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Posts tagged ‘Jewish–Roman War’

It is Aelia Capitolina NOT Beit HaMikdash, Al-Quds, or Jerusalem


Aelia Capitolina 633 AD

Aelia Capitolina 633 AD

Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

Is “present day Jerusalem” a Jewish holy city? Is the location of “present day Jerusalem” is the same as that of the “earlier or first Jerusalem”? To answer these questions we must notice that Jerusalem has more than 70 names; and the “earlier or first Jerusalem” is specifically the site of Solomon’s Temple, also known as the First Temple (Hebrew: Beit HaMikdash). Beit HaMikdash was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of the “earlier or first Jerusalem” in 586 BC.

The Second Temple (Hebrew: Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was built in 516 BC under instructions from the Persian King Cyrus the Great who could had invented the Jews and sent them from Babylon to Judah to replace the Israelite. The returnees were not actually Israelite but rather Turkic Mongolian settlers similar to those who conquered and ruled Iran and Mesopotamia and turned them to Persia and Neo-Babylonia (in 550 BC and 626 BC respectively).

Many new fundamental political, ethnic, and religious changes took place with the coming of new settlers from Babylonia. There was swift basic shift of powers and culture from the earlier Hebrew to the new Jewish. These changes and Persian support for the Jews raise doubts and suggest that the location of the Second Temple was actually not in the same place of Solomon’s Temple. This situation created two different Beit HaMikdash (or Jerusalem). An earlier but destroyed one belongs to the Hebrew Israelite; and a second new city made by the Jews.

The situation becomes even more confusing with the Jewish claim that the city founded by the Romans (Aelia) was built on top of the ruins of the Second Temple. With this claim, there are three different possible locations for Solomon’s Temple or Beit HaMikdash (Jerusalem): 1. the location proposed by the few remaining Hebrew Israelite (First Temple); 2. The location used by Turkic settlers (Jews) in 516 BC to build another temple and call it the Second Temple (Beit HaMikdash HaSheni); and 3. The Roman city built in 130 AD (Aelia) to administrate the colony.

Aelia Capitolina was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian in 130 AD to be for his legionaries. For Arabs Aelia remained the common name for present-day Jerusalem until 1300 AD, when the Turkic Mamluk Sultanate for strange reasons adopted the Jewish name “Al-Quds” and their claims. The name “Aelia” came from Hadrian’s nomen gentile, Aelius, while Capitolina meant dedication to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built. The city was in the style of a typical Roman town. Jews were prohibited from entering the city. The ban was maintained until the 7th century, though Christians would soon be granted an exemption.

During the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I ordered the construction of Christian holy sites in the city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Aelia in Byzantine times consisted only of Christians. The Jews claim that Aelia was built on the site of the Second Temple and it is the same site of the Solomon’s First Temple; and therefore Aelia is Jerusalem. But would the Romans use a ruined holy site for Jews to build their city and temple? Surely, Aelia is a holy city for Christians and Muslims; but it is very doubtful it is holy for the Israelite and for the Jews. Jerusalem, Al-Quds, or Beit HaMikdash is not Aelia.

First we have to find the real Jerusalem, because most probably the present-day Jerusalem in not. It is Aelia and it was built by the Romans for their own use; and it doesn’t hold any holy Israelite or Palestinian site. It has mainly Christian holy sites and a single Islamic site. So, it belongs to Christians and Muslims.

Could Bethlehem be the Real Jerusalem?
A mysterious First Temple-era archaeological found under a Palestinian orchard near Bethlehem is increasingly gaining attention — despite attempts to keep it quiet.
The Hebrew Bible, which says that the city of Bethlehem was built up as a fortified city by Rehoboam, identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel. The New Testament identifies Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. Bethlehem and present-day Jerusalem are both called “the city of David”!

Jerusalem means the place of Solomon’s Temple, the First Temple, wherever it is. Bethlehem or Girizim could be the real Jerusalem. There are archaeological discoveries around Bethlehem that intrigue scholars and relate them to the First Temple despite attempts to hush it up.

The article is at: Despite secrecy, interest builds around mysterious First Temple find outside Bethlehem

How the Romans and Europe Changed after the Jewish Rebellion?


The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Revolt. The crisis escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens. The Roman governor, Gessius Florus, responded by plundering the Jewish Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor, and the next day launching a raid on the city, arresting numerous senior Jewish figures.

The Jews worked to become Roman citizens under any title or religion firstly to avoid paying taxes; and ultimately to become part of the authorities in Rome and in its colonies. And they succeeded in both. Now, the Jews and Israelis feel being Italians. The affiliation of Jews with the rest of Europe came through the Italian (Roman), and also Slavic/Germanic, connections.

The Romans reaction to the Jewish rebellion can be understood from the integration of people like Josephus into the Roman Empire. The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus’s behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus. Scholars agree that the rabbis replaced the High Priest’s role in Jewish society after 70 CE. In the absence of the Temple, the synagogue became the center of Jewish life.

The Jewish demographics changed, as many of the Jewish rebels were allegedly scattered (actually infiltrated into various Roman regions and institutions) or sold into slavery (a ridiculous baseless claim). Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege (a clear total lie).

Let us mention the main points of Jewish (not Israelite) history

Ancient Israelites in Abyssinia (1876 to 1446 BCE) – Ancient Israelites in Canaan (1406 to 586 BCE) – Israelite leaders’ Babylonian captivity (c. 587 – 538 BCE) – Early Jewish period (c. 538 – 332 BCE) – Hellenistic influences upon Jews (c. 332 – 110 BCE) – The Hasmonean Kingdom (110–63 BCE) – Roman rule over Jews (63 BCE – 324 CE) – The Jewish migrations into Roman territories. (27 BC – 395 AD)

Hellenistic rulers of Judea. Under the suzerainty of the Ptolemies and later the Seleucids, Judea witnessed a period of peace and protection of its institutions. For their aid against his Ptolemaic enemies, Antiochus III promised his Jewish subjects a reduction in taxes and funds to repair the city of Jerusalem and the Temple.

Relations deteriorated under Antiochus’s successor Seleucus IV, and then, for reasons not fully understood, his successor Antiochus IV Epiphanes drastically overturned the previous policy of respect and protection, banning key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea (though not among the diaspora) and sparking a traditionalist revolt against Greek rule. Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BCE to 63 BCE. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated due to civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome.

The Hasmonean civil war began when the High Priest Hyrcanus II (a supporter of the Pharisees) was overthrown by his younger brother, Aristobulus II (a supporter of the Sadducees). A third faction, consisting primarily of Idumeans from Maresha, led by Antipater and his son Herod, re-installed Hyrcanus, who, according to Josephus, was merely Antipater’s puppet. In 47 BCE, Antigonus, a nephew of Hyrcanus II and son of Aristobulus II, asked Julius Caesar for permission to overthrow Antipater. Caesar ignored him, and in 42 BCE Antigonus, with the aid of the Parthians defeated Herod. Antigonus ruled for only three years, until Herod, with the aid of Rome, overthrew him and had him executed. Antigonus was the last Hasmonean ruler.

The Hellenization of the Jews in the pre-Hasmonean period was not universally resisted. Generally, the Jews accepted foreign rule when they were only required to pay tribute, and otherwise allowed to govern themselves internally. A period of political intrigue followed, with priests such as Menelaus bribing the king to win the High Priesthood, and accusations of murder of competing contenders for the title. The result was a brief civil war. The Tobiads, a philo-Hellenistic party, succeeded in placing Jason into the powerful position of High Priest.

Some Jews are known to have engaged in non-surgical foreskin restoration in order to join the dominant cultural practice of socializing naked in the gymnasium, where their circumcision would have been a social stigma. In 164 BCE, Judah captured Jerusalem and the Temple in Jerusalem was freed and re-consecrated. After five years of war and raids, Judah sought an alliance with the Roman Republic to remove the Greeks.

The Jews in the diaspora were generally accepted into the Roman Empire, and they played major roles in the formation of Roman Christianity. Jewish communities were thereby largely migrated from Judea and went to various Roman provinces in the Middle East, Europe and North Africa where they prospered and gained substantial powers. The actual center of Jewish power shifted from Judea to Rome after the Jewish–Roman conflicts of 66–136 CE (70 years). It was not expulsion but consensual distribution.

The other major result of the Jewish migration from Canaan was the significant increased concentration of Palestinians in that region. The Palestinians were brought by the Jews from Crete and other Mediterranean regions in exchange for the expelled Hebrew Israelite and Canaanite communities in 530 BC. And, when the Jews left to the various territories of the Roman Empire the Palestinians remained and increased in Canaan.

 

 

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