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Posts tagged ‘Iran’

Iran Needs to Declare the Kurdish Language as State Language


iran_tribes_and_environment_smBy analyzing the indigenous Iranian languages family, it is obvious that the Kurdish Language is the most major native language still remaining in Iran today, and it is very much relater to other ancient Iranian languages. The Persian language (Farsi) is not from Iranian roots but from Turkic roots, and it is of modern origin.

The Kurdish Language together with its relatives in Iran make a very good choice for the historic restoration of Iran from the imposed Persianization of the indigenous people of Iran that took place since the Achaemenid.

iran_languages_2014_lg-smalliran_ethnic_lg-small

Iran has two souls!

How the ancient Iranian peoples and cultures turned to become Persians? The ancient Iranian soul is peaceful, civilized, and good, but, the other soul is the Persianated Turkic soul, which is violent, primitive, and evil. Unless Iran returns to its original soul it will remain demonized in the world and will never get internal harmony. To explain that let us ask: How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures turned to be Persian (which is Turkic)?

From the beginning of history there were “Iran” and “Iranians”, and there was no “Persia” or “Persians”. “Persia” or “Persians” appeared only with the Achaemenid Kings in 550 BC.

How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures Were Labeled by New Turkic Persians

How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures Were Labeled by New Turkic Persians

Near Lake Urmia was the first Persia tribal place in 860-600 BC. They came to this area earlier before they move again south and create their Persian chieftaincy which turned into kingdom then empire. New terms appeared like Parsua, Parsuash, Parsumash, Persis, Parsa, Pârs, Fars, and Parsava.

From 550 BC Iranian as a nation and Iran as a country disappeared and was replaced by Persians and Persia. Only in 1935, after 2485 years, Persia as a state took back the original name “Iran”, but strangely the Iranian peoples and cultures remained to be called ethnic “Persians”.

So, where the original Iranian people and cultures had gone? And why they are no longer recognized as “Iranians”? Such great ancient national identity of Iran and the ethnicities of the Iranians were clearly turned into Persia and Persians for political reasons by non-Iranians.

Even the history of the great ancient Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism which existed before 1200 BC had disappeared as a result of this forced Persianization. Also, in religion, prior to the rise of the Safavid Empire (1501–1736), Sunni Islam was the dominant religion, accounting for around 90% of the population at the time.

The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region (a Turkic region). Ardabil is in the same region from which the first Parsua (earlier Parsuash, Parsumash) chieftaincy originated before moving to south Iran to establish the first kingdom of Persia in (860-600 BC).

Where gone the ancient Iranians? And why the Persian restored Iran but did not restore Iranians? Simply because the Persian Turkic Azari rulers of Iran want to pretend that Iranian became Persians and want to call Iranian cultures and civilization Persian. Iranians and their achievements will never disappear or renamed Persian. The Persians are primitive and evil but the Iranians are great and good people.

The disaster that struck Iran since 550 BC is that few wicked Turkic settlers ruled Iran and the Iranians, and they invented Persia and claimed that Iranians are subjects of Persians and Iran seized to exist anymore, to confiscate Iranian lands and achievements.

iran

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

An Obelisk found in Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, and commemorates the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC). It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war, in the central square of Nimrud, close to the much earlier White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I.

It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it is thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a biblical figure – Jehu, King of Israel. The traditional identification of “Yaw” as Jehu has been questioned by some scholars, who proposed that the inscription refers to another king, Jehoram of Israel. Its reference to ‘Parsua‘ is also the first known reference to the Persians.

Persians are totally different from Iranians, although Iranians speak Persian. The Turkic Persian is dividing the Iranians, but the Kurds are native Iranians. Israel is also working to create distrust between them. It requires some understanding from both parties and the Russians, Syrians and Egyptians may help. The Iranians are peaceful and civilized contrary to the Turkic Persians, Turkic fake Israelite, and Turkic rulers of Arabia. The Kurds and the rest of Iranians will soon realize the dangers of distrust and the gains of reconciliation and cure the damages of Persians.

For more helpful maps on the ethnic, tribal, linguistic, and geographic composition of Iran visit The Gulf/2000 Project of the Middle East Institute at the School of International and Public Affairs of Columbia University in New York City.

iranian_family_tree_v2-0

Iran and the Iranians will defeat Persians, fake Israelite, rulers of Arabia and all other Turanians Gokturks Mongols no doubt, and expose them. The Turanians Gokturks Mongols are terrorist they have no place in any civilized peaceful world.

Terrorism is Turkic Islam


Expansions of Turkic Islam

Expansions of Turkic Islam

Islam during prophet Mohamed b. (622-632 AD) was not beyond the main Arabian Peninsula. But during the first three Caliphs, Abu Bakr (632-634), and Umar (634-644)(Assassinated), Uthman (644-656)(Assassinated) it went into invasions.

That was totally unacceptable to many believers but the Turkic elements encouraged such offensive military expansions.

The fourth Caliph Ali (656-661)(Assassinated) was the cousin of the prophet and he stopped that and carried out internal reforms and these were the main causes for the eruption of a brutal civil war throughout his rule (656-661) that ended up by assassinating him and killing most of this family.

By that killings the original Islam died and it was replaced by a fake Turkic militant cult calling itself Islam. This became the source of terrorism, colonialism, and heresy.

How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures Were Labeled by New Turkic Persians


How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures Were Labeled by New Turkic Persians

How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures Were Labeled by New Turkic Persians

Iran has two souls!

The ancient Iranian soul, which is good. The other soul is the Persianated Turkic soul, which is evil. Unless Iran returns to its original soul it will remain demonized. To explain that let us ask: How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures turned to be Persian (which is Turkic)?

How Ancient Iranian Peoples and Cultures Were Labeled by New Turkic Persians?

List of rulers of Iranian kingdoms of Iran and the Iranian people

From the beginning of history there were “Iran” and “Iranians”, and there was no “Persia” or “Persians”. “Persia” or “Persians” appeared only with the Achaemenid Kings in 550 BC. Here is a list of the Iranian kingdoms since 2700 BC, that made the original Iran:

  2.1 Elamite Empire, c. 2700 – 650 BC

  2.2 Minor Elamite Kingdoms, c. 2700 – 519 BC

  2.3 Kings of Elymais, c. 147 BC – c. 224 AD

3.1 Marhasi kingdom, c. 2550–c. 1900 BC

3.2 Namar kingdom, c. 24th century–c. 750 BC

3.3 Zakhara kingdom, c. 2350–c. 2250 BC

3.4 Ganhar kingdom, c. 21st century BC

3.5 Eshnuna kingdom, c. 21st century–c. 8th century BC

3.6 Zabshali kingdom, c. 2050–c. 2000 BC

3.7 Kassites kingdom, 21st to 9th century BC

3.8 Parsua kingdom, c. 840–c. 710 BC

3.9 Ellipi kingdom, c. 810–c. 700 BC

3.10 Bit-Istar kingdom, c. 12th century–c. 710 BC

4.1 Kuti kingdom, c. 2550–c. 2100 BC

4.2 Lullubi kingdom, c. 2400–c. 650 BC

4.3 Gilzan kingdom, c. 900–c. 820 BC

4.4 Urartu kingdom, c. 860 – 547 BC

4.5 Ida kingdom, c. 860–c. 710 BC

4.6 Allabria, c. 850–c. 710 BC

4.7 Gizilbunda kingdom, c. 850–c. 700 BC

4.8 Araziash kingdom, c. 850 – 716 BC

4.9 Manna kingdom, c. 850–c. 550 BC

4.10 Andia Kingdom, c. 850–c. 700 BC

4.11 Kishesu kingdom, c. 830–c. 710 BC

4.12 Sagbitu kingdom, c. 820–c. 710 BC

4.13 Abdadana kingdom, c. 810–c. 710 BC

4.14 Zikartu kingdom, c. 750 – 521 BC

4.15 Median dynasty, 726–521 BC

4.16 Karalla kingdom, c. 720–c. 700 BC

4.17 Uriaku kingdom, c. 720–c. 700 BC

4.18 Karzinu kingdom, c. 720–c. 700 BC

4.19 Saparda kingdom, c. 720–c. 670 BC

4.20 Scythian kingdom, c. 700–c. 530 BC

5.1 Dilmun kingdom, 27th century–7th century BC

5.2 Gunilaha kingdom, c. 2350–c. 2300 BC

5.3 Makkan kingdom, 23rd century – 550 BC

5.4 Bashimi kingdom, c. 2100–c. 1900 BC

5.5 Zabum kingdom, 21st century BC

5.6 Achaemenid Kings of Parsumash, c. 710–c. 635 BC

5.7 Achaemenid Kings of Anshan, c. 635 – 550 BC

Near Lake Urmia was the first Persia tribal place in 860-600 BC. They came to this area earlier before they move again south and create their Persian chieftaincy which turned into kingdom then empire. New terms appeared like Parsua, Parsuash, Parsumash, Persis, Parsa, Pârs, Fars, and Parsava.

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
An Obelisk found in Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, and commemorates the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC). It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war, in the central square of Nimrud, close to the much earlier White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I.
It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it is thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a biblical figure – Jehu, King of Israel. The traditional identification of “Yaw” as Jehu has been questioned by some scholars, who proposed that the inscription refers to another king, Jehoram of Israel. Its reference to ‘Parsua‘ is also the first known reference to the Persians.

Parsua
Parsua (earlier Parsuash, Parsumash) was an ancient tribal kingdom/chiefdom (860-600 BC) located near Lake Urmia between Zamua (formerly: Lullubi) and Ellipi, in central Zagros to the southwest of Sanandaj, northwestern Iran. The name Parsua is from an old Iranian word *Parsava and it is presumed to mean border or borderland.
Parsua was distinct from Persis, another region to the southeast, now known as Fars province in Iran. Some accounts suggest that Teispes, the ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty, led a migration from Parsua to Persis, formerly the Elamite state of Anshan.

Persis
ersis (Greek: Περσίς), better known as Persia (Old Persian: Parsa; Persian: پارس‎‎, Pars), or “Persia proper”, was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia. The country name Persia was derived directly from the Old Persian Parsa. Over time, the area of settlement shifted to the southwest of today Iran (now Fars).
The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, and became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty which was established in the late 6th century BC

Fars
The word Fârs is derived from Pârsâ, the Old Persian name for Persia and its capital, Persepolis. Fârs is the Arabized version of Pârs, as Arabic has no [p] phoneme.

Persian people
Ancient Persians were originally a nomadic branch of the ancient population (probably from Turkic origins) who entered modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC.

 

List of Persian monarchs of Iran

From this time Iranian as a nation and Iran as a country disappeared and was replaced by Persians and Persia.

Here is a list of the new Persian kingdoms since 550 BC that made the current Persian Iran:

18.1 Sarbadars (1332–1386)

18.2 Chupanids (1335–1357)

18.3 Jalayirids (1335–1432)

18.4 Injuids (1335–1357)

18.5 Muzaffarids (1314–1393)

18.6 Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)

18.7 Ak Koyunlu (1378–1497)

18.8 Timurid dynasty (1370–1507)

Only in 1935, after 2485 years, Persia as a state took back the original name “Iran”, but strangely the Iranian peoples and cultures remained to be called ethnic “Persians”.

So, where the original Iranian people and cultures had gone? And why they are no longer recognized as “Iranians”?

Such great ancient national identity of Iran and the ethnicities of the Iranians were clearly turned into Persia and Persians for political reasons by non-Iranians.

Even the history of the great ancient Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism which existed before 1200 BC had disappeared as a result of this forced Persianization. Also, in religion, prior to the rise of the Safavid Empire (1501–1736), Sunni Islam was the dominant religion, accounting for around 90% of the population at the time.

The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region (a Turkic region). Ardabil is in the same region from which the first Parsua (earlier Parsuash, Parsumash) chieftaincy originated before moving to south Iran to establish the first kingdom of Persia in (860-600 BC).

Where gone the ancient Iranians? And why the Persian restored Iran but did not restore Iranians? Simply because the Persian Turkic Azari rulers of Iran want to pretend that Iranian became Persians and want to call Iranian cultures and civilization Persian. Iranians and their achievements will never disappear or renamed Persian. The Persians are primitive and evil but the Iranians are great and good people.

The disaster that struck Iran since 550 BC is that few wicked Turkic settlers ruled Iran and the Iranians, and they invented Persia and claimed that Iranians are subjects of Persians and Iran seized to exist anymore, to confiscate Iranian lands and achievements.

Lake Urmia First Persia Tribal Place in 860-600 BC


Lake Urmia First Persia Tribal Place in 860-600 BC

Lake Urmia First Persia Tribal Place in 860-600 BC

Near Lake Urmia was the first Persia tribal place in 860-600 BC. They came to this area earlier before they move again south and create their Persian chieftaincy which turned into kingdom then empire. (It is also called Parsua, Parsuash, Parsumash, Persis, Parsa, Pârs, Fars, or Parsava)

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

It comes from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq, and commemorates the deeds of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC).

It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time of civil war, in the central square of Nimrud, close to the much earlier White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I.

It is the most complete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically significant because it is thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a biblical figure – Jehu, King of Israel. The traditional identification of “Yaw” as Jehu has been questioned by some scholars, who proposed that the inscription refers to another king, Jehoram of Israel. Its reference to ‘Parsua’ is also the first known reference to the Persians.

Parsua

Parsua (earlier Parsuash, Parsumash) was an ancient tribal kingdom/chiefdom (860-600 BC) located near Lake Urmia between Zamua (formerly: Lullubi) and Ellipi, in central Zagros to the southwest of Sanandaj, northwestern Iran. The name Parsua is from an old Iranian word *Parsava and it is presumed to mean border or borderland.

Parsua was distinct from Persis, another region to the southeast, now known as Fars province in Iran. Some accounts suggest that Teispes, the ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty, led a migration from Parsua to Persis, formerly the Elamite state of Anshan.

Persis

ersis (Greek: Περσίς), better known as Persia (Old Persian: Parsa; Persian: پارس‎‎, Pars), or “Persia proper”, was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia. The country name Persia was derived directly from the Old Persian Parsa. Over time, the area of settlement shifted to the southwest of today Iran (now Fars).

The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, and became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty which was established in the late 6th century BC

Fars

The word Fârs is derived from Pârsâ, the Old Persian name for Persia and its capital, Persepolis. Fârs is the Arabized version of Pârs, as Arabic has no [p] phoneme.

Persian people

The ancient Persians were originally a nomadic branch of the ancient population (probably from Turkic origins) who entered modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC.

HISTORY OF IRAN- HIGHLIGHTS


The five main dynasties which ruled over Iran: PESHDADIAN (Pre-historic – c.10,000-7,500 BC) KAYANIAN (Pre-historic – c. 7,500-6,500 BC). (History of the period between Kayanian and Ach…

Source: HISTORY OF IRAN- HIGHLIGHTS

Prophet Zarathushtra Spitama – Life Story


Prophet Zarathushtra Family of the prophet Divine appointment Birth Childhood Divine Revelation Early Struggle The court of King Vishtasp The king’s horse Aspe-Sihā Gifts for the King Gifts for the…

Source: Prophet Zarathushtra Spitama – Life Story

Princess Mandana Defeated the Medians and Destroyed Iranians


achaemenid-provinces-during-the-rule-of-darius-iThe history of Iran (Aryan) starts with the ancient “Shoosh Civilization” 6000 B.C.E. Susiana Civilization

The original populations in Northwest Iran were the Median people of “Mede”.

Zoroaster was the prophet of Ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion, Zoroastrianism, inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Iran. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.

The religion, Zoroastrianism, was founded by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek; Zarthosht in India and Persia). Conservative Zoroastrians assign a date of 6000 BCE to the founding of the religion; other followers estimate 600 BCE. Historians and religious scholars generally date his life sometime between 1500 and 1000 BCE on the basis of his style of writing.

Some say Zoroaster’s birthday falls on March 26th 1767 B.C.E. Zarathushtra was the first prophet to introduce the concepts of: monotheism, equality, duality of good and evil (struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu), mankind’s free choice between the two alternatives, messianic redemption, resurrection, final judgment, heaven (the word “Paradise” comes from Old Persian), hell and the notion of an almighty, kind, loving and forgiving God. He believed man’s salvation in life and in the afterlife could only be ensured through Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds. Many of these concepts had a profound influence on Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

The basic moral principles that guide the life of a Zoroastrian are three: Humata, “Good Thoughts,” the intention or moral resolution to abide by Asha, the right order of things. Hukhata, “Good Words,” the communication of that intention. Havarashta, “Good Deeds,” the realization in action of that intention.

The dates given for Zoroaster by ancient and modern writers differ considerably. The oldest parts of the Zoroastrian scriptures are the Gathas, which are the direct teachings of Zoroaster and his conversations with Ahura Mazda in a series of visions. According to tradition, Zoroaster died when he was 77 years and 40 days. The later Pahlavi sources like Shahnameh, however claim an obscure conflict with Tuiryas (Turan / Turk) people, in which Zoroaster was murdered by karapan (old religion priest) Brādrēs in Balkh (now in Afghanistan). (The Arabs called Balkh Umm Al-Belaad or Mother of Cities due to its antiquity.)

The 10th/11th century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiya, the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya, among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster.

The Turkic Persians starting from Cyrus the Great corrupted the monolithic religion of Zoroastrianism and replaced it with an antithesis of Magi cult (magic) and they became known as Magus.

Much like the Roman religion for Rome, it was adopted in differing forms as the generally inclusive overarching state religion of the Achaemenid Empire and subsequent Parthian and Sasanian empires, lending it immense prestige in ancient times.

693 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroyed Susa. The glorious, ancient, biblical and historical city of Susa in Persia was captured and razed to ground by the notorious army of Ashur Banipal. The Assyrians had built a very strong army that ruled over a vast area without any tolerance for other civilizations. Their source of wealth was plundering the weak and not let them regain power. They enslaved many nations including the Jews and the entire Iranian plateau. Assyrians destroyed the Elam kingdom leaving behind an ancient ruin called the Burnt City. This marked the end of 2000 years of Elamite kingdom and the Start of a New Era for the Persian nomads.

The beginning of foreign influence in the Aryan Monarch led to Persia.

600–559 B.C.E. Princess Mandana was reportedly a granddaughter to both Cyaxares of Media and Alyattes II of Lydia of the Mermnads dynasty in western Anatolia. According to Herodotus, Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, King of Media and Aryenis (the daughter of King Alyattes of Lydia). The Mermnads dynasty in Lydia was established by Gyges who Bible scholars believe that he was the Biblical character Gog, ruler of Magog, who is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation. Mandana was not from pure Iranian origins and she could be from non-Lydian descent (she could be of Turkic Cimmerian from her mother’s side). Mandana (Mandane) was a Median princess, daughter of the mighty King Astyages and later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great. Queen Mandana is a central character in legends describing Cyrus the Great’s early years.

Shortly after Mandana’s birth, Herodotus reports that Astyages had a strange dream where his daughter urinated so much that Asia would flood. He consulted the “Magi” (Court Magician) who interpreted the dream as a warning that Mandane’s son would overthrow his rule. To forestall that outcome, Astyages betrothed Mandane to the vassal prince, Cambyses I of Anshan, “a man of good family and quiet habits”, whom Astyages considered no threat to the Median throne. Astyages had a second dream when Mandane became pregnant where a vine grew from her womb and overtook the world. Terrified, he sent his most loyal court retainer, Harpagus, to kill the child. However, Harpagus was loath to spill royal blood and hid the child, Cyrus II, with a shepherd named Mitradates. Years later, Cyrus would defy his grandfather Astyages, leading to war between them; a war that Cyrus would have lost, but for Harpagus’ defection at the battle of Pasargadae, leading to the overthrow of Astyages, as the dream had forecast.

There are references to Mandana’s death as 559 BC; however, as this year is considered the date of her husband’s death (Cambyses I), it is unknown if that is the actual date of her death or when she changed status from Queen Consort to Queen Mother. King Darius the Great named his daughter “Mandana” after her.

The history of Mandana ancestry is important to understand her character and motivations. The Greeks of Homer’s time knew Lydia as Maeonia, which was probably an earlier name for the country. Three dynasties are mentioned by the ancient sources; the first is entirely mythical, the second begins with myth but is partly historical, and the third is entirely real. List of kings of Lydia shows that the dynasties were the Atyads (Tantalids), the Tylonids (Heraclids), and the Mermnads.

Mandana’s mother (Aryenis) is the granddaughter of Sadyattes 629–617 BC (or c. 625 – c. 600) son of Ardys II son of Gyges of Lydia. Gyges is the founder of the Mermnads dynasty c. 700 BC. Aryenis was the sister of King Croesus (Kroisos) of Lydia 560–546 BC (or 560, 547) who was defeated by Cyrus the Great who is his grandson from her daughter Mandana.

Gyges was the son of Dascylus. Dascylus was recalled from banishment in Cappadocia by the Lydian king Candaules and sent his son back to Lydia instead of himself. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Gyges soon became a favourite bodyguard of King Candaules.

According to The Histories of Herodotus, King Candaules bragged of his wife’s incredible beauty to his favorite bodyguard, Gyges of Lydia. “It appears you don’t believe me when I tell you how lovely my wife is,” said Candaules. “A man always believes his eyes better than his ears; so do as I tell you—contrive to see her naked.” Gyges refused; he feared what the King might do to him if he did accept.

Candaules was insistent, and Gyges had no choice but to obey. Candaules detailed a plan by which Gyges would hide behind a door in the royal bedroom to observe the Queen disrobing before bed. Gyges would then leave the room while the Queen’s back was turned.

That night, the plan was executed. However, the Queen saw Gyges as he left the room, and recognized immediately that she had been betrayed and shamed by her own husband. She silently swore to have her revenge, and began to arrange her own plan.

The next day, the Queen summoned Gyges to her chamber. Although Gyges thought nothing of the routine request, she confronted him immediately with her knowledge of his misdeed and her husband’s. “One of you must die,” she declared. “Either my husband, the author of this wicked plot; or you, who have outraged propriety by seeing me naked.” Gyges pleaded with the Queen not to force him to make this choice. She was relentless, and eventually he chose to betray the King so that he should live.

The Queen prepared for Gyges to kill Candaules by the same manner in which she was shamed. Gyges hid behind the door of the bedroom chamber with a knife provided by the Queen, and killed him in his sleep. Gyges married the Queen and became King, and father to the Mermnad Dynasty.

Internal conflicts & shift of Power. Cyrus the Great (576–530 B.C.E.) defeats the Median king Astyages at the battle of Pasargadae in 551 B.C.E. and becomes the king of both kingdoms. He established the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 550 B.C.E.

The Mermnads dynasty of Lydia was defeated and ended by Cyrus the Great (son of Mandana and the grandson of the defeated king of Lydia) at the battles of Pteria and Thymbra. He completely annexed Lydia after the Siege of Sardis.

Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), also called the “Arsacid Empire”

Sasanian Empire (224–651), also called the “Sassanid Empire” or the “Empire of Empires” was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V.

551 Bumin the founder of the Turkic Khaganate declares independence of the Turks around Altai Mountains conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Göktürk (Celestial Turk).

552 Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies. His elder son Issık becomes the khagan

554 Muqan Qaghan becomes the qaghan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the Silk Road.

558 In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxania.

568 An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrived in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.

576 The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.

580 Agathias identifies Burgunds (Βουρουγουνδοι) and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs.

581 Tardush, the second yabgu in the west lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.

584 Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.

The First Perso-Turkic War was fought during 588-589 between the Sassanid Persians and Hephthalite principalities and its lord the Göktürks. The conflict started with the invasion of the Persian Empire by the Turks and ended with a decisive Sassanid victory and the conquest of the Eastern Turks.

The Second Perso-Turkic War began in 606/607-608 with an invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Göktürks and Hephthalites. The war ended in 608 with the defeat of the Turks and Hephthalites by the Sasanians under the Armenian general Smbat IV Bagratuni.

The Third Perso-Turkic War 627–629 was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Pannonian Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come.

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