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The Great Criminals: Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill – Part One


The Great Criminals - Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill in Yalta

In the grounds of the Livadia Palace, Yalta, during the Three Power Conference the British wartime Prime Minister Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874 – 1965), the 32nd President of the United States of America Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 – 1945) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (1879 – 1953) (Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili). (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)

Indeed the three figures who were used to shape the world after WWII, Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill are great criminals who must be put in trial for what they did.

Without jumping into Antisemitism, it is necessary to check out the Turkic Jewish influence and ancestry of a Dutch, a Cossack, and a Spencer.

Part One: The Crimes of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt the Great Criminal

By James Buchanan

Sixty years ago one of the most evil men in world history, Franklin Delano Roosevelt died. Without World War Two, FDR would have been seen as a dishonest bungler who couldn’t get America out of the Great Depression –but because he helped win a major war (which Americans had no need to fight), historians meekly assume the war was necessary and ignore the evidence that the war was provoked.

Roosevelt began his career as a corrupt politician out of New York. He became assistant secretary of the Navy prior to World War One and there is a strong suspicion that Roosevelt and First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill conspired to arrange the sinking of the Lusitania…

The Lusitania incident is extremely significant in understanding FDR (and Churchill). These men were willing to allow the deaths of 1,201 civilians in an arranged attack way back in the year 1916 when such a deliberate mass murder was inconceivable for most civilized people.

 

Roosevelt surrounded himself with Jewish advisors –a sure sign of a corrupt president. FDR failed to tell Americans about the mass murder of 30 million White Christians by Jewish commissars in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and ’30s. Instead, FDR saved all his indignation and hatred for National Socialist Germany, which had removed the Jews from power and brought great prosperity to the German people.

FDR secretly ordered the US Navy to wage war against German submarines long before the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. Roosevelt also supplied massive shipments of war materials for England and the Soviet Union prior to Dec. 7th, 1941 in violation of the Neutrality Act, passed by Congress.

Roosevelt deliberately provoked the attack on Pearl Harbor by cutting off oil to Japan and issuing an ultimatum to the Japanese Empire that they stop their war against China. (Curiously, FDR never felt an urge to issue an ultimatum to the British Empire to stop their war against Germany and Italy.) Roosevelt knew that Pearl Harbor was about to be attacked, but withheld this information since the Japanese might call off the attack if American forces were prepared, sent out more search planes and spotted their fleet halfway to Pearl Harbor. FDR blamed the commander of Pearl Harbor for the ensuing disaster.

Over 2,000 Americans died at Pearl Harbor because of FDR’s political maneuvering and treachery. An even worse disaster took place in the Philippines. Because FDR had sent most of our war production to England and the Soviet Union, our soldiers on the Philippines lacked sufficient tanks, artillery and fighter planes to withstand a Japanese assault. Over 80,000 American soldiers became POWs and half of these men died in captivity –thanks in large part to Roosevelt’s treachery.

Many Jews and empty-headed Gentiles praise Roosevelt for “winning” World War Two, but what exactly was won in that war? America could have spared itself anywhere from 250,000 to 400,000 deaths if it stayed out of World War Two. Germany never had any plans to invade the US and lacked an adequate navy to do so. The Japanese only attacked America after extreme provocations and hoped to sign an armistice rather than fight a war to the death. Because of America’s involvement in World War Two, most of eastern and central Europe became enslaved by the Communists and millions of innocent civilians were liquidated by the same Jewish commissars, who killed so many innocent people before the war.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt is one of the greatest criminals in world history. His death just weeks before the end of the war was almost certainly an act of God to show the world that a man may conquer the world, but God decides where his soul will go.

Comment: His original family name was actually Rosenfeld, Jewish. It explains a lot.

 

FDR’s Crimes

By Daniel Larison, May 13, 2005

Still, we can recognize crimes as crimes, which brings me back to Roosevelt. Why are Americans still treating this monster as a hero?

I hardly know where to start. His contempt for the U.S. Constitution he was sworn to defend, in everything from creating a national welfare state to putting U.S. citizens in concentration camps, is almost a minor item on his ledger. So are his deceits in getting the United States into World War II, while assuring the American public that he was doing everything he could to keep us at peace.

Long before that war began, he befriended Joseph Stalin by granting diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union, shortly after it had deliberately starved millions of Ukrainians. During the war, he made an alliance with Stalin, not as a regrettable necessity, but with effusive praise for “Uncle Joe.” He even urged Hollywood to make pro-Soviet films to dispel “prejudice” against Soviet Communism and lent a hand in the production of the egregious propaganda movie Mission to Moscow. (Jack Warner later called the film the worst mistake of his long career.)

As the war progressed, Roosevelt ordered the massive bombing of Japanese and German cities for the express purpose of killing as many civilians as possible. His victims, from Tokyo to Berlin, numbered in the millions. He was uninhibited by the ancient principle of Christian civilization that warfare should spare noncombatants.

But that wasn’t enough. Meanwhile Roosevelt launched the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb, which could obliterate whole cities in a flash. He thereby took the world into a dreadful new era in history, which concerned him not at all.

Long after Pearl Harbor is forgotten, the name of Franklin Roosevelt should “live in infamy.” Yet the United States still officially honors him when an official apology to the entire human race would be more fitting.

Churchill on Zionism versus Bolshevism


Churchill on Zionism versus Bolshevism

Churchill on Zionism versus Bolshevism

Illustrated Sunday Herald, February 8, 1920, page 5

Mr Churchill’s authorship of this article has been authenticated by one of the world’s leading Churchill bibliographers, Richard Heinzkill, of the University of Eugene, Oregon.

A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People

By the Rt. Hon. Winston S. Churchill.

SOME people like Jews and some do not; but no thoughtful man can doubt the fact that they are beyond all question the most formidable and the most remarkable race which has ever appeared in the world.

And it may well be that this same astounding race may at the present time be in the actual process of producing another system of morals and philosophy, as malevolent as Christianity was benevolent, which, if not arrested would shatter irretrievably all that Christianity has rendered possible. It would almost seem as if the gospel of Christ and the gospel of Antichrist were destined to originate among the same people; and that this mystic and mysterious race had been chosen for the supreme manifestations, both of the divine and the diabolical.

The National Russian Jews, in spite of the disabilities under which they have suffered, have managed to play an honourable and successful part in the national life even of Russia. As bankers and industrialists they have strenuously promoted the development of Russia’s economic resources, and they were foremost in the creation of those remarkable organisations, the Russian Co-operative Societies. In politics their support has been given, for the most part, to liberal and progressive movements, and they have been among the staunchest upholders of friendship with France and Great Britain.

International Jews.

In violent opposition to all this sphere of Jewish effort rise the schemes of the International Jews. The adherents of this sinister confederacy are mostly men reared up among the unhappy populations of countries where Jews are persecuted on account of their race. Most, if not all, of them have forsaken the faith of their forefathers, and divorced from their minds all spiritual hopes of the next world. This movement among the Jews is not new. From the days of Spartacus–Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilisation and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing. It played, as a modern writer, Mrs. Webster, has so ably shown, a definitely recognisable part in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the Nineteenth Century; and now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.

Terrorist Jews.

There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and an the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution: by these international and for the most part atheistic Jews. It is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews. Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewish leaders. Thus Tchitcherin, a pure Russian, is eclipsed by his nominal subordinate Litvinoff, and the influence of Russians like Bukharin or Lunacharski cannot be compared with the power of Trotsky, or of Zinovieff, the Dictator of the Red Citadel (Petrograd), or of Krassin or Radek — all Jews. In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews is even more astonishing. And the prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary Commissions for Combating Counter-Revolution has been taken by Jews, and in some notable cases by Jewesses.

The same evil prominence was obtained by Jews in the brief period of terror during which Bela Kun ruled in Hungary. The same phenomenon has been presented in Germany (especially in Bavaria), so far as this madness has been allowed to prey upon the temporary prostration of the German people. Although in all these countries there are many non-Jews every whit as bad as the worst of the Jewish revolutionaries, the part played by the latter in proportion to their numbers in the population is astonishing.

“Protector of the Jews.”

Needless to say, the most intense passions of revenge have been excited in the breasts of the Russian people. Wherever General Denikin’s authority could reach, protection was always accorded to the Jewish population, and strenuous efforts were made by his officers to prevent reprisals and to punish those guilty of them. So much was this the case that the Petlurist propaganda against General Denikin denounced him as the Protector of the Jews. The Misses Healy, nieces of Mr. Tim Healy, relating their personal experiences in Kieff, have declared that to their knowledge on more than one occasion officers who committed offences against Jews were reduced to the ranks and sent out of the city to the front. But the hordes of brigands by whom the whole vast expanse of the Russian Empire is becoming infested do not hesitate. to gratify their lust for blood and for revenge at the expense of the innocent Jewish population whenever an opportunity occurs. The brigand Makhno, the hordes of Petlura and of Gregorieff, who signalised their every success by the most brutal massacres, everywhere found among the half-stupefied, half-infuriated population an eager response to anti-Semitism in its worst and foulest forms. The fact that in many cases Jewish interests and Jewish places of worship are excepted by the Bolsheviks from their universal hostility has tended more and more to associate the Jewish race in Russia with the villainies which are now being perpetrated.

A Home for the Jews.

Zionism offers the third sphere to the political conceptions of the Jewish race. In violent contrast to international communism.

Zionism has already become a factor in the political convulsions of Russia, as a powerful competing influence in Bolshevik circles with the international communistic system. Nothing could be more significant than the fury with which Trotsky has attacked the Zionists generally, and Dr. Weissmann in particular. The cruel penetration of his mind leaves him in no doubt that his schemes of a world-wide communistic State under Jewish domination are directly thwarted and hindered by this new ideal, which directs the energies and the hopes of Jews in every land towards a simpler, a truer, and a far more attainable goal. The struggle which is now beginning between the Zionist and Bolshevik Jews is little less than a struggle for the soul of the Jewish people.

The article is reproduced without editing apart from typographical


Here is a direct quote from the correspondence of Karl Marx with another Jew, Baruch Levy, quoted in the “La Revue de Paris,” June 1, 1928, page 574:

“In the new organization of mankind, the children of Israel [the Jews] will spread over the whole surface of the earth and will become everywhere, without opposition, the leading element, especially if they can impose upon workings classes the firm control of some of the them. The governments of the nations forming the Universal Republic will pass without effort into the hands of the Jews under the cover of the victory of the proletariat, private property will then be suppressed by the rulers of Jewish race, who will everywhere control public funds. Thus will be realized the Talmudic promise that, when come the times of the Messiah, Jews will possess the wealth of all peoples of the world”.


In the Congressional Record, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Proceedings of the House, 1957, page 8559 you can read the following:

“Israel Cohen, a leading Communist in England, in his A Racial Program For the Twentieth Century, wrote [in 1912]:

‘We must realize that our Party’s most powerful weapon is racial tension. By propounding into consciousness of the dark races that for centuries they have have been oppressed by the whites, we can mould them to the program of the Communist Party. In America, we will aim for subtle victory. While inflaming the Negro minority against the whites , we will instill into the whites a guilt complex for their exploitation of the Negroes. We will aid the Negroes to rise to prominence in every walk of life, in the professions and in the world of sports and entertainment. With this prestige, the Negro will be able to intermarry with the whites and begin a process which will deliver America into our hands’.”


Some sources add this paragraph to the article:

Duty of Loyal Jews.

It is particularly important in these circumstances that the national Jews in every country who are loyal to the land of their adoption should come forward on every occasion, as many of them in England have already done, and take a prominent part in every measure for combating the Bolshevik conspiracy. In this way they will be able to vindicate the honour of the Jewish name and make it clear to all the world that the Bolshevik movement is not a Jewish movement, but is repudiated vehemently by the great mass of the Jewish race.

But a negative resistance to Bolshevism in any field is not enough. Positive and practicable alternatives are needed in the moral as well as in the social sphere; and in building up with the utmost possible rapidity a Jewish national centre in Palestine which may become not only a refuge to the oppressed from the unhappy lands of Central Europe, but which will also be a symbol of Jewish unity and the temple of Jewish glory, a task is presented on which many blessings rest.


Winston Churchill the Criminal Coward Scum


Churchill engineered the genocide in Bengal

Churchill engineered the genocide in Bengal

Winston Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father, used the surname “Churchill” in public life.

His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Churchill’s father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician; and his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome. Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

Here are few of Churchill’s disgusting quotes:

“I hate Indians, they are a beastly people with a beastly religion”

As Churchill put it, Palestinians were simply “barbaric hordes who ate little but camel dung.”

In 1937, he told the Palestine Royal Commission:

“I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.”

Apart from being an unrepentant racist, Churchill was also a staunch proponent of the use of terrorism as a weapon of war.
During the Kurdish rebellion against the British dictatorship in 1920, Churchill remarked that he simply did not understand the “squeamishness” surrounding the use of gas by civilized Great Britain as a weapon of terror. “I am strongly in favour of using gas against uncivilised tribes, it would spread a lively terror,” he remarked.
He insisted that it was the solemn duty of Great Britain to invade and loot foreign lands because in Churchill’s own words Britain’s “Aryan stock is bound to triumph”
As Churchill himself boasted, he “created Jordan with a stroke of a pen one Sunday afternoon,” thereby placing many Jordanians under the brutal thumb of a throneless Hashemite prince, Abdullah. Historian Michael R. Burch recalls how the huge zigzag in Jordan’s eastern border with Saudi Arabia has been called “Winston’s Hiccup” or “Churchill’s Sneeze” because Churchill carelessly drew the expansive boundary after a generous lunch.
“I’d rather see them have a good civil war”. – Churchill wishing partition on India
For more details on this wretched person read an article by Garikai Chengu on Centre for Research on Globalization:
Winston Churchill was a genocidal maniac. He is fawned over in Britain and held up as a hero of the nation. He was voted ‘Greatest Briton’ of all time. Below is the real history of Churchill, the history of a white supremacist whose hatred for Indians led to four million starving to death, the man who loathed Irish people so much he conceived different ways to terrorize them, the racist thug who waged war on black people across Africa and in Britain. This is the trial of Winston Churchill, the enemy of all humanity.
Winston Churchill was a coward criminal racist scum. He killed Indians, African, Afrikaaner, Arabs, and Europeans.
In many battle fields he was afraid of fighting and taking risks, he only took risks at offices.
The coward scum called Winston Churchill could only serve in the British Army for 4 years, from 1895 to 1899, he preferred the safety of a career as an uneducated reporter unfit to be a journalist or a writer plus a lunatic politician. This coward scum reporter fright when the Boers blocked and ambushed the train he was taking with British soldiers. He ran and hid himself and didn’t even fire back or help the injured for more then an hour. He was captured and imprisoned. This prisoner of war used to give his guards chocolates!
After four weeks he arranged and escaped. contacted the local British consul in Lourenco Marques, who assisted this useless lad to go back home.The Boers put only 25 Pounds as a reward to capture this POW dead or alive.
Immediately upon arrival to Britain he resigned from the army out of fear.

Churchill’s Capture, Imprisonment, ans Escape, by David Buckerfield

This is a brief story of the most famous British disgusting hero. In contrast, Major General Charles George Gordon must be a million times more manly and humane than this coward privileged nobody.
Also see this article on Counter Currents.org
If only for the crimes of Winston Churchill against humanity Britain deserves to be wiped out from Earth.

The crimes of Britain blog published the following article on September 13, 2016

Lake Urmia First Persia Tribal Place in 860-600 BC


Lake Urmia First Persia Tribal Place in 860-600 BC

Lake Urmia First Persia Tribal Place in 860-600 BC

Near Lake Urmia was the first Persia tribal place in 860-600 BC. They came to this area earlier before they move again south and create their Persian chieftaincy which turned into kingdom then empire. (It is also called Parsua, Parsuash, Parsumash, Persis, Parsa, Pârs, Fars, or Parsava)

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

It comes from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, and commemorates the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC).

It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war, in the central square of Nimrud, close to the much earlier White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I.

It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it is thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a biblical figure – Jehu, King of Israel. The traditional identification of “Yaw” as Jehu has been questioned by some scholars, who proposed that the inscription refers to another king, Jehoram of Israel. Its reference to ‘Parsua’ is also the first known reference to the Persians.

Parsua

Parsua (earlier Parsuash, Parsumash) was an ancient tribal kingdom/chiefdom (860-600 BC) located near Lake Urmia between Zamua (formerly: Lullubi) and Ellipi, in central Zagros to the southwest of Sanandaj, northwestern Iran. The name Parsua is from an old Iranian word *Parsava and it is presumed to mean border or borderland.

Parsua was distinct from Persis, another region to the southeast, now known as Fars province in Iran. Some accounts suggest that Teispes, the ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty, led a migration from Parsua to Persis, formerly the Elamite state of Anshan.

Persis

ersis (Greek: Περσίς), better known as Persia (Old Persian: Parsa; Persian: پارس‎‎, Pars), or “Persia proper”, was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia. The country name Persia was derived directly from the Old Persian Parsa. Over time, the area of settlement shifted to the southwest of today Iran (now Fars).

The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, and became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty which was established in the late 6th century BC

Fars

The word Fârs is derived from Pârsâ, the Old Persian name for Persia and its capital, Persepolis. Fârs is the Arabized version of Pârs, as Arabic has no [p] phoneme.

Persian people

The ancient Persians were originally a nomadic branch of the ancient population (probably from Turkic origins) who entered modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC.

HISTORY OF IRAN- HIGHLIGHTS


The five main dynasties which ruled over Iran: PESHDADIAN (Pre-historic – c.10,000-7,500 BC) KAYANIAN (Pre-historic – c. 7,500-6,500 BC). (History of the period between Kayanian and Ach…

Source: HISTORY OF IRAN- HIGHLIGHTS

Prophet Zarathushtra Spitama – Life Story


Prophet Zarathushtra Family of the prophet Divine appointment Birth Childhood Divine Revelation Early Struggle The court of King Vishtasp The king’s horse Aspe-Sihā Gifts for the King Gifts for the…

Source: Prophet Zarathushtra Spitama – Life Story

Princess Mandana Defeated the Medians and Destroyed Iranians


achaemenid-provinces-during-the-rule-of-darius-iThe history of Iran (Aryan) starts with the ancient “Shoosh Civilization” 6000 B.C.E. Susiana Civilization

The original populations in Northwest Iran were the Median people of “Mede”.

Zoroaster was the prophet of Ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion, Zoroastrianism, inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Iran. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.

The religion, Zoroastrianism, was founded by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek; Zarthosht in India and Persia). Conservative Zoroastrians assign a date of 6000 BCE to the founding of the religion; other followers estimate 600 BCE. Historians and religious scholars generally date his life sometime between 1500 and 1000 BCE on the basis of his style of writing.

Some say Zoroaster’s birthday falls on March 26th 1767 B.C.E. Zarathushtra was the first prophet to introduce the concepts of: monotheism, equality, duality of good and evil (struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu), mankind’s free choice between the two alternatives, messianic redemption, resurrection, final judgment, heaven (the word “Paradise” comes from Old Persian), hell and the notion of an almighty, kind, loving and forgiving God. He believed man’s salvation in life and in the afterlife could only be ensured through Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds. Many of these concepts had a profound influence on Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

The basic moral principles that guide the life of a Zoroastrian are three: Humata, “Good Thoughts,” the intention or moral resolution to abide by Asha, the right order of things. Hukhata, “Good Words,” the communication of that intention. Havarashta, “Good Deeds,” the realization in action of that intention.

The dates given for Zoroaster by ancient and modern writers differ considerably. The oldest parts of the Zoroastrian scriptures are the Gathas, which are the direct teachings of Zoroaster and his conversations with Ahura Mazda in a series of visions. According to tradition, Zoroaster died when he was 77 years and 40 days. The later Pahlavi sources like Shahnameh, however claim an obscure conflict with Tuiryas (Turan / Turk) people, in which Zoroaster was murdered by karapan (old religion priest) Brādrēs in Balkh (now in Afghanistan). (The Arabs called Balkh Umm Al-Belaad or Mother of Cities due to its antiquity.)

The 10th/11th century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiya, the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya, among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster.

The Turkic Persians starting from Cyrus the Great corrupted the monolithic religion of Zoroastrianism and replaced it with an antithesis of Magi cult (magic) and they became known as Magus.

Much like the Roman religion for Rome, it was adopted in differing forms as the generally inclusive overarching state religion of the Achaemenid Empire and subsequent Parthian and Sasanian empires, lending it immense prestige in ancient times.

693 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroyed Susa. The glorious, ancient, biblical and historical city of Susa in Persia was captured and razed to ground by the notorious army of Ashur Banipal. The Assyrians had built a very strong army that ruled over a vast area without any tolerance for other civilizations. Their source of wealth was plundering the weak and not let them regain power. They enslaved many nations including the Jews and the entire Iranian plateau. Assyrians destroyed the Elam kingdom leaving behind an ancient ruin called the Burnt City. This marked the end of 2000 years of Elamite kingdom and the Start of a New Era for the Persian nomads.

The beginning of foreign influence in the Aryan Monarch led to Persia.

600–559 B.C.E. Princess Mandana was reportedly a granddaughter to both Cyaxares of Media and Alyattes II of Lydia of the Mermnads dynasty in western Anatolia. According to Herodotus, Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, King of Media and Aryenis (the daughter of King Alyattes of Lydia). The Mermnads dynasty in Lydia was established by Gyges who Bible scholars believe that he was the Biblical character Gog, ruler of Magog, who is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation. Mandana was not from pure Iranian origins and she could be from non-Lydian descent (she could be of Turkic Cimmerian from her mother’s side). Mandana (Mandane) was a Median princess, daughter of the mighty King Astyages and later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great. Queen Mandana is a central character in legends describing Cyrus the Great’s early years.

Shortly after Mandana’s birth, Herodotus reports that Astyages had a strange dream where his daughter urinated so much that Asia would flood. He consulted the “Magi” (Court Magician) who interpreted the dream as a warning that Mandane’s son would overthrow his rule. To forestall that outcome, Astyages betrothed Mandane to the vassal prince, Cambyses I of Anshan, “a man of good family and quiet habits”, whom Astyages considered no threat to the Median throne. Astyages had a second dream when Mandane became pregnant where a vine grew from her womb and overtook the world. Terrified, he sent his most loyal court retainer, Harpagus, to kill the child. However, Harpagus was loath to spill royal blood and hid the child, Cyrus II, with a shepherd named Mitradates. Years later, Cyrus would defy his grandfather Astyages, leading to war between them; a war that Cyrus would have lost, but for Harpagus’ defection at the battle of Pasargadae, leading to the overthrow of Astyages, as the dream had forecast.

There are references to Mandana’s death as 559 BC; however, as this year is considered the date of her husband’s death (Cambyses I), it is unknown if that is the actual date of her death or when she changed status from Queen Consort to Queen Mother. King Darius the Great named his daughter “Mandana” after her.

The history of Mandana ancestry is important to understand her character and motivations. The Greeks of Homer’s time knew Lydia as Maeonia, which was probably an earlier name for the country. Three dynasties are mentioned by the ancient sources; the first is entirely mythical, the second begins with myth but is partly historical, and the third is entirely real. List of kings of Lydia shows that the dynasties were the Atyads (Tantalids), the Tylonids (Heraclids), and the Mermnads.

Mandana’s mother (Aryenis) is the granddaughter of Sadyattes 629–617 BC (or c. 625 – c. 600) son of Ardys II son of Gyges of Lydia. Gyges is the founder of the Mermnads dynasty c. 700 BC. Aryenis was the sister of King Croesus (Kroisos) of Lydia 560–546 BC (or 560, 547) who was defeated by Cyrus the Great who is his grandson from her daughter Mandana.

Gyges was the son of Dascylus. Dascylus was recalled from banishment in Cappadocia by the Lydian king Candaules and sent his son back to Lydia instead of himself. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Gyges soon became a favourite bodyguard of King Candaules.

According to The Histories of Herodotus, King Candaules bragged of his wife’s incredible beauty to his favorite bodyguard, Gyges of Lydia. “It appears you don’t believe me when I tell you how lovely my wife is,” said Candaules. “A man always believes his eyes better than his ears; so do as I tell you—contrive to see her naked.” Gyges refused; he feared what the King might do to him if he did accept.

Candaules was insistent, and Gyges had no choice but to obey. Candaules detailed a plan by which Gyges would hide behind a door in the royal bedroom to observe the Queen disrobing before bed. Gyges would then leave the room while the Queen’s back was turned.

That night, the plan was executed. However, the Queen saw Gyges as he left the room, and recognized immediately that she had been betrayed and shamed by her own husband. She silently swore to have her revenge, and began to arrange her own plan.

The next day, the Queen summoned Gyges to her chamber. Although Gyges thought nothing of the routine request, she confronted him immediately with her knowledge of his misdeed and her husband’s. “One of you must die,” she declared. “Either my husband, the author of this wicked plot; or you, who have outraged propriety by seeing me naked.” Gyges pleaded with the Queen not to force him to make this choice. She was relentless, and eventually he chose to betray the King so that he should live.

The Queen prepared for Gyges to kill Candaules by the same manner in which she was shamed. Gyges hid behind the door of the bedroom chamber with a knife provided by the Queen, and killed him in his sleep. Gyges married the Queen and became King, and father to the Mermnad Dynasty.

Internal conflicts & shift of Power. Cyrus the Great (576–530 B.C.E.) defeats the Median king Astyages at the battle of Pasargadae in 551 B.C.E. and becomes the king of both kingdoms. He established the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 550 B.C.E.

The Mermnads dynasty of Lydia was defeated and ended by Cyrus the Great (son of Mandana and the grandson of the defeated king of Lydia) at the battles of Pteria and Thymbra. He completely annexed Lydia after the Siege of Sardis.

Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), also called the “Arsacid Empire”

Sasanian Empire (224–651), also called the “Sassanid Empire” or the “Empire of Empires” was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V.

551 Bumin the founder of the Turkic Khaganate declares independence of the Turks around Altai Mountains conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Göktürk (Celestial Turk).

552 Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies. His elder son Issık becomes the khagan

554 Muqan Qaghan becomes the qaghan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the Silk Road.

558 In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxania.

568 An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrived in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.

576 The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.

580 Agathias identifies Burgunds (Βουρουγουνδοι) and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs.

581 Tardush, the second yabgu in the west lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.

584 Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.

The First Perso-Turkic War was fought during 588-589 between the Sassanid Persians and Hephthalite principalities and its lord the Göktürks. The conflict started with the invasion of the Persian Empire by the Turks and ended with a decisive Sassanid victory and the conquest of the Eastern Turks.

The Second Perso-Turkic War began in 606/607-608 with an invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Göktürks and Hephthalites. The war ended in 608 with the defeat of the Turks and Hephthalites by the Sasanians under the Armenian general Smbat IV Bagratuni.

The Third Perso-Turkic War 627–629 was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Pannonian Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come.

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