan.

The next day, the Queen summoned Gyges to her chamber. Although Gyges thought nothing of the routine request, she confronted him immediately with her knowledge of his misdeed and her husband’s. “One of you must die,” she declared. “Either my husband, the author of this wicked plot; or you, who have outraged propriety by seeing me naked.” Gyges pleaded with the Queen not to force him to make this choice. She was relentless, and eventually he chose to betray the King so that he should live.

The Queen prepared for Gyges to kill Candaules by the same manner in which she was shamed. Gyges hid behind the door of the bedroom chamber with a knife provided by the Queen, and killed him in his sleep. Gyges married the Queen and became King, and father to the Mermnad Dynasty.

Internal conflicts & shift of Power. Cyrus the Great (576–530 B.C.E.) defeats the Median king Astyages at the battle of Pasargadae in 551 B.C.E. and becomes the king of both kingdoms. He established the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 550 B.C.E.

The Mermnads dynasty of Lydia was defeated and ended by Cyrus the Great (son of Mandana and the grandson of the defeated king of Lydia) at the battles of Pteria and Thymbra. He completely annexed Lydia after the Siege of Sardis.

Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), also called the “Arsacid Empire”

Sasanian Empire (224–651), also called the “Sassanid Empire” or the “Empire of Empires” was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V.

551 Bumin the founder of the Turkic Khaganate declares independence of the Turks around Altai Mountains conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Göktürk (Celestial Turk).

552 Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies. His elder son Issık becomes the khagan

554 Muqan Qaghan becomes the qaghan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the Silk Road.

558 In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxania.

568 An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrived in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.

576 The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.

580 Agathias identifies Burgunds (Βουρουγουνδοι) and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs.

581 Tardush, the second yabgu in the west lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.

584 Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.

The First Perso-Turkic War was fought during 588-589 between the Sassanid Persians and Hephthalite principalities and its lord the Göktürks. The conflict started with the invasion of the Persian Empire by the Turks and ended with a decisive Sassanid victory and the conquest of the Eastern Turks.

The Second Perso-Turkic War began in 606/607-608 with an invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Göktürks and Hephthalites. The war ended in 608 with the defeat of the Turks and Hephthalites by the Sasanians under the Armenian general Smbat IV Bagratuni.

The Third Perso-Turkic War 627–629 was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Pannonian Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come.

Turkic Massacres in Anatolia and India from 1018 to 1955


Armenian Genocide

Armenian Genocide

When Alexander the Great invaded Persia he was only after Turkic groups. Even Hitler did the same unknowingly, but he ended up confronting corrupted European regimes. The world thought Western leaders may have learned something from Alexander the Great!

 

A- List of Turkic Massacres in Anatolia from 1182 to 1955

1- Massacre of the Latins in May 1182 in Constantinople killed Uncertain – tens of thousands Roman Catholics killed. The bulk of the Latin community, estimated at over 60,000 at the time, was wiped out or forced to flee; some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Turks. The massacre further worsened relations and increased enmity between the Western and Eastern Christian churches, and a sequence of hostilities between the two followed.

2- Fall of Constantinople in 1453 in Constantinople killed 4,000 Byzantines by Ottomans.  4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages were massacred during these days. Moreover, the dwellings and the churches were plundered. Some 50,000 were enslaved.

3- Constantinople massacre in 1821 in Constantinople killed unknown numbers of Greeks by Ottoman government. Greek Orthodox Patriarch Gregory V and other notables were executed.

4- Massacres of Badr Khan in 1840 in Hakkari killed 10,000 Assyrians by Kurdish Emirs of Buhtan, Badr Khan and Nurullah. Many who were not killed were sold into slavery. 1826 Janissaries massacred by government (link to Auspicious Incident).

5- Batak Massacre in 1876 in Batak, Bulgaria killed 1,200–7,000 Bulgarians by Ottoman irregular troops. It occurred at the beginning of the April Uprising.

6- Hamidian massacres during 1894–1896 in Eastern Ottoman Empire killed 100,000–300,000 Armenians and Assyrians by Ottoman Empire Hamidiye, Kurdish and Turcoman irregulars. See also Massacres of Diyarbakır (1895).

7- Adana massacre in  April 1909 in Adana Vilayet killed 15,000–30,000 Armenians by local Turkish nationalist activist, conservative reactionary to Young Turk government.

8- The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in summer 1913 in Edirne Vilayet killed 50,000-60,000 Bulgarians by Young Turk government.

9- Greek genocide during 1913–1922 in Ottoman Empire killed 500,000–900,000 (or 450,000–750,000) Greeks by Young Turk government. Reports detail systematic massacres, deportations, individual killings, rapes, burning of entire Greek villages, destruction of Greek Orthodox churches and monasteries, drafts for “Labor Brigades”, looting, terrorism and other atrocities.

10- The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo) during 1914–1920 in Ottoman Empire killed 270,000–750,000 (or 150,000–300,000) Assyrians by Young Turk government. It is denied by the Turkish government.

11- Armenian Genocide during 1915–1923 in Ottoman Empire killed 600,000–1,800,000 Armenians by Young Turk government. The Armenians of the eastern regions of the empire were systematically massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. It is considered the first modern genocide by scholars. It is the second most studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.

12- Zilan massacre in July 1930 in Van Province killed 4,500-15,000 Sunni Kurds by Turkish security forces. 5,000 women, children, and elderly people were reportedly killed.

13- Suppression of the Dersim rebellion during summer 1937-Spring 1938 in Tunceli Province killed 7,594-13,806 Alevi Zazas by Turkish security forces. The killings have been condemned by some as an ethnocide or genocide.

14- Istanbul pogrom in 6–7 September 1955 in Istanbul killed unknown number of primarily Greeks, as well as Armenians       by Turkish government. The killings are identified as genocidal by Alfred-Maurice de Zayas. Many of the minorities, mostly Greek Christians, forced to leave Turkey. Several churches are demolished by explosives.

15- From 1977 until 2017 a number of small massacres, each killed between few tens to few hundreds, were carried out in different parts by Grey Wolves, Turkish Police, Deep State, and unknown groups.

More massacres of Armenians took place by Turkic groups in Baku, Elisabethpol, Nakhichevan, Shusha, Sumgayit, Kirovabad, and Dushanbe. Other Turkic massacres on other ethnic groups elsewhere are not mentioned in this list.

For more detailed numbers and information go to: STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE, Chapter 5, Statistics Of Turkey’s Democide, Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, By R.J. Rummel, at at Hawaii.edu

Or, check the references of related articles in Wikipedia.org

It is totally unacceptable that the EU, Canada, Australia, and USA are cooperating with the Turkic regimes in Turkey, Israel, Pakistan, Gulf Arab states, and their lobbyists. The West is refusing to admit the real source of global terrorism and they insist on accusing small states who are victims of Turkic terrorism that in alliance with the West.

 

B- List of Turkic Massacres in India from 1018 to 1946

1- Massacre of Mathura in 1018 in Mahawan district, Mathura, killed 50,000 Hindus. The Hindu victims were killed by drowning or by using swords, the massacre was accompanied by the destruction of 1,000 temples in the district.

2- Massacre at the Somnath Temple in 1024 in Prabhas Patan, Gujarat killed >50,000 Hindus. After the slaughter, Mahmud of Ghazni proceeded to loot and destroy the Somnath temple.

3- Massacre of Ajmer in 1193 in Ajmer, Rajasthan killed 100,000 Hindus. Done by Muhammad of Ghor.

4- Massacre of Gwalior in 1196 in Gwalior Fort killed 100,000 Hindus. Done by Qutb al-Din Aibak.

5- Massacre at Nalanda in 1197 in Nalanda district, Magadha killed approximately 10,000 Buddhist monks and students. Done by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji.

6- Massacre of south Dehli in 1265 in South Dehli, Delhi Sultanate, killed 100,000 Hindu Rajputs of Mewat. Almost all the Rajputs of Mewat were completely exterminated by Dehli Sultan Ghiyas ud din Balban during the massacre.

7- Mass-killings by the Thuggee in 1290s–1870s in Indian subcontinent killed 500,000–2,000,000 people. Roughly 600 years of this criminal operation was finally obsolete after suppressed by the British colonial authorities of India after the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people killed and robbed by the Thuggee.

8- Massacre at Ranganathaswamy Temple in 1323 killed 12,000 Hindus. Hindus gathering at or around the temple were slaughtered by Muhammad bin Tughluq’s soldiers.

9- Mass killings in Bengal by Firuz Shah Tughlaq in 1353-13?? In Bengal killed 180,000 Hindus. Firuz Shah paid for the 180,000 heads of Hindus massacred by his soldiers.

10- Massacres around Vijayanagara in 1366 in districts surrounding Vijayanagara Empire killed 500,000 Hindus. A total of 500,000 Hindus were massacred in all the districts surrounding Vijayanagara by the Bahmani Sultanate soldiers. In Raichur Doab alone, 70,000 Hindus regardless of age were massacred by the army of the Bahmani Sultanate, not even pregnant women were spared. The districts were turned to waste after they were destroyed.

11- Timurid mass-killings in Haryana in 1398 in Haryana, Delhi Sultanate killed >4,500,000 Hindus. Timur himself admitted that every soldier in his army killed from 50 to 100 Hindu men, women and children in Haryana. As timur had a replenisable supply of 90,000 soldiers during the invasion, we can conclude that Timur’s soldiers killed more than 4.5 million people in Haryana by using the minimum number of Hindus killed by each soldier multiplied by the Timur’s average number of soldiers.

12- Timurid massacre of Bhatner in 1398 in Bhatner fort, Delhi Sultanate killed unknown numbers (the whole population of the fort). The entire population living in the fort was killed by Timur’s army after its capture.

14- Timurid massacre of slaves in December 1398 in Loni, Ghaziabad, Delhi Sultanate killed 100,000 women and children slave captives before the battle of Delhi commenced, Timur ordered his soldiers kill the 100,000 captives they caught due to their incapability of supporting the large number of slaves.

15- Timurid massacre of Dehli in 1398 in Dehli, Delhi Sultanate killed >150,000 Non-Muslims. In Timur’s own words, “Excepting the quarters of the sayyids, the ‘ulama and the other Musalmans (Muslims), the whole city was sacked”. The skulls of the massacred victims were piled up to form pyramids in the city. After the massacre ended, the few remaining survivors either died of famine and disease or were enslaved.

16- Timurid massacre of Meerut in 1399 in Meerut, Delhi Sultanate killed 300,000 Hindus. The massacre took place due to the people of Meerut beating one of Timur’s soldiers to death for raping a Hindu woman.

17- Masssacre of Khanwa in March 1527 in Khanwa, Udaipur State killed 200,000 Hindus. 100,000 Rajput prisoners and another 100,000 innocent bystanders were massacred by Babur.

18- Masssacre of Ghara in 1560 in Garha-Katanga Kingdom (now Narsinghpur district) killed 48,000 Hindu peasants and Rajputs. It was ordered by Emperor Akbar.

19- Massacre of Vijayanagara in 1565 in Vijayanagara, Vijayanagara Empire killed >100,000 Hindus. More than 100,000 civilians who didn’t leave the city were all massacred by the soldiers of the Deccan sultanates. Besides this, widespread destruction of Hindu temples and buildings also took place in the city, destroying most of the large temple centres.

20- Siege of Chittorgarh in February 1568 in Chittor Fort, Udaipur State killed 30,000. Akbar ordered the massacre of civilians for helping the fort’s resistance. After 8,000 Rajputs were slain, every single one of their 8,000 wives committed suicide after they were going to being enslaved.

21- Mass-killings of non-Muslims by Emperor Aurangzeb during 1618–1707 by Mughal Empire killed 4.6 million people. The mass killings happened during the reign of Aurangzeb who ordered one of the strongest campaign of religious violence against non-Muslims in the Mughul Empire’s history, with an estimated 4.6 million people massacred and killed. One such incident that took place was when Aruangzeb massacred 150,000 Brahmins and their families in Benares, Ganga ghat, Haridwar, etc. Aruangzeb later made a mountain of skulls of the Hindu Brahmins and their children which was visible from 10 miles away in certain places.

22- Massacres during Nader Shah’s invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1738–1740 in Northern India, Mughal Empire killed 300,000 people. Persian invaders massacre Indian civilians.

23- Massacres after the Battle of Panipat in 1761 in Panipat, Haryana, Maratha Empire killed 40,000-70,000 Maratha soldiers. About 22,000 Maratha women and young children enslaved by the Afghans.

24- Mangalore Christian massacre in 1784–1799 in Srirangapatna, Kingdom of Mysore killed 5,600 Christians. Persecution of Mangalore Catholic Christians by Tippu Sultan.

From 1560 massacres were carried out by Portuguese, then from 1857 by British. They were done by companies controlled by Turkic Jews.

1- Goa Inquisition in 1560–1812 (252 years) in Goa, Portuguese India killed tens of thousands of non-Catholic Goans. Wholesale massacres of Hindus, Muslims, non-Catholic Christians and Jews by Portuguese inquisitors, thousands of women were raped and 300 Hindu temples were destroyed.

2- Massacres by General Neill in June–July 1857 in Allahabad, Kanpur and surrounding areas, Company rule in India killed thousands of Indian mutineers, suspected rebels and civilians. The massacres at Allahabad took place before the Bibighar massacre; the ones at Kanpur after it.

3- Massacres of Indians during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 during 1857-1859 by Company rule in India killed >100,000 to 10,000,000 Indians (mostly civilians). Due to military orders and of widespread massacres and revenge killings of both Indian civilians and captured rebels. In Oudh alone, 150,000 Indians were killed of whom 100,000 were civilians. Places such as Dehli, Allahabad, Kanpur and Lucknow were met with general massacre after they were recaptured by British troops.

4- Jallianwala Bagh massacre 13 April 1919 in Amritsar, Punjab, British Raj killed 379-381 dead, ~1,100 mostly Sikhs, some Muslims and Hindus injured. Reginald Edward Harry Dyer ordered a unit of the British Indian Army to open fire on a unarmed, nonviolent group of protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims.

5- Moplah Rebellion in 1922 in Malabar, Kerala, British Raj 2,337-10,000 Hindus (1,00,000 Hindus permanently migrated). Khilafat Movement considered as main cause.

6- Culcutta Riots in 15 August-17 September 1946 in West Bengal, British Raj killed 7,000 to 10,000 Hindus and Muslims.         Hindus and Muslims clashed during a protest by All India Muslim League.

7- Noakhali riots in September – October 1946 in East Bengal, British Raj killed 5,000 Hindus by Muslims in reaction to Culcutta killings. Muslim community attacked Hindu community for wealth and forced conversion to Islam. Around 50,000 to 75,000 survivors were sheltered in temporary relief camps.

8- Partition of India in 14–15 April 1947 in Punjab, Dehli and Sindh, British Raj, Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan killed ~ 200,000 – 2,000,000 people. Massacre of Sikhs and Hindus by Muslims in West Punjab and of Muslims by Sikhs and Hindus in East Punjab. The communal violence resulted in the murder of 20,000-25,000 Muslims in Dehli by Hindus. UNHCR estimates 14 million were displaced by the violence.

Since the Independence India in 1947 only one major death happened. That was Hyderabad massacre of 1948 in Hyderabad State in which 27000 – 40,000 (Official Estimate), 200,000 (Scholarly Estimate) Muslims killed. It was a massacred by Hindus, and Indian army, as army and police unarmed Muslims in the state but let the Hindus keep their weapons after the Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad (of Turkic origins) was defeated, which sought separate state from both India and Pakistan, at the time of the partition of India.

It is totally unacceptable that the EU, Canada, Australia, and USA are cooperating with the Turkic regimes in Turkey, Israel, Pakistan, Gulf Arab states, and their lobbyists. The West is refusing to admit the real source of global terrorism and they insist on accusing small states who are victims of Turkic terrorism that in alliance with the West.

Binary Economics Challenging the Right, Left, and Khazarians


Binary Economics Challenging the Right, Left, and Khazarians

Binary Economics Challenging the Right, Left, and Khazarians

“The Roman arena was technically a level playing field. But on one side were the lions with all the weapons, and on the other the Christians with all the blood. That’s not a level playing field. That’s a slaughter. And so is putting people into the economy without equipping them with capital, while equipping a tiny handful of people with hundreds and thousands of times more than they can use.”    –Louis O. Kelso in Bill Moyers: A World of Ideas II, Public Opinions from Private Citizens, (1990, both book and video) page 214, ISBN 0385416644

Binary economics, also known as Two-factor Economics, is a theory of economics that endorses both private property and a free market but proposes significant reforms to the banking system. According to theories first proposed by Louis Kelso, widespread use of central bank-issued interest-free loans to fund employee-owned firms can finance economic growth whilst widening stock ownership in a way which binary economists believe will be non-inflationary.

Binary economics rejects the claim that neoclassical economics alone promotes a ‘free market’ which is free, fair and efficient. (e.g., as an interpretation of the classical First Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics). Binary economists believe freedom is only truly achieved if all individuals are able to acquire an independent economic base from capital holdings, and that the distribution of ownership rights can “deepen democracy”.

Although elements of binary economics can be found elsewhere (e.g., Pope Leo XIII’s Rerum Novarum 1891; the Distributism economic ideology of G.K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc; and Harold Moulton (1935) The Formation of Capital, the first clear formulation of the subject was in 1958. This was done by Louis Kelso (lawyer and economist, 1913-1991) and Mortimer Adler (the American Aristotelian philosopher, 1902-2001) in their unhappily titled, but momentous, book The Capitalist Manifesto (1958).

Let us hope Trump Administration will work to remove the myth that the conflict is between Right and Left. Even most the Republicans and Democrats themselves are in illusion that it is Right versus Left. I have great hopes in India and the rest of BRICS to promote Binary Economics all over the world as a viable ideological alternative for Right and Left and rid the world from the poisonous Khazarian politics and economics. Humanize Capitalism.

 

Louis Orth Kelso, founder of Kelso & Company and inventor of ESOPs

Louis Orth Kelso, founder of Kelso & Company and inventor of ESOPs

Louis Orth Kelso (December 4, 1913 – February 17, 1991) was a political economist, corporate and financial lawyer, author, lecturer and merchant banker who is chiefly remembered today as the inventor and pioneer of the employee stock ownership plan (ESOP), invented to enable working people without savings to buy stock in their employer company and pay for it out of its future dividend yield.

Kelso created the ESOP in 1956 to enable the employees of a closely held newspaper chain to buy out its retiring owners. Two years later Kelso and his co-author, the philosopher Mortimer J. Adler, explained the macro-economic theory on which the ESOP is based in The Capitalist Manifesto (Random House, 1958). In The New Capitalists (Random House, 1961), the two authors present Kelso’s financial tools for democratizing capital ownership in a private property, market economy. These ideas were further elaborated and refined in Two-Factor Theory: The Economics of Reality (Random House, 1967) and Democracy and Economic Power: Extending the ESOP Revolution Through Binary Economics (1986, Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts; reprinted 1991, University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland), both co-authored by Patricia Hetter Kelso, his collaborator since 1963.

Kelso’s next financing innovation, the Consumer Stock Ownership Plan (CSOP), in 1958 enabled a consortium of farmers to finance and start up a fertilizer plant. Despite fierce opposition from the major oil companies who dominated the industry, Valley Nitrogen Producers was a resounding success. Substantial dividends first paid for the stock and then drastically reduced fertilizer costs for the farmer-shareholders.

Kelso regarded the ESOP and CSOP as pragmatic proof that his revolutionary revision of classical economic theory, and the financial techniques he derived from this new perspective, were sound and workable in the economic and business world.

Kelso long believed that he had not originated a new economic theory but only discovered a vital fact that the classical economists had somehow overlooked. This fact was the key to understanding why the private property, free market economy was notoriously unstable, pursuing a roller coaster course of exhilarating highs and terrifying descents into economic and financial collapse.

This missing fact, which Kelso had uncovered over years of intensive reading, research and thought, drastically modifies the classical paradigm which has dominated formal economics since Adam Smith. It concerns the effect of technological change on the distributive dynamics of a private property, free market economy.

Below is a video of Louis Kelso being interviewed by Harold Hudson Channer. Made in 1987, this video is extraordinarily topical.

 

Rodney Shakespeare and his BinaryEconomics.net

Rodney Shakespeare was Visiting Professor of Binary Economics at Trisakti University, Jakarta where he taught on the international postgraduate Islamic Economics and Finance program.

He is a Cambridge MA; a qualified UK Barrister; and a well-known paper presenter and lecturer particularly at Islamic conferences dealing with money, the real economy, and social and economic justice. He is a co-founder of the Global Justice Movement  and the author of BinaryEconomics.net. In 2000 he received the (Martin Luther) King-Kelso Award. He broadcasts with Press TV, Russia Today, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting and various other TV and radio stations.

Rodney’s first book on binary economics The Two-factor Nation was published in 1976. He is co-author (with Robert Ashford) of the standard textbook on binary economics Binary Economics – the new paradigm (1999).

Rodney Shakespeare is co-author (with Peter Challen) of the subsequent text Seven Steps to Justice (2002) which further develops binary economics, and is also author of The Modern Universal Paradigm (July, 2007) containing later developments in particular relating to paradigmatic understanding and the appeal of binary economics to people of faith and of good faith.

Binary economics is the expression of a new universal paradigm or new understanding of reality that creates a new economics, a new politics, a new justice and a new morality. It also addresses the big environmental issues. Without the new modern universal paradigm there will be no peace, nor an end to colonialism and racism.

 

Quick Technical Summary of Binary Economics

  1. Commercial banks to lend (at interest), as they wish, only their own money and, with permission, that of depositors. Commercial banks not allowed creating new money.

NB This creates a limited pool of money enabling reasonable interest rates to be paid to depositors.

  1. Central (or National or European) Bank to create interest-free loan money for productive capacity and, in particular, for the spreading of productive capacity (and thus the associated consuming capacity), over time, to every person in society. This is counter-inflationary because new, widespread productive (and consuming) capacity comes into existence while the money which created it is cancelled.
  2. The Central Bank interest-free loan money to be administered by the commercial banks only allowed making a reasonable administration charge.
  3. The Central Bank need only make periodic checks on a commercial bank to ensure that the interest-free loan supply is being used specifically for the spreading of productive capacity.

Any commercial bank abusing the privilege of administering the interest-free loan supply (for the benefit of everybody in society) will lose that privilege.

In its economics aspect, binary economics is a market economics whose markets work for everybody. Furthermore, it upholds private property but private property (and the associated income) for everybody.

An alternative summary is “the use of national bank-issued interest-free loans, administered by the banking system, for the development and spreading of various forms of productive (and the associated consuming) capacity thereby creating a balance of supply and demand with producers and consumers being the same people (as required by Say’s Theorem) and forwarding social and economic justice.”

No subsidy is involved. Existing money (e.g., a bank’s capital or, with permission, the deposits of customers) may be lent in ways including interest. However, newly created money MUST be lent interest-free for developing and spreading the real economy to every individual in the population.

 

Fifty Nine False Assumptions of Mainstream Neo-classical Economics

Below are listed fifty-nine false assumptions which underlie mainstream neo-classical economics. These false assumptions are basic things believed to be true or taken for granted as inevitable or sensible, but which, in fact, are false. This is a matter of considerable importance because if only one assumption is false (or, at the most, two or three assumptions are false) then the whole structure of neo-classical economics becomes invalid.

 

The false assumptions of neo-classical economics are that:-

  1. Scarcity is an inevitable part of the human condition.
  2. High taxation is necessary.
  3. Labour physically creates all, or a large part, of the wealth.
  4. The ‘free market’ is free.
  5. The ‘free market’ is efficient and allocates resources efficiently.
  6. The outcomes of the ‘free market’ are always just.
  7. Homo economicus is an accurate description of human psychology.
  8. Conventional economics is an all-encompassing science of objective process and universal value and further improvement to economics is impossible.
  9. It is a matter of small importance that the banking system creates money out of nothing sufficient for the repayment of the principal of a loan but not of the interest.
  10. The ‘free market’ consists of states of equilibrium; when there is disequilibrium there will always be a return to equilibrium.

11 There Is No Such Thing As a Free Lunch (any improvement for the poor inevitably involves a detriment to the rich).

  1. The ‘free market’ upholds private property for all.
  2. It does not matter who owns the capital, particularly productive capital.
  3. The ‘free market’ implements Say’s market Theorem (Law) that producers and consumers should be the same people.
  4. Somebody who voluntarily looks after a sick child does no work in the economic sense.
  5. Interest is inevitable and always necessary.
  6. Ethics/morality is not part of economics.
  7. The poor are poor because of lack of effort and lack of skill (rather than lack of productive capital, lack of access to capital credit and suffering the burden of interest).
  8. Inflation is not caused by the banking system.
  9. Financial savings are necessary before there can be investment.
  10. Physical savings are necessary before there can be investment.
  11. Labour and welfare payment will always suffice.
  12. It is not necessary for every person to have an independent income.
  13. The level of interest rates is all that is necessary to manage an economy properly.
  14. Wide ownership is not necessary.
  15. Student loans should bear interest.
  16. Public capital projects should be funded by borrowing interest-bearing money.
  17. Micro-credit lending should bear interest.
  18. Environmental capital projects should bear interest.
  19. An economy requires two lots of financing – one for production and one for consumption. (NB Only one lot of financing is necessary if it is simulfinancing as in binary economics).
  20. There is no such thing as society.
  21. Personal debt is healthy for an economy; as also national debt.
  22. There is no power imbalance between actors (participants, including individuals) in an economy.
  23. Social and economic justice on the one hand and efficiency on the other are incompatible.
  24. Economic history is irrelevant.
  25. Outdated economic theory (Adam Smith, 1776), basically conceived before the industrial revolution had got under way, suffices to guide modern economic theory and practice.
  26. The important things in economics are anything except the development and spreading of productive capacity so as to make producers and consumers the same people thereby enabling a Say’s Theorem (Law) balance of supply and demand and also enabling the forwarding of social and economic justice.
  27. Banks should be able to offer mortgages (as distinct from administering national bank mortgages).
  28. Economic inequality is desirable; the greater the ratio between top earnings and bottom earnings, the better.
  29. ‘Trickle down’ economics works.
  30. Rising house and stock market prices are necessarily a sign of genuinely increased wealth.
  31. Economic cycles are inevitable.
  32. Individual greed is good and institutionalised greed is even better.
  33. Countries should raise money at interest on the international markets.
  34. Countries should not be autonomous; they should be controlled by others.
  35. A country’s assets should be owned by outsiders.
  36. A country’s money supply should originate in the banking system rather than the national bank.
  37. Employee shareholdings and involvement do not improve efficiency.
  38. Political democracy does not require economic democracy.
  39. Even though today’s banking system money is created out of nothing there is a time value to borrowed money.
  40. Environmental matters are extraneous and impose extraneous cost.
  41. Not only ethics but belief in God should be eschewed.
  42. Economics is essentially a separate subject which does not have to take account of other subjects.
  43. The creation of money out of nothing and the addition of interest does not require even more creation and even more debt.
  44. Population growth is inevitable.
  45. An understanding of technology is irrelevant to economics.
  46. Jobs can be exported.
  47. Domestic manufacturing does not matter.
  48. Education and training suffice for economic needs.

NB Binary Economics becomes easily understood if the fifty-nine false assumptions of prevailing economics are one by one, and simply, reversed. Quite soon, it becomes apparent that a different picture is emerging and then, long before all the false assumptions have been reversed, it is brightly clear that a totally new landscape – the Binary landscape – has emerged.

Binary Economics might be summarized in “a justice which creates efficiency and an efficiency which creates justice. “ It is the only opportunity for people to create real democracy, away from fake contemporary democracies and tyranny. It a real challenge and threat for the Right, Left, and Khazarians, that is why people will not be allowed to know it, despite its existence for a very long lime.

The fourth side of this economic and political global conflict is the people, and they are the least influential.

The Arab–Khazar wars


Rise of Khazaria 600 - 850 CE

Rise of Khazaria 600 – 850 CE

Shortly after the death of Mohammed in AD 632, according to Columbia University Professor, D. M. Dunlop, Arab armies began a campaign northward, sweeping “through the wreckage of two empires and carrying all before them till they reached the great mountain barrier of the Caucasus. This barrier once passed,” Dunlop observes, “the road lay open to the lands of eastern Europe.” Had the Caliphate (the armies of the Muslim Caliph) surmounted that immense geological deterrent unchallenged, the history of Europe and, indeed, the rest of the Judeo-Christian world would have been vastly different than it now is.

It was at the Caucasus, however, that the Arabs encountered the Khazars, initiating a war that lasted over a century and effectively prevented Europe from becoming Islamic. So powerful, socially and militarily, were the Khazars that, as Kevin Alan Brook relates in his work The Jews of Khazaria, “a 10th-century emperor of the Byzantines [Roman Empire], Constantine Porphyrogenitus, sent correspondence to the Khazars marked with a gold seal worth 3 solidi – more than the 2 solidi that always accompanied letters to the Pope of Rome, the Prince of the Rus, and the Prince of the Hungarians.”

The Arab–Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate (as well as its Abbasid successor) and their respective vassals.

Historians usually distinguish two major periods of conflict, the First (сa. 642–652) and Second (ca. 722–737) Arab–Khazar Wars, but the Arab–Khazar military confrontation involved several sporadic raids and isolated clashes as well, over a period from the middle of the 7th century to the end of the 8th century.

Almost all the fighters in the Umayyad armies were of Turkic origins and on the other hand the Khazar Khaganate was a Turkic colony. So the wars were actually between Turks claiming to Muslim Arabs versus Jewish Turks claiming to be Israelite.

This is reflected in the popular belief among Middle Eastern cultures that Alexander the Great had with divine assistance barred the Caucasus against the hordes of “Gog and Magog”, commonly regarded as an echo of the invasions by the Scythians and the Huns. Eventually, the Khazars would take their place, and early medieval writers came to identify the Khazars with Gog and Magog.

From that time came the concept of division of the world into the “House of Islam” (Dar al-Islam) and the “House of War” (Dar al-Harb), to which the pagan Turkic nomads were consigned.

The main significance of theses wars is in turning Islam into a Turkic version and dominance of completely different essence from the original Islam. Original Islam disappeared almost completely after Arab–Khazar wars. Instead of that appeared new traditions like salafi, Sunni, Shia and Sufi Islam.

Sons of the Conquerors: The Rise of the Turkic World, International Edition, by: Hugh Pope (Author) Paperback: 416 pages, Publisher: Overlook Books (October 31, 2006)

In his major new work, Wall Street Journal Istanbul correspondent Hugh Pope provides a vivid picture of the Turkic people, descendants of the nomadic armies that conquered the Byzantine Empire and reigned over the region for centuries. Today the Turks encompass a region much larger than the political boundaries of the nation of Turkey – from the Xinjiang province of western China, to Iran, Iraq, the Netherlands, Germany, all the way to the Appalachian Mountains of the United States.

One of the world’s foremost experts on modern Turkey – its languages, people, and history – and acclaimed co-author of Turkey Unveiled (a New York Times Notable Book), Hugh Pope has traveled the world to encounter and assimilate the many facets of this extraordinarily complex and fascinating ethnic group, distilling the essential qualities shared by all people of Turkish descent. Rich with stories and legends stretching back centuries, Sons of the Conquerors is a compellingly readable account of a profoundly neglected subject.

The Khazars of Conquest and Violence

Of the ferocity and warlike tendencies of the Khazars there is little doubt and much historical evidence, all of it pointing to a race of people so violent in their dealings with their fellow men that they were feared and abhorred above all peoples in that region of the world.

The ninth-century monk Druthmar of Aquitaine, in his commentary on Matthew 24:14 in Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam, stated that the Gazari, or Khazars, dwelt “in the lands of Gog and Magog.”

Leo IV the Khazar

Leo IV the Khazar (25 January 750 – 8 September 780) was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD. Leo was the son of Emperor Constantine V by his first wife, Irene of Khazaria (Tzitzak), the daughter of a Khagan of the Khazars (thought to be Bihar). He was crowned co-emperor by his father in 751.

The Roman Emperor Heraclius, in 627, formed a military alliance with the Khazars for the purpose of a final defeat of the Persians. Upon the first meeting of the Khazar king, Ziebel, with the Roman Emperor, the Khazars displayed, in full array, their skills at diplomatic flattery — skills that would serve them well and would not disappear with their kingdom. He “with his nobles dismounted from their horses,” says Gibbon, “…and fell prostrate on the ground, to adore the purple of the Caesar.” So enamored was the Byzantine Emperor with this display of obeisance that it eventually led to the offer, along with many riches, of the Caesar’s daughter Eudocia in marriage. That union never took place due to the death of Ziebel while Eudocia was enroute to Khazaria. However, after the final defeat of Islam’s designs on the Northern Kingdom in AD 730, a marriage between a Khazar princess and the heir to the Byzantine Roman Empire resulted in an offspring who was to rule Byzantium as Leo the Khazar. Thus the “King of the North” had skilfully managed to place himself on the throne of the Roman Empire.

The Turkic blood in the Byzantine Empire resulted in many ways to the end of the Isaurian dynasty in 802.

Today’s terrorist Islam is phony.

Khazarian Terrorism, Zionism, & Migration Crisis


Khazarian Terrorism

Khazarian Terrorism

Liberal Democracy and the EU are using massive global migrations to change the demography of many regions to advance their powers and profits. They are doing these by colluding with the Khazars.  On the other hand conservative patriots and nationalists all over the world are opposing such devastating massive global migrations and degenerative cultural policies citing fierce opposition to what they describe as “Islamic” terrorism. The conflict between liberals and conservatives is putting genuine faiths and human rights under unfair attacks from both sides.

The Khazars are the king makers in this conflict between liberal democrats and conservative republicans. By shifting alliances and using their aggressive influence in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, and their networks in many regions, the Khazars are the real winners.

The Khazars are fatal threats to national and global security, peace, and prosperity in this mad conflict between liberals and conservatives. Don’t let immorality, selfishness, greed, naivety, and illusions guide you.

Concerned people must ask: Who are those Khazars?

The conflict is not between Right and Left. It is a three sided conflict that is why it is extremely dangerous.

Who are the Khazars, and what are their relationships with fake religions, Islam, Judaism, Terrorism, extremism, Zionism, racism, wars, and migration?

The Khazars (Turkish: Hazarlar, Azerbaijani: Xəzərlər, Tatar: Xäzärlär, Hebrew: כוזרים‎‎ (Kuzarim), Arabic: خزر‎‎ (khazar), Ukrainian: Хоза́ри, Russian: Хаза́ры, Persian: خزر‎‎, Greek: Χάζαροι, Latin: Gazari/Cosri/Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the breakup of the Western Turkic Kaganate. Astride a major artery of commerce between northern Europe and southwestern Asia, Khazaria became one of the foremost trading emporia of the medieval world, commanding the western marches of the Silk Road and playing a key commercial role as a crossroad between China, the Middle East and Kievan Rus’. For some three centuries (c. 650–965) the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus.

“A THOUSAND YEARS before the establishment of the Modern State of Israel, there existed a Jewish kingdom in the eastern fringes of Europe, astride the Don and Volga rivers…” So begins a thesis by Jewish author Kevin Alan Brook. The kingdom of which he speaks appears at first consideration to be comprised of nearly as much disinformation, misinformation, “myth”information, and, curiously, NO-information as there is actual provable historical fact. Yet upon closer scrutiny this kingdom, known as Khazaria, or the Kingdom of the Khazars, is clearly revealed in a vast body of historical evidence, much of which has come to light only in the last three to five decades.

This mysterious kingdom, which has sculpted our modern world to an astounding (and alarming) degree, once occupied an immense land area of over a million square miles extending from western Hungary/Austria eastward to the Aural Sea, north to the Upper Volga, and its southern region extending to the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian seas. It was at that time literally the largest country on earth. It has only been in the last several decades, however, that greater documented evidence from ancient manuscripts has come to light and revealed the astonishing historical truth of this ancient kingdom and its connection to the origins of modern-day Israel.

Though little known to the West, and, for that matter, to even those currently occupying its ancestral land, the Khazar kingdom has been responsible for substantially shaping the history and political landscape of Europe and specifically Western Asia, but also to a remarkable degree the entirety of human events on this planet.

Of the ferocity and warlike tendencies of the Khazars there is little doubt and much historical evidence, all of it pointing to a race of people so violent in their dealings with their fellow men that they were feared and abhorred above all peoples in that region of the world.

This is the story of a kingdom of belligerent, warlike Caucasian nomads, having no linked ancestry with anything Israelite this side of Noah, yet adopting Talmudic Judaism and becoming the dominant — and virtually only — current force in twenty-first century international Jewry.

During the course of this work salient facts and issues will be presented without a too-extensive reliance on tedious historical documentation. However, considering the delicacy of the subject — especially in this modern age where any divergence from certain agendas for “political correctness” can result in epithets of racism or anti-Semitism — and for the obvious sake of accuracy, reasonably comprehensive documentation is necessary.

In this it will be shown that the cry of “anti-Semitism” hurled against those who do oppose the international actions of those ones calling themselves Jews, would be much like an immigrated Scotsman to America deciding to live on an Apache Indian reservation, coming to dominate its politics and economics, and then claiming that anyone disagreeing with his political and social agenda is racist and anti-Apache in their beliefs.

What under different circumstances could prove to be a dry treatise on Eastern European Jewish history is, if closely examined, actually a narrative of events that have laid a sequential pathway to, and beyond, the destruction of the New York World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. This historical time line has been fixed in its present course, which, by all appearances and in a most unexpected manner, is culminating in the fulfillment of the Biblical prophecies of Armageddon. But then, it has always been so with prophecy. The most consistent aspect in the nature of prophetic fulfillment is that it is consistently surprising. God has invariably worked to complete His desires, prophetically, in ways that have not been understood until revealed in retrospect — in the light of their actual happening.

The native religion of the Khazars is thought to have been Tengrism, like that of the North Caucasian Huns and other Turkic peoples. The polyethnic populace of the Khazar Khaganate appears to have been a multiconfessional mosaic of pagan, Tengrist, Jewish, Christian and Muslim worshippers. The ruling elite of the Khazars was said by Judah Halevi and Abraham ibn Daud to have converted to Rabbinic Judaism in the 8th century, but the scope of the conversion within the Khazar Khanate remains uncertain. Proposals of Khazar origins have been made regarding the Slavic Judaising Subbotniks, the Bukharan Jews, the Muslim Kumyks, Kazakhs, the Cossacks of the Don region, the Turkic-speaking Krymchaks and their Crimean neighbours the Karaites to the Moldavian Csángós, the Mountain Jews and others.

In the late 19th century, a theory emerged that the core of today’s Ashkenazi Jews are genetically descended from a hypothetical Khazarian Jewish diaspora who had migrated westward from modern Russia and Ukraine into modern France and Germany. This theory still finds occasional support, but most scholars view it with skepticism. The theory is sometimes associated with anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. Connected to this thesis is the theory, expounded by Paul Wexler, that the grammar of Yiddish contains a Khazar substrate.

The rise of the Rus’ led to the collapse of the Khazarian state by the 10th century. Though the Khazar kingdom did not wholly succumb to Sviatoslav’s campaign, but lingered on until 1224, when the Mongols invaded Rus’, by most accounts, the Rus’-Oghuz campaigns left Khazaria devastated, with perhaps many Khazarian Jews in flight, and leaving behind at best a minor rump state. The Khazars disappeared among Europeans, Arabs, Levantians, Anatolians, and Africans and became extreme Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Several scholars have suggested that the Khazars did not disappear after the dissolution of their Empire, but many but not all of them migrated west to eventually form part of the core of the later Ashkenazi and Shaphardi Jewish population of Europe, and made other Muslim and Jewish new communities in Caucasus, India, Arabia, Levant, and Africa.

Leo IV the Khazar

Leo IV the Khazar (25 January 750 – 8 September 780) was Byzantine Emperor from 775 to 780 AD. Leo was the son of Emperor Constantine V by his first wife, Irene of Khazaria (Tzitzak), the daughter of a Khagan of the Khazars (thought to be Bihar). He was crowned co-emperor by his father in 751.

The Roman Emperor Heraclius, in 627, formed a military alliance with the Khazars for the purpose of a final defeat of the Persians. Upon the first meeting of the Khazar king, Ziebel, with the Roman Emperor, the Khazars displayed, in full array, their skills at diplomatic flattery — skills that would serve them well and would not disappear with their kingdom. He “with his nobles dismounted from their horses,” says Gibbon, “…and fell prostrate on the ground, to adore the purple of the Caesar.” So enamored was the Byzantine Emperor with this display of obeisance that it eventually led to the offer, along with many riches, of the Caesar’s daughter Eudocia in marriage. That union never took place due to the death of Ziebel while Eudocia was enroute to Khazaria. However, after the final defeat of Islam’s designs on the Northern Kingdom in AD 730, a marriage between a Khazar princess and the heir to the Byzantine Roman Empire resulted in an offspring who was to rule Byzantium as Leo the Khazar. Thus the “King of the North” had skilfully managed to place himself on the throne of the Roman Empire.

The new blood in the Byzantine Empire resulted in many ways to the end of the Isaurian dynasty in 802.

Arab–Khazar wars

Shortly after the death of Mohammed in AD 632, according to Columbia University Professor, D. M. Dunlop, Arab armies began a campaign northward, sweeping “through the wreckage of two empires and carrying all before them till they reached the great mountain barrier of the Caucasus. This barrier once passed,” Dunlop observes, “the road lay open to the lands of eastern Europe.” Had the Caliphate (the armies of the Muslim Caliph) surmounted that immense geological deterrent unchallenged, the history of Europe and, indeed, the rest of the Judeo-Christian world would have been vastly different than it now is.

It was at the Caucasus, however, that the Arabs encountered the Khazars, initiating a war that lasted over a century and effectively prevented Europe from becoming Islamic. So powerful, socially and militarily, were the Khazars that, as Kevin Alan Brook relates in his work The Jews of Khazaria, “a 10th-century emperor of the Byzantines [Roman Empire], Constantine Porphyrogenitus, sent correspondence to the Khazars marked with a gold seal worth 3 solidi – more than the 2 solidi that always accompanied letters to the Pope of Rome, the Prince of the Rus, and the Prince of the Hungarians.” The Arab–Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate (as well as its Abbasid successor) and their respective vassals.

Historians usually distinguish two major periods of conflict, the First (сa. 642–652) and Second (ca. 722–737) Arab–Khazar Wars, but the Arab–Khazar military confrontation involved several sporadic raids and isolated clashes as well, over a period from the middle of the 7th century to the end of the 8th century.

Almost all the fighters in the Umayyad armies were of Turkic origins and on the other hand the Khazar Khaganate was a Turkic colony. So the wars were actually between Turks claiming to Muslim Arabs versus Jewish Turks claiming to be Israelite.

This is reflected in the popular belief among Middle Eastern cultures that Alexander the Great had with divine assistance barred the Caucasus against the hordes of “Gog and Magog”, commonly regarded as an echo of the invasions by the Scythians and the Huns. Eventually, the Khazars would take their place, and early medieval writers came to identify the Khazars with Gog and Magog.

From that time came the concept of division of the world into the “House of Islam” (Dar al-Islam) and the “House of War” (Dar al-Harb), to which the pagan Turkic nomads were consigned.

The main significance of theses wars is in turning Islam into a Turkic version and dominance of completely different essence from the original Islam. Original Islam disappeared almost completely after Arab–Khazar wars. Instead of that appeared new traditions like salafi, Sunni, Shia and Sufi Islam.

Sons of the Conquerors: The Rise of the Turkic World, International Edition, by: Hugh Pope (Author) Paperback: 416 pages, Publisher: Overlook Books (October 31, 2006)

In his major new work, Wall Street Journal Istanbul correspondent Hugh Pope provides a vivid picture of the Turkic people, descendants of the nomadic armies that conquered the Byzantine Empire and reigned over the region for centuries. Today the Turks encompass a region much larger than the political boundaries of the nation of Turkey – from the Xinjiang province of western China, to Iran, Iraq, the Netherlands, Germany, all the way to the Appalachian Mountains of the United States.

One of the world’s foremost experts on modern Turkey – its languages, people, and history – and acclaimed co-author of Turkey Unveiled (a New York Times Notable Book), Hugh Pope has traveled the world to encounter and assimilate the many facets of this extraordinarily complex and fascinating ethnic group, distilling the essential qualities shared by all people of Turkish descent. Rich with stories and legends stretching back centuries, Sons of the Conquerors is a compellingly readable account of a profoundly neglected subject.

The Khazars of Conquest and Violence

Of the ferocity and warlike tendencies of the Khazars there is little doubt and much historical evidence, all of it pointing to a race of people so violent in their dealings with their fellow men that they were feared and abhorred above all peoples in that region of the world.

The ninth-century monk Druthmar of Aquitaine, in his commentary on Matthew 24:14 in Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam, stated that the Gazari, or Khazars, dwelt “in the lands of Gog and Magog.”

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