Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

Posts tagged ‘India’

SOLVEIT Turning the Internet to Powerful Public Administration


This is a very promising project proposal to involve the people of the world in finding solutions for any problem, in any field. The slogan of this project is: “SOLVEIT Power to the People

Let us create an international corporation called SOLVEIT.COM as a non-profitable corporation and an online social media and social networking service with offices in all continents and a rotating head office. SOLVEIT shall be regulated, managed, and monitored by its own users in accordance with national and international laws, highest standard of ethics, privacy, and security.

The purpose of creating SOLVEIT is to provide a global platform for wide extensive discussions for local, national, and global issues in all fields from various perspectives with the objective of drafting a solution or common stands. It shall act as a Virtual General Assembly which shall issue resolutions on all matters without trespassing the national sovereignty of states, and with accordance with national cultures.

SOLVEIT shall be accessed by a large range of devices with Internet connectivity, such as desktop, laptop and tablet computers, and smartphones. After registering to use the site, users can create a customized profile indicating their name, occupation, experience, schools attended and other essential information.

SOLVEIT shall be provided in all languages and covering all regions with Internet accessibility. The design and drafting of the first constitution and regulations of SOLVEIT shall be open globally and for enough period of time to ensure the widest public participation and representation.

How to Be a Good Culturally Marxist Person?


Be a Good Culturally Marxist Person

Be a Good Culturally Marxist Person

The only way to avoid being marked as anti-Semitic is to stop discussing history, business, security, religions, slavery, the real origin of Jews, the difference between Jews and Israelite, and illegal migration.

And, the only way to avoid being labelled as racist, bigoted or supremacist is NOT to be European and NOT to care for Europeans and their cultures.

Just be a good culturally Marxist person!?*%#

How the Romans and Europe Changed after the Jewish Rebellion?


The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Revolt. The crisis escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens. The Roman governor, Gessius Florus, responded by plundering the Jewish Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor, and the next day launching a raid on the city, arresting numerous senior Jewish figures.

The Jews worked to become Roman citizens under any title or religion firstly to avoid paying taxes; and ultimately to become part of the authorities in Rome and in its colonies. And they succeeded in both. Now, the Jews and Israelis feel being Italians. The affiliation of Jews with the rest of Europe came through the Italian (Roman), and also Slavic/Germanic, connections.

The Romans reaction to the Jewish rebellion can be understood from the integration of people like Josephus into the Roman Empire. The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus’s behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus. Scholars agree that the rabbis replaced the High Priest’s role in Jewish society after 70 CE. In the absence of the Temple, the synagogue became the center of Jewish life.

The Jewish demographics changed, as many of the Jewish rebels were allegedly scattered (actually infiltrated into various Roman regions and institutions) or sold into slavery (a ridiculous baseless claim). Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege (a clear total lie).

Let us mention the main points of Jewish (not Israelite) history

Ancient Israelites in Abyssinia (1876 to 1446 BCE) – Ancient Israelites in Canaan (1406 to 586 BCE) – Israelite leaders’ Babylonian captivity (c. 587 – 538 BCE) – Early Jewish period (c. 538 – 332 BCE) – Hellenistic influences upon Jews (c. 332 – 110 BCE) – The Hasmonean Kingdom (110–63 BCE) – Roman rule over Jews (63 BCE – 324 CE) – The Jewish migrations into Roman territories. (27 BC – 395 AD)

Hellenistic rulers of Judea. Under the suzerainty of the Ptolemies and later the Seleucids, Judea witnessed a period of peace and protection of its institutions. For their aid against his Ptolemaic enemies, Antiochus III promised his Jewish subjects a reduction in taxes and funds to repair the city of Jerusalem and the Temple.

Relations deteriorated under Antiochus’s successor Seleucus IV, and then, for reasons not fully understood, his successor Antiochus IV Epiphanes drastically overturned the previous policy of respect and protection, banning key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea (though not among the diaspora) and sparking a traditionalist revolt against Greek rule. Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BCE to 63 BCE. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated due to civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome.

The Hasmonean civil war began when the High Priest Hyrcanus II (a supporter of the Pharisees) was overthrown by his younger brother, Aristobulus II (a supporter of the Sadducees). A third faction, consisting primarily of Idumeans from Maresha, led by Antipater and his son Herod, re-installed Hyrcanus, who, according to Josephus, was merely Antipater’s puppet. In 47 BCE, Antigonus, a nephew of Hyrcanus II and son of Aristobulus II, asked Julius Caesar for permission to overthrow Antipater. Caesar ignored him, and in 42 BCE Antigonus, with the aid of the Parthians defeated Herod. Antigonus ruled for only three years, until Herod, with the aid of Rome, overthrew him and had him executed. Antigonus was the last Hasmonean ruler.

The Hellenization of the Jews in the pre-Hasmonean period was not universally resisted. Generally, the Jews accepted foreign rule when they were only required to pay tribute, and otherwise allowed to govern themselves internally. A period of political intrigue followed, with priests such as Menelaus bribing the king to win the High Priesthood, and accusations of murder of competing contenders for the title. The result was a brief civil war. The Tobiads, a philo-Hellenistic party, succeeded in placing Jason into the powerful position of High Priest.

Some Jews are known to have engaged in non-surgical foreskin restoration in order to join the dominant cultural practice of socializing naked in the gymnasium, where their circumcision would have been a social stigma. In 164 BCE, Judah captured Jerusalem and the Temple in Jerusalem was freed and re-consecrated. After five years of war and raids, Judah sought an alliance with the Roman Republic to remove the Greeks.

The Jews in the diaspora were generally accepted into the Roman Empire, and they played major roles in the formation of Roman Christianity. Jewish communities were thereby largely migrated from Judea and went to various Roman provinces in the Middle East, Europe and North Africa where they prospered and gained substantial powers. The actual center of Jewish power shifted from Judea to Rome after the Jewish–Roman conflicts of 66–136 CE (70 years). It was not expulsion but consensual distribution.

The other major result of the Jewish migration from Canaan was the significant increased concentration of Palestinians in that region. The Palestinians were brought by the Jews from Crete and other Mediterranean regions in exchange for the expelled Hebrew Israelite and Canaanite communities in 530 BC. And, when the Jews left to the various territories of the Roman Empire the Palestinians remained and increased in Canaan.

 

 

Abyssinian Hypothesis on Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish History


This is a brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram according to the new Abyssinian Hypothesis, by Tarig Anter.

Also see: Cyclopedia Of Biblical Literature Ed John Kitto Vol 1 1880, page 30.

Indians and the world must know about the relationship between Pashtuns and the both the Israelite and how the Turkic Jews brought them to Afghanistan and India which led to the creation of Pakistan and the civil war in Afghanistan.

Brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram

Brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram according to the new Abyssinian Hypothesis, by Tarig Anter.

Bab-el-Mandeb and the Refuge of Israel and Exodus of Moses


Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: lit. "Gate of Tears or Sorrows") or Mandeb Strait

Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: lit. “Gate of Tears or Sorrows”) or Mandeb Strait

Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

Therefore, the Israelite Exodus was only within Punt, from one region to another.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: lit. “Gate of Tears or Sorrows”) or Mandeb Strait is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. The strait derives its name from the dangers attending its navigation, or, according to an Arab legend, from the numbers who were drowned by the earthquake which separated Eritrea and Djibouti from Yemen or Arabia.

The full width of the Strait of Bab El Mandeb is about 28 km and it had been in use for many thousand years for movement of goods, people, and slaves. Camel was introduced to Arabia from Africa and were shipped by crossing this strait. Incense, rare woods, feathers, animal skins, frankincense, and gold were among the trade crossing regularly.

Since ancient times, Arabs imported goods from Africa via Bab-el-Mandeb then exported them via the Incense trade land route linking Egypt, the Mediterranean, and Mesopotamia with Eastern and Southern sources of incense, spices and other luxury goods, across the Levant and Egypt with Eastern Africa, Arabia, India and beyond.

The economy of the Kingdom of Qataban (in Yemen) was based on the cultivation and trade of spices and aromatics including frankincense and myrrh. These were exported to the Mediterranean, India and Abyssinia where they were greatly prized by many cultures, using camels on routes through Arabia, and to India by sea.

The island of Perim divides the strait into two channels, of which the eastern, known as the Bab Iskender (Alexander’s Strait), is 2 miles (3 km) wide and 30 m deep, while the western, or Dact-el-Mayun, has a width of about 16 miles (25 km) and a depth of 310 m.

According to Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church tradition, the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb were witness to the earliest migrations of Ge’ez speakers between Arabia and Africa, occurring c. 1900 BC, roughly around the same time as the Hebrew patriarch Jacob (Israel). This could even go older than that to the time of Abraham. The Kingdom of Aksum was a major regional power in the Horn of Africa. It extended its rule across the strait with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom shortly before the rise of Islam; and early Muslims took refuge in Abyssinia.

Moses may have received some geological assistance when he parted the Red Sea to let the Israelites through. For the past 30 million years the Arabian tectonic plate has been moving away from the African (Nubian) plate at the Red Sea.

But the rift, in which Earth’s crust is being stretched and thinned, is not happening smoothly. Most of the time the plates are stuck together. But in September of 2005 they split apart along a 37-mile (60-kilometer) section in Afar, Ethiopia (Ethiopia map), near the southern end of the Red Sea. The studies suggest that the splitting is due to the injection of underground magma (molten rock) into the rift rather than earthquakes happening on tectonic faults. A similar event occurred in Iceland from 1975 to 1984, but it took nine years and 20 individual “rips” to achieve what happened in Ethiopia in just a few weeks.

Also see: Cyclopedia Of Biblical Literature Ed John Kitto Vol 1 1880, page 30.

Brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram

Brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram

The Origins of the Jews and the Israelite are Finally Solved


Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

Therefore, the Israelite Exodus of 1446 BC was only within Punt, from one region to another. The Jews are not Israelite at all; and the name Judah was just used deceptively to relate the Jews to the Israelite. The Israelite were scattered all over the world and they no longer exist as a nation or a tribe.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

There is no doubt whatsoever that the first earliest Jews were Turkic Mongolians with their slaves from conquered Middle East, northern India, and Eastern Europe. The Turkic Mongolians were the first people to use horses and their wide campaigns of raids began since 1800 BC. But some Turkic Mongolians were not called Jews until Turkic Mongolians colonized Assyria and Iran and turned them to Neo-Babylonia and Persia (in 626 BC and 550 BC respectively) and sent them to replace the Hebrew Israelite in 530 BC.

The Israelite were originally an Arab Yemeni tribe and turned to Hebrew after they colonized Canaan since 1406 BC. They were earlier collaborators with Turkic Mongolians during their occupation of northern Kemt (ancient Egypt) as Hyksos (Heka-chasu “of YHWH”) during 1630 BC to 1523 BC. Before and during the Hyksos period the Yemeni Israelite took refuge in Abyssinia from 1876 BC to 1446 BC. Some Israelite, including Moses, infiltrated into Kerma, in Sudan, (ancient Nubia) and carried out wide scale looting, slavery, and raids that led to the fall of Kerma civilization during the Classic Kerma period (1750–1580 BC) of C-Group Phase IIb–III.

During the period from 1650 BC to 1520 BC ancient Egypt was threatened and squeezed from both the north and the south by the Turkic Mongolian Hyksos and the Arab Israelite respectively. Then came Ahmose I, king of ancient Egypt (reigned c. 1549–1524 BC) and founder of the 18th dynasty, who introduced the use of horses and other military techniques which were successful for the expulsion of the Hyksos (Asiatic rulers of Egypt), assisting and securing Canaanite rulers, and liberating Kerma from Israelite in the south.

Few years later, an Abyssinian king decided to expel the Israelite from Abyssinia without allowing them to carry their illegitimate wealth made during their 430 years of refuge. But the Israelite refused and escaped stealthily back to Yemen in 1446 BC under the leadership of Moses. This is the true story of the Exodus which was from Abyssinia and not from Egypt at all.

Soon after receiving the Ten Commandants and the Torah in a mountain in Yemen, not Sinai of Egypt, which were in the Ge’ez language, Moses died and the Israelite rejected the scriptures and the Promised Land of Asir region (in Yemen and Saudi Arabia) and forged the Torah to legitimize the colonization of Canaan. The Turkic Mongolians who were called Jews since 530 BC carried out massive campaigns of displacements and replacements soon after they colonized Canaan. They expelled all the twelve tribes of Hebrew Israelite and all Canaanite and claimed that 10 Israelite tribes disappeared and stole the identity of two Israelite tribes.

In exchange for the expelled Hebrew Israelite and Canaanite, the Turkic Mongolians (the Jews) brought slaves from Crete and Mediterranean regions and kept them first in the area of Philistia and were called the Philistines then were distributed to other regions to work as labors.

Contrary to the earliest Jews, the modern Jews are a wide mixture of Turkic Mongolians with various enslaved groups and vassals from Europe and large range of associates. The migrations of Jews from Canaan first targeted both the eastern and western territories of the newly founded Roman Empire (27 BC – 395 AD) and they played very crucial roles in their businesses. So modern Jews are not a nation nor they are Semite, the same as the first earliest Jews.

The final form of Jews started with the formation of the Turkic coalition between the Turkic Ottomans and the expelled Jews from Iberia in 1492 AD. This coalition was instrumental in the invasion and subsequent colonization of the Americas since the expedition of Columbus in 1492. The Turkic Mongolian coalition provided European migrants and slaves and later on led the transatlantic slavery of Africans to the American plantations.

Moses never went to Egypt, but after few centuries Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (1353–1336 BC) tried to borrow the teachings of Abraham regarding monotheism but he failed after a short period. That happened about 100 years after the death of Moses. Jewish scientist Sigmund Freud must had knew much better about many stories but he preferred to keep quiet and invent more fake tales.

At early times there were no Jews in or from Yemen. The Israelite were from Yemen but not the Jews. May be Jews came to Yemen later as they did to all Arabia with the Turkic Mongolian raids and expansions and during the Ottomans and similar Turkic periods.

The Turkic Mongolians created what is called today the Slavic people in the Steppe, Eastern Europe, Balkan; plus took Iran, Anatolia and the Caucasus. Later on they penetrated into the Germanic and Roman tribes and formed and caused the formation of new European groups.

They also created huge slavery all over the world since their expansions. The Yemeni Arab Israelite became Hebrew in Canaan in 530 BC, then the Jews kicked them out of their colony in Canaan. Now, it is reasonable to suggest that the Pashtuns could be part of the expelled Hebrew Israelite. Watch the following video.

The Abyssinian Hypothesis on Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish History. This is a brief history diagram according to the new Abyssinian Hypothesis, on the second following video. Also see: Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature Ed John Kitto Vol 1 1880, page 30.

Jews claim that Abraham knew camels. If this is true then Abraham was native of Eastern Africa, if not then the story of Abraham must be different. And Jews have nothing with Abraham and the region. Arabia never knew camels at 2000 BC. It is getting more reasonable to believe that Abraham was Abyssinian just as Melchizedek, Melkisetek, or Malki Tzedek in Amharic: መልከ ጼዴቅ ‘malkī-ṣeḏeq’ the king of Salem and priest of El Elyon who blessed Abram by El Elyon. Genesis 14:19.

This shall lead to conclude that Salem is indeed was a city in Abyssinia; and the whole Torah and the Bible must be re-written. The history from Abraham to Moses certainly happened but in completely different geographic settings. It could had happened in Abyssinia and ended up in Yemen. Indians and the world must know about the relationship between Pashtuns and the both the Israelite and how the Turkic Jews brought them to Afghanistan and India which led to the creation of Pakistan and the civil war in Afghanistan.

Sultan Beyazit II welcoming Jews expelled from Iberia to the Ottoman Empire in 1492.

Brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram

Brief Israelite, Hebrew, Jewish history diagram

Ashkenazim origin

Ashkenazim origin

Government and Private Sectors Organized Crimes


In numerous cases it was found that doctors has a culture of cover up and also acting dishonestly, unethically, and greedily. They behave like organized criminals.

Every system must have a counter professional diverse system of monitoring besides the Judiciary.
This is true in medicine, engineering, politics, religion, business, banking, education, media, military, and all others.

No sector must be allowed to monitor and discipline its own members without control and participation from service recipients.

Doctors nowadays always put the benefits of their affiliated big criminal hospitals and drug companies first by reaping off money through ordering risky drug prescriptions, huge surgical mistakes, and so on.

The situation is even worst in the developing poor countries without fair justice system and rampant ignorance and illiteracy among the public and doctors.

Now huge profits are being made by organ trafficking by many criminal doctors and hospitals. Medicine became a freaking heinous business to enrich its practitioners.

Are the Samaritans or Shamerim Yemenis from Shamer?


The name “Samaritans” is translated in Hebrew as “Shamerim”, i.e. in Arabic the people of Shamer. There is conflict over the etymology of the name for the Samaritans between Jews and Hebrew about the source and meaning of this name, which was given to the group of Hebrews who refuse to describe themselves as Jews (similar to the stand of the Ethiopian Beta Israel in today’s State of Israel). They affirm that the Jews are foreigners and infidels and are not of the Israelites.

And this calls for the possibility of linking between the Samaritans i.e. “Shamerim” and inhabitants of Qafl Shamer District, which is one of the districts of the province of Hajjah in Yemen. And it is in the Houthis area today. If this possibility is true, this will strengthen the hypothesis affirming Yemeni origin of the Israelites and their being originally a Yemeni Arab tribe. (The Samaritans are Israelis with very strong Arab culture until today).

The Jewish historian Josephus Flavius ​​asserts that the Samaritans are Hebrew but not Jewish

The following should be noted:

Firstly, Titus Flavius Josephus born Yosef ben Matityahu (38-100 AD) was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

Secondly, he was not a Syrian, but a Jew who is probably a descendant of the Turkic Mongolian who expelled the Hebrew who were the first occupiers of Canaan, and occupied Canaan in their place. They invented the Jewish religion in 530 BC that replaced the Samaritan Hebrew religion and both groups -the Hebrew and the Jews- rely on two totally different versions of forged Torah (about 7000 disputed verses). The population of Samaritans in Israel is now estimated at 783 people divided between Nablus and the Holon area near Tel Aviv.)

Third, the Chaldeans are people of Mesopotamia, but their wealthy and the ruling class were Turkic Mongolian and the Chaldeans became their vassal people since they colonized Chaldea or Chaldaea from Assyria

Fourthly, the claim of the Jews and the Israelites that the Prophet Abraham is a Syrian is a requirement of illegitimate occupation of Canaan while the Prophet Abraham and his decedents and the children of Israel (Jacob) and all their early history were in Yemen and Abyssinia only

Fifth, the model of Joseph Ben Matityahu turned into a Roman citizen confirming the extent of the penetration of Turkic Mongolians in the Roman Empire and the role of the Jews in the invention of Catholic Christianity and other doctrines in Europe.

To understand the rift between Jews and Samarians and the very strong Arab culture of Samaritans watch the following two conflicting videos:

Unfortunately there is no videos in English language presenting the Samaritan opinions about themselves, the Arabs, and the Jews.

 

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Israelite and Jewish Roots and Influences of Kush Kingdom of Nubia


Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

Alara was a King who is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty that created the Kingdom of Kush. His successors colonized and ruled Egypt as the 25th Dynasty. He was the first recorded king of Nubia after the collapse of Kerma civilization.  He is a central figure in the mythical origin of the kingdom of Kush, a legend that has been decorated over time with new elements. He was more associated with Upper Nubia from old Meroë to the Fourth Cataract rather than with Kerma. His two immediate successors, Kashta and Piye, ruled Egypt.

Nubian literature credits Alara with a substantial reign since future Nubian kings requested that they might enjoy a reign as long as Alara’s. Despite Alara was a deeply revered figure in Kushite culture there are no much confirmed information about his origin, family and his reign. This strange fact raises a lot of suspicion about his origin and the motives of Kush Kingdom.

Kush was established after the Bronze Age collapse (1177 BC) and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata during its early phase. King Kashta invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC and Kush ruled as the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt for a century, until they were expelled by the Assyrians under the rule of Esarhaddon.

The name Kush has no origin in the Nubian history or language, and early Egyptian records didn’t mention it. The name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible. The Nubian region had gone by other names in the Old Kingdom. Since the arrival of Israelite from Yemen into Abyssinia and south of Kerma from 1870 BC the term Kush became used to point to hostile people and territory.

Tuthmosis I made several campaigns c.1504 BC south resulted in protecting Kerma and making the 4th Cataract as a border line. Kerma culture increasingly maintained strong relationships with Egypt while hostility with the south continued for 220 years till c.1300 BC. During the New Kingdom, Kerma nevertheless became a key partner – economically, politically and spiritually. Indeed, major ceremonies were held at Jebel Barkal near Napata, and the royal lineages of the two regions seem to have intermarried. The extent of cultural/political continuity between the Kingdom of Kerma and the Kingdom of Kush is difficult to determine.

Threats to the early Egyptian Eighteenth Dynasty and Kerma were evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, an Egyptian warrior who served under Ahmose (1539-1514 BC), Amenhotep I (1514-1493 BC) and Thutmose I (1493-1481 BC). At the end of the Second Intermediate Period (mid sixteenth century BC), Egypt faced the twin existential threats -the Turkic Mongolian Hyksos in the North and the Yemeni Israelite in Kerma to the South.

Phases of Kerma Civilization
Pre-Kerma (c. 3500–2500 BC) No C-Group culture Phase
Early Kerma (c. 2500–2050 BC) C-Group Phase Ia–Ib
Middle Kerma (c. 2050–1750 BC) C-Group Phase Ib–IIa
Classic Kerma (c. 1750–1580 BC) (Israelite infiltration) C-Group Phase IIb–III
Final Kerma (c. 1580–1500 BC) (Collusion with the Hyksos) C-Group Phase IIb–III
Late Kerma – (c.1500–1100? BC) (expulsion of Israelite and Egyptian New Kingdom protection).

Due to the widespread looting and slavery by the Israelites during the turbulent time of Classical Kerma from 1750 BC and until the liberation of Karma with the help of Egypt in 1523 BC, there is a strong possibility that the Alara might be one of their remnants or of the descendants of the Israelites or of their liberated slaves. Perhaps the neglect for the great Karma civilization was caused by the fact that the Kush Kingdom was not native and authentic and it was ruled by foreign rulers contrary to the civilization and the kings of Kerma.

Kerma is one of the oldest historical cities where archaeologists have proven that this city is more than 9,500 years old. Its Nubian name is Doki, which means the Red Hill till today in modern Nubian. The capital was located in the northern state of Sudan on the east bank of the Nile River and about 700 kilometers south of the city of Aswan. The area of ​​Karma was the center of the civilization of Kerma since 2500 BC and for 1500 years and is one of the most important centers of ancient human civilization. It grew with time and a kingdom of great importance and strong contact with the state of Kmet (ancient Egypt) was established. It was ruled by families and priests of mixed Kerma and Kmet origins. The ties between Kerma and Egypt were not of two states but could be considered different regions in one state.

When the Kingdom of Kerma was invaded, colonized and looted by the Yemeni Israelite who came through Abyssinia since 1870 BC, the kings of Egypt defended Kerma and expelled the Israelites in 1523 BC by Ahmose I. Kerma remained under the protection of the Egyptians for many centuries and life flourished again until 1000 BC. Napata was an old Nubian city. Thutmosis III fortified it and developed it in 1450 BC to defend Nubia and make it as a border that foreigners cannot pass northward. In 780 BC the Kushites chose Napata as a capital of the Kingdom of Kush and then moved the capital to the ancient Meroë, north of Shendi, in 591 BC.

Also found in the city of Kerma on a large building built of bricks, called today, “West Dabofa.” The scientists differ in determining the function of this huge edifice, which is about 19 meters high, and they are happy that it was either a palace or a temple. The civilization of Kerma was characterized by many aspects, the most important of which was the creation of the meeting of kings in the masses, which found no resemblance to it in Egyptian civilization or any civilization Other. It was also characterized by a special kind of pottery. More than 10 of these dawns have been found in Kerma, and they have always been known as the primary capital of human existence in Sudan and one of the oldest African civilizations.

Around 1800 BC, in Iran, Assyria, the Levant and the north of the Arabian Peninsula, there were very dangerous looting groups of Turkic nomads coming from Mongolia and using horses, which were unknown to the inhabitants of those areas. In the south of the Arabian Peninsula in 1870, drought and famine led to the migration of the Arab tribe of Israel from their homeland in Yemen to Abyssinia via Bab-al-Mandab. While the Turkic Mongolians were plundering the Levant, the Bedouin Arabs of Israel were plundering Abyssinia and Kerma.

The flow and looting of the Turkic Mongolians increased and they occupied northern Egypt in 1630 BC. First they were known as YHWH Shasu (nomadic Jews), then became known as the Hyksos (Heka-Shasu, nomadic rulers). Collusion between the Israelites who were in the south at Kerma and the Hyksos occupiers of the Delta of Egypt was established. King Ahmose I came from an Egyptian Nubian mixed family and liberated both the Delta in the north and Kerma in the south in 1523 BC after introducing the use of the horse in his armies.

In 1446 BC, one of the kings of Abyssinia expelled the Israelite, but many of them had long penetrated the regions of Kerma and the rest of Sudan and continued to practice looting and slavery even after the expulsion of their brothers from Abyssinia. After the return of the Israelites to Yemen by crossing Bab-al-Mandab they moved north towards Canaan to meet their allies of the Turkic Mongolian gangs (Hyksos) who were expelled from Egypt and continued to loot the Levant and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. In 1406, the Israelites invaded Canaan and established the colony of the tribes of Israel with the help of the Mongols. In return, they helped them in the conquest of Assyria in 1392 BC.

Other groups of Turkic Mongolians were also active in looting the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and Anatolia since 1800 BC and their dangerous sabotage operations escalated with the use of horses and very bloody methods until they destroyed the civilizations of the Hittites and other peoples in the region. The year 1177 BC was the year of great catastrophe for all peoples on the Mediterranean Sea, where many countries and civilizations collapsed and destroyed and cities burned and entire peoples killed and displaced. As a result of these massacres and great destruction, the spread of chaos and the escape of very large groups in all directions in what is known as the phenomenon of the peoples of the sea and Bronze Age Collapse.

These events broke the backbone of the ancient Egyptian and Nubian civilizations, and the whole region and triggered a rapid collapse. Egypt lost its prosperity and independence by the fall of the Twentieth Dynasty in 1077 BC to invaders from all over the world. These negatively affected the independence, freedom and civilization of Nubia. Then, after 4 centuries, the 26th Dynasty (664 – 525 BC) appeared in Egypt. It was the last native Egyptian dynasty to rule Egypt and it was overthrown by the Persian invasion in 525 BC. The 26th Dynasty considered the Kushites as enemies as a result of their cooperation with the Persians; and their execution of the Egyptian King Necho I, the father of King Psamtik I by the Kushite King Tantamani.

According to Herodotus, the Kushites did not pay tribute to Persia. Instead they sent precious gifts to the Persian king, including gold, ebony and elephant tusks. We also know from Herodotus, as well as from other Greek reporters, that part of the Persian army of King Xerxes (486-465 BC) was composed of Kushite archers (Herodotus vii.69-70). So we can say with reasonable conviction that the Kingdom of Kush was never like Kerma, but it is more likely that Kush and the Kushites were foreign and foreigners and they were not free natives.

These facts raise a very essential question: Was the Kingdom of Kush a creation and an agent for the Arab Israelite and for the Turkic Mongolian Persian Jews?

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