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Roman Catholicism and the Vatican Are not Christian


The Jews are not Israelite or Semite; also they are not an ethnicity, race, or religion. Jews are Turkic Mongolian political association. They were invented in 530 BC together with Judaism, which is not the religion of Moses or his ethnicity or race or people.

The Khazars were also Turkic Mongolian and joined the Jewish association in 750 AD. And Rome and the Romans were also another group from Turkic Mongolian, same as the Persians, Caucasoid Indians, and the Hyksos.

When the Jews were invented they knew that the Romans are their kin and they worked together to defeat Christianity and establish a Mediterranean empire. Since Christianity was impossible to kill, the Jews and the Romans invented Roman Catholicism to hijack original Christianity and persecute true faithfuls.

Roman Catholicism is not Christianity at all and it is not even a religion. Actually, Roman Catholicism is another form of Judaism, and both are anti-Christian political cults.

The Vatican started as a site of Roman villas with a circus for charioteers. This area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down.

Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter’s in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries, increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941. The Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery.

See the early history of the Vatican.

And: Cult of Roman Catholicism by European-American Evangelistic Crusades, Inc., which was incorporated in the state of California as a nonprofit religious organization in 1972. EAEC is a mission organization dedicated to spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, with headquarters in Sacramento, California.

How the Romans and Europe Changed after the Jewish Rebellion?


The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Revolt. The crisis escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens. The Roman governor, Gessius Florus, responded by plundering the Jewish Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor, and the next day launching a raid on the city, arresting numerous senior Jewish figures.

The Jews worked to become Roman citizens under any title or religion firstly to avoid paying taxes; and ultimately to become part of the authorities in Rome and in its colonies. And they succeeded in both. Now, the Jews and Israelis feel being Italians. The affiliation of Jews with the rest of Europe came through the Italian (Roman), and also Slavic/Germanic, connections.

The Romans reaction to the Jewish rebellion can be understood from the integration of people like Josephus into the Roman Empire. The main account of the revolt comes from Josephus, the former Jewish commander of Galilee who, after capture by the Romans after the Siege of Yodfat, attempted to end the rebellion by negotiating with the Judeans on Titus’s behalf. Josephus and Titus became close friends, and later Josephus was granted Roman citizenship and a pension. He never returned to his homeland after the fall of Jerusalem, living in Rome as a historian under the patronage of Vespasian and Titus. Scholars agree that the rabbis replaced the High Priest’s role in Jewish society after 70 CE. In the absence of the Temple, the synagogue became the center of Jewish life.

The Jewish demographics changed, as many of the Jewish rebels were allegedly scattered (actually infiltrated into various Roman regions and institutions) or sold into slavery (a ridiculous baseless claim). Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege (a clear total lie).

Let us mention the main points of Jewish (not Israelite) history

Ancient Israelites in Abyssinia (1876 to 1446 BCE) – Ancient Israelites in Canaan (1406 to 586 BCE) – Israelite leaders’ Babylonian captivity (c. 587 – 538 BCE) – Early Jewish period (c. 538 – 332 BCE) – Hellenistic influences upon Jews (c. 332 – 110 BCE) – The Hasmonean Kingdom (110–63 BCE) – Roman rule over Jews (63 BCE – 324 CE) – The Jewish migrations into Roman territories. (27 BC – 395 AD)

Hellenistic rulers of Judea. Under the suzerainty of the Ptolemies and later the Seleucids, Judea witnessed a period of peace and protection of its institutions. For their aid against his Ptolemaic enemies, Antiochus III promised his Jewish subjects a reduction in taxes and funds to repair the city of Jerusalem and the Temple.

Relations deteriorated under Antiochus’s successor Seleucus IV, and then, for reasons not fully understood, his successor Antiochus IV Epiphanes drastically overturned the previous policy of respect and protection, banning key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea (though not among the diaspora) and sparking a traditionalist revolt against Greek rule. Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BCE to 63 BCE. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated due to civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome.

The Hasmonean civil war began when the High Priest Hyrcanus II (a supporter of the Pharisees) was overthrown by his younger brother, Aristobulus II (a supporter of the Sadducees). A third faction, consisting primarily of Idumeans from Maresha, led by Antipater and his son Herod, re-installed Hyrcanus, who, according to Josephus, was merely Antipater’s puppet. In 47 BCE, Antigonus, a nephew of Hyrcanus II and son of Aristobulus II, asked Julius Caesar for permission to overthrow Antipater. Caesar ignored him, and in 42 BCE Antigonus, with the aid of the Parthians defeated Herod. Antigonus ruled for only three years, until Herod, with the aid of Rome, overthrew him and had him executed. Antigonus was the last Hasmonean ruler.

The Hellenization of the Jews in the pre-Hasmonean period was not universally resisted. Generally, the Jews accepted foreign rule when they were only required to pay tribute, and otherwise allowed to govern themselves internally. A period of political intrigue followed, with priests such as Menelaus bribing the king to win the High Priesthood, and accusations of murder of competing contenders for the title. The result was a brief civil war. The Tobiads, a philo-Hellenistic party, succeeded in placing Jason into the powerful position of High Priest.

Some Jews are known to have engaged in non-surgical foreskin restoration in order to join the dominant cultural practice of socializing naked in the gymnasium, where their circumcision would have been a social stigma. In 164 BCE, Judah captured Jerusalem and the Temple in Jerusalem was freed and re-consecrated. After five years of war and raids, Judah sought an alliance with the Roman Republic to remove the Greeks.

The Jews in the diaspora were generally accepted into the Roman Empire, and they played major roles in the formation of Roman Christianity. Jewish communities were thereby largely migrated from Judea and went to various Roman provinces in the Middle East, Europe and North Africa where they prospered and gained substantial powers. The actual center of Jewish power shifted from Judea to Rome after the Jewish–Roman conflicts of 66–136 CE (70 years). It was not expulsion but consensual distribution.

The other major result of the Jewish migration from Canaan was the significant increased concentration of Palestinians in that region. The Palestinians were brought by the Jews from Crete and other Mediterranean regions in exchange for the expelled Hebrew Israelite and Canaanite communities in 530 BC. And, when the Jews left to the various territories of the Roman Empire the Palestinians remained and increased in Canaan.

 

 

Roman Taxation of Jews and Emergence of Crypto Judaism


Roman Emperor Vespasian (9 AD –79 AD)

Roman Emperor Vespasian (9 AD –79 AD)

There was special tax imposed specifically on Jews in the Roman Empire since 70 AD which led to political unrest and conspiracies against Roman Emperors. The abolition of special taxes on Jews followed their admission to civil rights in France and elsewhere in Europe at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries.

The fiscus Iudaicus (Latin for “Jewish tax”) or fiscus Judaicus was a tax-collecting agency instituted to collect the tax imposed on Jews in the Roman Empire after the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple in AD 70. The tax was initially imposed by Roman Emperor Vespasian (9 AD –79 AD) (Reign 69 –79) as one of the measures against Jews as a result of the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73 AD (first Jewish revolt). The tax was imposed on all Jews throughout the empire in place of the levy (or Tithe) payable by Jews towards the upkeep of the Temple.

In Rome, a special procurator known as procurator ad capitularia Iudaeorum was responsible for the collection of the tax. Only those who had abandoned Judaism were exempt from paying it.

Roman Emperor Domitian (51 - 96)

Roman Emperor Domitian (51 – 96)

Domitian, who ruled between 81 and 96 AD, expanded the fiscus Iudaicus to include not only born Jews and converts to Judaism, but also on those who concealed the fact that they were Jews or observed Jewish customs. Suetonius relates that when he was young an old man of 90 was examined to see whether he was circumcised, which shows that during this period the tax was levied even on those above the age of 62.

Louis Feldman argues that the increased harshness was caused by the success of the Jewish (and possibly Christian) proselytism. Domitian applied the tax even to those who merely “lived like Jews”. These “Jewish ways,” argues Marius Heemstra, would have included Christianity.

Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus 51 – 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. He was the younger brother of Titus and son of Vespasian, his two predecessors on the throne, and the last member of the Flavian dynasty. During his reign, his rule put him at sharp odds with the senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed.

Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. He was considered as the new Augustus, an enlightened ruler destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of brilliance. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army, but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. Domitian’s reign came to an end in 96 when he was assassinated by a conspiracy led by two court officials and his successor Nerva Caesar Augustus, the first of a succession of rulers traditionally known as the Five “Good” Emperors.

Domitian sat down to work on 18 September 96, poring over his state papers. At that moment, he was approached by a servant, one Stephanus. For some days, Stephanus had been wearing bandages, supposedly after an accident. In fact, the bandages were concealing a dagger, which he now produced behind his back. He handed the emperor another document, and as Domitian began to read, Stephanus stabbed him violently in the groin. More servants clustered around; more blows fell. His body was carried away on a common bier, and unceremoniously cremated.

On hearing of his death the Senate was overjoyed. Suetonius wrote, “The Senators, on the other hand, were delighted and thronged to denounce Domitian in the House with bitter and insulting cries. Then, seeking for ladders, they had his images and the votive shields engraved with his likeness, brought smashing down….” Immediately, Marcus Cocceius Nerva was hailed as the new emperor – a temporary fix until someone better could be found. In the months that followed, the city celebrated the death of the old emperor by turning over his statues and ceremonial arches, however, the Praetorian Guard would not take the assassination lightly and eventually many of the conspirators would meet their own deaths.

Although no Christian text mentions the fiscus Judaicus, Marius Heemstra argues in this book “The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways” that this tax had an important role in the development of “Christianity” as a social and cultural system separate from “Judaism,” a process commonly called “the parting of the ways.”

The fiscus Iudaicus was originally imposed on Jews. At that time neither the Romans nor the early Christians considered Christianity to be a separate religion from Judaism. It was considered as a sect within Judaism, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity.

It did not take long for Christians to petition the Emperor to distinguish the Christians from Jews for the purpose of the payment of the fiscus Iudaicus. After the murder of Domitian in 96 AD, Nerva relaxed the rules of collection, limiting the tax to those who openly practiced Judaism. By this measure, the Christians (and perhaps Jewish Christians) escaped the tax but they were not officially recognized as a legal religion until the much later Edict of Milan in 313.

It remains unclear when exactly the fiscus Iudaicus was abolished. Documentary evidence confirms the collection of the tax in the middle of the 2nd century, and literary sources indicate that the tax was still in existence in the early 3rd century. It is not known when the tax was formally abolished. Some historians credit the emperor Julian the Apostate with its abolition in about 361 or 362.

The tax was revived in the Middle Ages in under the name of Opferpfennig by the Holy Roman Emperors. The Opferpfennig (originally Guldenpfennig) tax was introduced in 1342 by Emperor Louis IV (Ludwig) the Bavarian, who ordered all Jews above the age of 12 and possessing 20 gulden to pay one gulden annually for protection. The practice was justified on the grounds that the emperor, as the legal successor of the Roman emperors, was the rightful recipient of the Temple tax which Jews paid to the Romans after the destruction of the Second Temple. The Opferpfennig was collected on Christmas day. Emperor Charles IV later ordered the income of the Opferpfennig tax to be delivered to the archbishop of Triers. This tax was at some places replaced by an overall communal tax.

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