Fula or Fulani or Fulbe (the latter being an Anglicization of the word in their language, Fulɓɓe) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africa and The Sudan of east Africa. The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Niger, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudan in the east. Fulas are not a majority in every country they live, but in Guinea they represent a plurality of the population (largest single group).
There are also many names (and spellings of the names) used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe. Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages is also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Foulah. Fula and Fulani are commonly used in English, including within Africa. The French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, which is variously spelled: Peul, Peulh, and even Peuhl. More recently the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, which is a plural noun (singular, Pullo) has been adapted to English as Fulbe, which some people use. In Portuguese it’s Fula or Futafula.
A closely related group is the Tukolor (Toucouleur) in the central Senegal River valley. These people are often referred to together with Fulɓe of the region as Haalpulaar’en (Pulaar-speakers). Fula society in some parts of West Africa features the “caste” divisions typical of the region. In Mali, for instance, those who are not ethnically Fula have been referred to as yimɓe pulaaku (people of the Fula culture). The Woɗaaɓe, also known as the Bororo, are a subgroup of the Fula people.
The Fulani are traditionally a nomadic, pastoralist, trading people, herding cattle, goats and sheep across the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping somewhat separate from the local agricultural populations.
Origins and Spread
The early origin of Fulani People is most fascinating and deepened in mystery with widely divergent opinions. Many scholars believe that they are of Judaeo-Syrian origin. However, it is generally recognized that Fulani descended from nomads from both North Africa and from sub-Sahara Africa. They came from the Middle-East and North Africa and settled into Central and West Africa from the Senegal region they created the Tekruur Empire which was contemporary to the Ghana Empire. Then, they spread in all the countries in West-Africa, continuing to lead their nomadic life style. They created here and there mixed states where they sometimes were the dominant group. But more often, they were absorbed by the indigenous population whom they had dominated.
While some have speculated over the origin of Fulani people, current linguistic and genetic evidence suggests an indigenous West African origin among the Peul. The vast majority of genetic lineages associated with them reflect those most commonly seen in other West Africans. Their language is also of West African origin, most closely related to that of the Wolof and Serer ethnic groups. Historical and archaeological records indicate that Peul-speakers have resided in western Africa since at least the 5th century A.D. as well. Interestingly, rock paintings in the Tassili-n-Ajjer suggests the presence of proto-Fulani cultural traits in the region by at least the fourth millennium B.C. Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practiced by contemporary Fulani people.
The Fulani were the first group of people in West Africa to convert to Islam through jihads, or holy wars, and were able to take over much of West Africa and establish themselves not only as a religious group but also as a political and economic force. They are the missionaries of Islam and continued to conquer much of West Africa. The Fulani are primarily nomadic herders and traders. Through their nomadic lifestyle they established numerous trade routes in West Africa. Many times the Fulani go to local markets and interact with the people, getting news and spreading it through much of West Africa.
A very important and interesting possible link to the origins of Fulani could be deducted from an article titled The Israelite in Sudan and the Jews in the land of the Mahdi It could suggest that earlier Fulani were Hebrew Israelite from Arab Yemeni ancestry who slowly moved from Ethiopia and the Sudan to North Africa before going south to raid and enslave West Africans.
This hypothesis allows a room to suggest that the expelled Canaanite and Hebrew Israelite by Turkic Jews after 530 BC joined forces with the groups who came from Yemen via Sudan and Ethiopia starting from 1800 BC. They were also joined by further Turkic invaders and settlers after 660 AD.
The sudden massive waves of people fleeing their collapsed countries in 1300 BC in the Mediterranean Sea, who are know as “the Sea People” also invaded the Levant, Egypt, and the rest of North Africa. These groups could had added further pressures and complexity that faced the indigenous Amazeigh and the Hebrew Israelite bandits of slavery.
Jews are Turkic Mongolians. The Turkic Mongolians origin is around Altai Mountains and northern Tarim Basin of Western Mongolia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and Northern Uyghur.
The Israelite are totally different from Jews; they are Ge’ez speaking 100% Africans from the lands of Punt (the Horn of Africa).
The Hebrew Israelite were Ge’ez speaking African Israelite then they were invited and collaborated and mixed with Turkic Mongolians to invent the Jews, Judaism, and Hebrew in Neo-Babylonia in 530 BC.
The Hebrew Israelite are the Lost Sheep o the House of Israel.]
There is no doubt that Hebrew Israelite is totally a different group from the relatively newer Jews. It is very important to draw clear distinctions between three different groups who are commonly regarded as one group.
First: The ancient Yemeni Semite Arab Hebrews Israelite “sons of Israel” those who entered Ethiopia staring with Patriarch Joseph then into the whole of Africa before the Ten Commandments in 1446 BC. This Semitic group created wide spread Hebrew Israelite slavery in all parts of Africa.
Second: The ancient Yemeni Semite Arab Hebrews Israelite “sons of Israel” who went back to Yemen in the Exodus of 1446 BC then invaded, colonized, and mixed with the Canaanites since 1400 BC. Later on, they were mostly deported to North Africa by the third group since the invention of Jews and Judaism.
And, the third group is the Turkic Mongolian “Jews” and followers of “Judaism” who were invented by Turkic Persia in 580 BC after a fraudulent Babylonian Return, replacing few hundreds of Hebrew Israelite captive rulers from the House of David by many hundreds of thousands of Turkic settlers. This created “The Jews” who invaded and colonized the Hebrew Israelite former invaders and colonizers of Canaan.
There are plenty of evidences proving Hebrew Israelite presence in almost all parts of Africa since 1800 BC, before they got any religion. And this presence is the tip of a colossal iceberg of savage slavery and bloodshed. For more information on the ancient Hebrew Israelite presence in almost all parts of Africa read an extensive study written by modern Jewish scholar on the following links:
For more detailed analysis check the following article: The History of Israel and Judaism Debunked