Protect Democracy & Expose Western Liberal Democracy

Posts tagged ‘Russia’

Terrorists Arms Supply Routes to Syria and to Iraq


Terrorists Arms Supply Routes to Syria and to Iraq

Terrorists Arms Supply Routes to Syria and to Iraq

Anybody wondering where those endless vehicles, munitions, arms & supplies for terrorists come from?
Surely terrorist suppliers use supply routes.
Here are the Terrorists Arms Supply Routes to Syria and to Iraq.

Any serious effort to fight terrorism must cut these supply routes.

Isn’t it strange how this has been ignored?

Further information & interesting clues are in the following articles:

  1. Making a Killing, detailed six reports from The Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) which is a global network of investigative journalists.

    Central and Eastern European governments have directed an unprecedented flow of weapons and ammunition to four key backers of Syria’s armed opposition since the escalation of the bloody civil war in 2012.

    A yearlong investigation by the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) and the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) reveal for the first time the emergence of an €1.2 billion arms pipeline fueling conflict in the Middle East, causing untold human suffering.

    It is a trade that is almost certainly illegal, experts say.

    Making a Killing is part of The Paper Trail Investigations project, carried out by Balkan Investigative Reporting Network – BIRN Kosovo and BIRN HUB – to promote the rule of law, accountability and transparency in the Balkans and Moldova.

    The project is supported by the Austrian Development Agency (ADA), the operational unit of Austrian Development Cooperation.

    2. War Gains: Bulgarian Arms Add Fuel to Middle East Conflicts

    Saudi Arabia, the UAE and the US have bought millions of dollars of Bulgarian weaponry, much of it likely destined for the war in Syria, a BIRN investigation reveals.

    BIRN, the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network, is a network of local non-governmental organisations promoting freedom of speech, human rights and democratic values.

    [This is what happens when Turkic rulers of Arabs get money and Turkic connections, and hideous plans (Bulgaria is a Turkic country which was European long ago).]

    The six Turkic groups are:
    1- Turkic Muslim in Anatolia and Balkan, (fake Caucasians since Byzantine–Seljuq wars in 1048 Ad),
    2- Turkic Shia Persians (fake Iranians since the Achaemenids in 550 BC),
    3- Turkic Khazar Zionist Jews (fake Israelite since the tricky Babylonian “Return” in 520 BC),
    4- Turkic rulers of Arabia (fake Arabs, following the death of Islam in 655 AD),
    5- Turkic “Hindu” Indians and Gypsy (fake Aryans since the Persian conquest in 530 BC), and
    6- Turkic Europeans (fake liberal Christians since the “Holy” “Roman” “Empire” in 962 AD)

    Six Turkic Groups

    Six Turkic Groups

Afghanistan is a Painful Example of Turkic Crimes


Afghanistan is a Painful Example of Turkic Crimes

Afghanistan is a Painful Example of Turkic Crimes

Hitler and the Nazi were trying to protect Germany, Europe, and Christianity from the fate that destroyed Spain, England, France, Italy, and Russia made by six Turkic groups.

Afghanistan is a painful and clear example of the crimes committed by the six Turkic groups on nations. They shattered this Aryan nation which was once peaceful and civilized. Now Afghanistan is in tatters.

This is how Europe could have turned to if the Turkic groups succeeded in complete annihilation of Europeans. The six Turkic groups despise Europeans because they feel that they are naive and peaceful, and meek.

The axis of evil and terrorism backers are all deep states in the world which succumb and controlled by any one of the six Turkic groups. Those are the enemies of Europe, USA, Arabs, Africans, Hitler, Nazis, and Russia. And before them were the enemies of Alexander the Great.

The six Turkic groups are:
1- Turkic Muslim in Anatolia and Balkan, (fake Caucasians since Byzantine–Seljuq wars in 1048 Ad),
2- Turkic Shia Persians (fake Iranians since the Achaemenids in 550 BC),
3- Turkic Khazar Zionist Jews (fake Israelite since the tricky Babylonian “Return” in 520 BC),
4- Turkic rulers of Arabia (fake Arabs, following the death of Islam in 655 AD),
5- Turkic “Hindu” Indians and Gypsy (fake Aryans since the Persian conquest in 530 BC), and
6- Turkic Europeans (fake liberal Christians since the “Holy” “Roman” “Empire” in 962 AD)

Six Turkic Groups

Six Turkic Groups

 

Never Ever Submit Your Mind to Anybody


Never Ever Submit Your Mind to Anybody

Never Ever Submit Your Mind to Anybody

The basic rule in information is trust no body except your intellect. I listen and read all media and people regardless of their reputation good or bad, but I analyze and form my own conclusion.

This rule applies to media, religion, academia, individuals, and politicians. The degree of trust is neither absolute nor fixed, at a time it is 90% and for the same source could be 0% in another issue.

Smart free people never ever submit their minds to anybody.

The information and disinformation war is real. So, watch out and guard your own freedom. No one will protect you for the sake of protecting you.

The Turkic Indian Origin of Organized Crime and Mafia


Delhi Thugs

Delhi Thugs

Thuggees, a Sanskrit word meaning concealment, were an organized gang of professional assassins – sometimes described as the world’s first mafia – who operated from the 13th to the 19th centuries in India. Some old Turkic tales and modern unreliable academics and historians try to link thugs to a religious cult and deity called “Kali or Kalee” the goddess of death and destruction. This seems to be racist and part of campaign to defame Indian belief systems in favor of the Turkic invaders who were forcing their own version of Islam on indigenous Indians.

Certainly, thugs were not following any religious belief. Death in Hinduism is not treated as the end, but considered a fresh beginning. According to mythology, Kali is the fearsome form of Shakti, the slayer of evil, the destructor of adharma (unrighteousness). She has saved mankind from many daemons like Chand-Mund, Raktbeej, Shumb-Nishumb, etc. Given she is a form of Shakti, she is responsible for eliminating the negative forces inside us. Worshipping her is a way to thank her and seek her blessing in all the endeavors of life.

Accounts of a secret practice of murderers roaming India go back at least as far as the 13th century. The word ‘thug’ dates to early 13th-century India, when Thugs, or gangs of criminals, roamed from town to town, looting and pillaging. At its root, the word “Thuggee” derives from the Hindi (ṭhag), which means “deceiver”. Related words are the verb thugna (“to deceive”), from the Sanskrit (sthaga “cunning, sly, fraudulent”) and (sthagati, “he conceals”).  This term, describing the murder and robbery of travelers, is popular in South Asia and particularly India. They mean the acts of Thugs, an organized gang of professional robbers and murderers. Thugs travelled in groups across the Indian sub-continent for six hundred years.

They were first mentioned in Ẓiyā-ud-Dīn Baranī’s History of Fīrūz Shāh, dated around 1356. The earliest known reference to the Thugs as a band or fraternity, rather than ordinary thieves, is found in Ziau-d din Barni’s History of Firoz Shah (written about 1356):

[In the reign of that sultan [about 1290], some Thugs were taken in Delhi, and a man belonging to that fraternity was the means of about a thousand being captured. But not one of these did the sultan have killed. He gave orders for them to be put into boats and to be conveyed into the lower country, to the neighbourhood of Lakhnauti, where they were to be set free. The Thugs would thus have to dwell about Lakhnauti and would not trouble the neighborhood of Delhi any more.]    — Sir HM Elliot, History of India, iii. 141

The practice of Thuggees appeared with the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 AD). The Delhi Sultanate was a Turkic kingdom claiming Islam based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The first four dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji, Tughlaq and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Afghan origin, who are Turkified Aryans.

Bands of Thugs traveled across the country posing as pilgrims, merchants, soldiers, or even royalty, in groups numbering anywhere from a few men to several hundred. Offering protection or company, they would befriend fellow travelers and slowly build their confidence along the road. Often the impostors would journey for days and hundreds of miles with their intended victims, patiently waiting for an opportunity to strike. When the time was right, typically while their targets were encamped and at their most relaxed, a signal would be given—reportedly “Bring the tobacco”—and the Thugs would spring.

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 AD)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 AD)

Invasions, migrations, and slavery were normally associated with organized criminal gangs of thugs. From Scythia, India, and Iran the Huns, the Turkic, and the Mongols brought the practices of organized crime, Mafia, and terrorism to Europe, Arabia, Africa, and to the Americas.

To know who is fighting who in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, and whole Middle East and why; also to know who is really running the EU and the deep state in any country people need to look into the history of six Turkic groups.

The six Turkic groups are:
1- Turkic Muslim in Anatolia and Balkan, (fake Caucasians since Byzantine–Seljuq wars in 1048 Ad),
2- Turkic Shia Persians (fake Iranians since the Achaemenids in 550 BC),
3- Turkic Khazar Zionist Jews (fake Israelite since the tricky Babylonian “Return” in 520 BC),
4- Turkic rulers of Arabia (fake Arabs, following the death of Islam in 655 AD),
5- Turkic “Hindu” Indians and Gypsy (fake Aryans since the Persian conquest in 530 BC), and
6- Turkic Europeans (fake liberal Christians since the “Holy” “Roman” “Empire” in 962 AD)

Six Turkic Groups

Six Turkic Groups

These groups discovered Zoroastrianism before Moses’ time. They killed it, and used their Tengri cult mixed with few concepts from Zoroasterianism to invent Persian Zoroastrianism. They repeated that with the teachings of Moses, Yeshua,and Mohamed.

Trust me the teachings of Moses, Yeshua, and Mohamed, and Zoroaster all died soon after birth. Most monarchies, bankers, and politicians in Europe and USA are of Turkic making since the so-called English, French, American, and Russian “Revolutions”. These Turkic groups committed all sorts of crimes in Asia, Europe, Levant, Arabia, and Africa.

With just a little of common sense and investigation people can easily find the real historic Turkic connections between them beneath their deceptive mutual hostilities and malignant policies.

Those are the enemies of Hitler, Nazis, and Russia. And before them were the enemies of Alexander the Great. The six Turkic groups despise Europeans because they feel that they are naive and peaceful, and meek.

People Demand Humanity Annual Forum


Humanity Annual Forum

Humanity Annual Forum

Since the threats, parties, and the tools which are responsible for unstable, troubled, and insecure state of the world today are almost well-defined and agreed upon what is really needed urgently is a popular agenda and persistent call to hold an international summit between major governments and peoples’ representatives to come up with precise recommendations to stop WW3.
The agenda must put specific criticism and proposals to correct national and international economics; environment policies; political institutions and systems; technology manipulation; media, academia, and social responsibilities; and security threats.
The global system has annual Davos Economic Forum, but the people of the world must demand an annual Humanity Forum.

Humanity Alliance

Humanity Alliance

Let us try to establish “Humanity Alliance” an organization dedicated to advance basic ethics of altruism, persuasion, group membership, and political power to create innovation, change and advancement in justice, politics, economics, environment, technology, media, social responsibility, security, education, and health.

Winston Churchill’s Mother Mirrors British Elite


History is written by winners whether they are good and right or evil and false. Certainly, understanding history require investigative mentality to sieve through all the mixed stories and tales.
It is always a hard job especially for conforming majority and privileged few.
The purpose of any article is to express opinions that are deep and critical; and bring to light hidden aspects in the common perception.

Churchill had terrible credentials, loose family, many poor qualities, and enormous criminal deeds whether in South Africa, India, Britain, Belgium, Malakand, Sudan, Cuba, and more. He was a Free Mason.
Jennie Jerome, Churchill’s mother, conceived him before her first marriage and she had numerous lovers during her many marriages, including Karl Kinsky, the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII), and Herbert von Bismarck. Sisters of Churchill’s mother believed that the biological father of the second son, John (1880–1947), Churchill’s only brother, was Evelyn Boscawen, 7th Viscount Falmouth.
Through her family contacts and her many extramarital relationships, Jennie greatly helped Lord Randolph’s early career, as well as that of her son Winston.
Correspondence with his wife sent from Belgium shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. During his period of command, his battalion was stationed at Ploegsteert but did not take part in any set battle.
Winston Churchill had committed many crimes and said many horrible quotes.
He represented his time and it was a filthy time indeed.

To get some decent information about Jennie Jerome (Lady Randolph Churchill) Churchill’s mother see Wikipedia HERE

And for Winston Churchill see HERE

Mail on Line, of the Daily Mail of Britain, published on 7 Nov. 2008 the following article written by Gleyns Robert titled:

Earls, counts, even a future King – she had more than 200 lovers, some of them younger than her son. As a new documentary reveals, it’s no wonder high society wits called Winston Churchill’s wayward mother Lady Randy

She is said to have had more than 200 lovers, some of them younger than her own son. Strikingly beautiful, with amber eyes, dark-brown hair, full breasts and an irrepressible lust for life, Jennie Jerome was irresistible to men.

Earls, lords, counts, even the randy old Prince Of Wales, the future Edward VII, lusted after her. And she willingly complied.

When Edward was crowned in 1902, she sat in a special pew in Westminster Abbey, which society wits dubbed ‘the loose box’ on account of its rather promiscuous occupants. She shared it with half a dozen other royal mistresses, including Alice Keppel and Lillie Langtry.

Lady Randy was well known for her lifestyle and lovers

Lady Randy was well known for her lifestyle and lovers

Jennie, Winston Churchill’s American mother, was very different from her son, who was utterly devoted to one woman: his darling wife, Clemmie. And it is this contrast that makes their relationship  –  the subject of Lady Randy, a new Channel 4 documentary  –  so fascinating.

Her background is extraordinary. Descended quite possibly from an American Indian who had raped a white settler, she was born into a notoriously lascivious family, conceived in Italy and named after a popular singer who was probably one of her father’s mistresses. She was possibly pregnant with Winston when she walked up the aisle to marry his father, Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill.

When Lord Randolph died, apparently of syphilis, her next two marriages were to men more than 20 years her junior, earning her a reputation for vanity and frivolity.

Despite always being hard up, she was also a shameless spendthrift and wafted around London in the finest Paris gowns, entertaining the smartest trendsetters, courting lovers and sporting a provocative snake tattoo on her wrist. Wherever she went, she was the talk of the town.

Jennie Jerome was born in New York in 1854  –  and named after the opera singer Jenny Lind. Her father, Leonard Jerome, had been an investor in railroad stock. But when the stock fell, he lost everything and declared himself bankrupt.

He didn’t stay down for long and soon developed a peculiarly topical talent: selling short (that is, selling borrowed stock in the hope he could buy it back when it had gone down in value).

It was as uncertain a trade then as it is now, and Jerome was not above manipulating prices by summoning newspaper editors to lunch and spreading some self-serving rumour. And he did well. Before long, he was one of the nouveau riche millionaires of the so-called Flash Age.

Jennie benefitted accordingly. She and her two sisters, Clara and Leonie, learned to be young ladies, riding, skating and playing the piano, while their parents entertained on such a grand scale that there was always a fountain flowing with real champagne at their parties.

Winters were spent in Manhattan, summers in fashionable Newport, Connecticut, with billionaire neighbours such as the Vandebilts. Leonard bought himself a big yacht and built a private theatre where he paraded a series of opera-singing mistresses in front of his long-suffering wife.

He later became an influential newspaper proprietor and noted racehorse owner, and his political activities in support of President Lincoln and his anti-slavery drive during the Civil War stimulated an interest in world affairs in Jennie, his favourite daughter.

Irresistible Lady Churchill with a young Winston

Irresistible Lady Churchill with a young Winston

But his financial ups and downs, not to mention his mistresses, became too much for his wife Clara, who in 1867 took off for Paris with her daughters. Jennie, by then an impressionable 15-year-old, was dazzled by the bohemian decadence of the city.

Then history took control of events. In 1870, Germany invaded France and the family fled to England. And it was there, on a trip to the Isle of Wight, that the 19-year-old Jennie met Lord Randolph Churchill, the 23-year-old second son of the Duke of Marlborough, at a party.

 The Marlboroughs were as disreputable in England as the Jeromes were in the US Charming and arrogant, they spent lavishly, demonstrating, as Prime Minister William Gladstone noted, neither morals nor principles.

Jennie and Randolph, who would soon become Winston Churchill’s parents, fell in love at first sight. But they had to endure strong opposition from Randolph’s family until a settlement of $250,000 by Jennie’s father finally won the Marlboroughs over.

The couple began having frequent premarital trysts in Paris, which had become so intense by early 1874 that there is a strong possibility that the future statesman was conceived in Randolph’s hotel room on Rue du Rivoli.

The couple were married in the British embassy in the city that April, and Winston Leonard was born eight months later in Blenheim Palace, Oxford  –  and deemed to be rather healthy and pretty for a premature baby.

Until she married, Jennie had never seen Blenheim, which was in a shocking state of disrepair. Its 200 rooms were lined with old masters but many were destined for auction to raise funds for the Marlborough’s lifestyle.

Often left with her mother-in-law while her husband pursued parliamentary business, Jennie found married life difficult.

Randolph was mercurial and unstable and despite being in poor health smoked 40 hand-rolled Turkish cigarettes a day.

Meanwhile, Jennie missed the fun of her courtship and showed little interest in her son, who was largely cared for by his nanny.

History may have been very different had Jennie married Kinsky

History may have been very different had Jennie married Kinsky

Right from the start, tongues wagged about her relationships with men. When she gave birth to a second son, John, six years later, rumours about whether Randolph was his father were rife.

Apart from anything else, Jennie was spending less and less time with her husband who, according to the rumours, had visited a toothless old prostitute after drinking too much champagne, and had contracted syphilis.

Despite everything, however, the marriage survived. Jennie moved the family into a new London home, near Marble Arch, which became a curiosity in itself as the first house in the capital to have electricity.

But she still held Winston at arm’s length, confessing he was a demanding child who teased his baby brother and could be uncontrollable. ‘It is said that famous men are usually the product of an unhappy childhood,’ Winston wrote later.

‘The stern compression of circumstances, the twinges of adversity, the spur of slight and taunts in early years are needed to evoke that ruthless fixity of purpose and tenacious mother wit without which great actions are seldom accomplished.’

He was certainly speaking from experience. Even by the standards of the age, Winston’s parents were less than attentive. His mother put him on the train to his first boarding school at the age of eight, and failed to read between the lines of his letters home, which begged her to write or visit.

No doubt she was too preoccupied with her own lifestyle, which consisted of charity work, shopping and entertaining gentlemen friends at lunch.

Even before he went away to school, little Winston had become suspicious of her amorous activities after noting one day that a hole in her stocking was on one leg when she left home and on the other when she returned.

By the mid-1880s, Jennie was madly in love with London’s man of the moment, the handsome Austrian Count Charles Kinsky, who had just won the Grand National.

While everyone suspected the liaison, no one seemed to mind, including Randolph, who enjoyed the Count’s company. When Winston came home from school one weekend, he discovered his mother and the count openly breakfasting together.

After ten years, his mother was living in an open marriage. Not only did his father have other women, including Gladys, Countess de Grey, the most beautiful woman of her generation (to whom Oscar Wilde dedicated his play A Woman Of No Importance), and the actress Ellen Terry, there was also talk of homosexual liaisons during his frequent visits to Paris.

Sir Winston and Lady Churchill (centre) had a very different relationship to his parents.

Sir Winston and Lady Churchill (centre) had a very different relationship to his parents.

Randolph himself confessed that he preferred ‘rough women who dance and sing and drink’ to society ladies like his wife.

Jennie, however, put up with it all, content with her place as the wife of a rising political star. But then, out of the blue, Randolph resigned from government. His career was over and divorce was seriously discussed.

Although the marriage survived, Jennie, by then 32, was left with little of her former standing  –  nor the income which she had once taken for granted. But she still insisted on buying beautiful gowns to keep up appearances, a rule she had learned from her mother, and what Jennie wore immediately became the fashion.

One person who noticed her flair was the 45-year-old Prince of Wales. An affair almost certainly followed. She received the Prince at home alone and even hired a soon-to-be-famous cook, Rosa Lewis, to prepare private dinners for him.

But her royal admirer was not her only love interest. One American magazine referred to her as Lady Jane Snatcher, due to her fondness for snaffling up likely escorts, and she was also known as Lady Randy.

Amid all her other distractions, she even found time for a rapprochement with her husband.

Both were so busy that neither found the time to visit Winston at school on his 13th birthday, and when he returned for the Christmas holidays, he found the house empty  –  his parents had gone to Russia together.

‘My darling Mummy,’ the boy wrote plaintively, ‘I do wish you were at home, it would be so nice.’

At this stage, Winston was not his mother’s priority. She was the centre of Europe’s attention. Russia loved her. Germany, including Count Herbert Bismarck, son of the German Chancellor, fell at her feet. And when she visited relatives in Paris at the end of 1888, she added a number of French suitors to her conquests.

While their marriage had now been reduced to a mutual concern for each other’s health, she and Randolph still decided to embark on a world tour together, taking with them a leadlined coffin in case he died en route.

He was so ill that Jennie was pinning her hopes on marrying the highly eligible Count Kinsky as soon as she was free. In Rangoon, however, her hopes were dashed. There, Jennie received a telegram announcing the Count’s engagement to another woman.

Randolph made it home to England but died aged 44, in January 1895, and was buried at Blenheim.

Jennie was now 41, alone in the world and living on a very restricted income  –  the family couldn’t even rustle up enough money to send Winston to Cambridge.

For the time being, her best bet seemed to be joining her sisters in Paris. And there, as usual, new opportunities presented themselves.

After countless flirtations with British gentry, including John Delacour, Lord Wolverton and Lord Astor, Jennie fell in love with a fellow American, Bourke Cockran, who would become another of Winston’s surrogate fathers.

And just as Jennie’s Parisian lovers came in useful when she decided Winston should learn French, Cockran was now instructed to introduce her 22-year-old son to New York.

There, Winston was so popular that back in England Jennie set out to sing her son’s praises wherever she went. Having failed to boost Randolph’s career, she was determined to bolster her son’s  –  to his great benefit.

Despite all her pushiness and vanity, and her compulsion to be a social butterfly, Jennie was still an admirable character. She was a woman on her own in a foreign country, but was an indefatigable networker and was determined to make the most of life.

She started a literary magazine, she took a hospital ship to South Africa to help in the Boer War effort, she wrote a play, she took up interior design, and she helped establish Winston, who had inherited her resourcefulness, in politics.

Had she married Kinsky, it might have been a very different story. Absorbed in a new husband, she might not have poured all her hopes into Winston  –  and the course of history might have taken a very different course.

But two years after Randolph’s death, she fell in love once again. At the Duchess of Devonshire’s fancydress ball, the highpoint of the London season, she met George Frederick Middleton Cornwallis, a 23-year-old contemporary of Winston’s. He was exquisitely handsome and dressed as a black slave. Jennie was smitten.

Despite protests from his family and the Prince of Wales, she married George in 1900 in a grand Knightsbridge wedding. Winston stood gamely by his mother’s side.

But while Jennie thought George stood to inherit two large estates, he actually had no money at all. When he was declared bankrupt in 1914, she divorced him.

By the end of World War I, however, she had a new young admirer, Montagu Porch, the son of a Somerset landowner. She married him in 1918 at Harrow register office.

Porch was 32, Jennie 65, but she had not given up her lust for life. She took a part in a film, and she filled her life with travelling and decorating  –  for Winston, now married to his Clemmie and making his way in the world of politics, was no longer so dependent.

The end came out of the blue. One day, while visiting a friend in Somerset, Jennie, who was wearing some shoes she had just bought in Rome, slipped on the oak staircase.

A bad fracture ended in gangrene and amputation of a leg, and a couple of months later she suffered a fatal haemorrhage.

‘I do not feel a sense of tragedy but only loss,’ wrote Winston loyally. ‘Her life was a full one. The wind was in her veins.’

As for poor Porch, her young husband, he returned too late from a trip abroad to an empty house  –  and a mountain of his wife’s debts.

After all her excesses, it was perhaps a fitting legacy.
• Lady Randy: Churchill’s Mother will be screened on Channel 4 on Tuesday, November 11, at 9pm.

China-Africa Development Fund for Practical Cooperation


China-Africa Development Fund offices in Beijing

China-Africa Development Fund offices in Beijing

General Introduction
China-Africa Development Fund (CADFund) is one of the “Eight Measures” for China-Africa practical cooperation announced by the Chinese government on the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. CADFund was inaugurated on 26 June, 2007. CADFund aims to encourage and support Chinese enterprises to invest in Africa. At the Johannesburg Summit of the FOCAC on December, 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced an additional US$5 billion for the China-Africa Development Fund, which makes CADFund reach a designed total capital of US$10 billion. CADFund has invested in agriculture, infrastructure, manufacturing, industrial park, resource development, etc. The investments inject vibrancy into the China-Africa economic and trade cooperation in the new era, create positive economic and social outcomes, consolidate the foundation for the development of African economy, strengthen Africa’s capacity to develop on its own and enhance Africa’s competitiveness in the global economic landscape. Therefore, CADFund has won widespread praise from the welcoming African countries and become the main platform for Chinese investment in Africa. China will continue to give full play to CADFund, which supports Chinese firms to invest in Africa and seeks Chinese partners for African projects. Firms meeting the requirements could apply.

1. Nature of CADFund
CADFund is an Africa-focused equity investment fund launched by the Chinese government. It upholds the philosophies of sincerity, results, affinity and good faith in China-Africa cooperation. It operates under the government-guided, company-centered, market-oriented and win-win cooperation principles. It focuses on solving the three bottlenecks (inadequate infrastructure, lack of professional and skilled personnel, and funding shortage) that Africa faces in its course of development. CADFund supports the acceleration of the industrialization and agricultural modernization in Africa, and helps Africa to realize sustainable development on its own. Base on the ten major cooperation programs and three principles for project selection (strategically required, financially balanced, and developmentally sustained), CADFund priorities investments in such areas as Three Networks and Industrialization, industrial connection and cooperation in production capacity, equipment manufacturing, agriculture, livelihood-related fields, industrial park, etc.
(1)Providing capital financing for companies invest in Africa and sharing risks with them.
(2)Providing value-added services and helping companies resolve issues and difficulties in Africa drawing on its expertise on African countries and investment climate.
(3)Linking African projects with Chinese companies and Chinese partners with African companies and projects.

2. Principles of Fund Utilization
CADFund mainly invest in Chinese firms with economic and trade activities in Africa and African firms and projects invested by Chinese firms. CADFund does not seek to control or take majority shares. The investment vehicles include:
(1)Equity investment: directly investment in ordinary shares of a firm or a project.
(2)Quasi-equity investment: preference shares, convertible bonds, other hybrid financing instruments.
(3)Fund investment: appropriate scale of investment in other funds as the fund of funds, as long as in line with the policies of foreign affairs and economic and trade cooperation.

3. Clients requirements:
CADFund mainly supports Chinese firms investing in Africa and seeks Chinese partners for African projects. Any firm that fits the following criteria can apply: a good credit record and at least capacity to investment and finance; a clear equity structure and management structure, good shareholder relations, and transparent balance sheet and creditor-debtor relationships; patented technology or usage rights obtained from other institutions; good market growth potentials and sustainable profitability; a clear Africa strategy and team with African experience; an efficient and experienced management team capable of delivering strategic goals and plans; great influence in the host country and good relations with government and local companies.

4. Application Procedures:
Government and other agencies can recommend projects to CADFund. Enterprises can apply for investment directly. These projects first will enter its the pipeline. When certain requirements are met, due diligence and project appraisal will be conducted. Negotiations come next and a project proposal is written and then deliberated for approval. For approved projects, legal documents will be signed with partners, disbursements made according to the progress, and post-investment management till exit.

Formation: June 26, 2007

Headquarters: Chemsunny World Trade Centre, Chang’an Avenue

Location: Beijing, Peoples Republic of China

Official languages: Mandarin Chinese; English; French

President: Chi Jianxin (迟建新)

Chairman: Zhao Jianping (赵建平)

Website :www.cadfund.com

The China-Africa Development Fund, more commonly known as CAD Fund, is a Chinese private equity fund solely funded by China Development Bank, a Chinese government policy bank. The aim of the fund is to stimulate investment in Africa by Chinese companies in power generation, transportation infrastructure, natural resources, manufacturing, and other sectors.

History

The creation of CAD Fund was announced as one of the “Eight Measures” for Sino-African relations at the Beijing summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) by President Hu Jintao on November 4, 2006. It was established in June 2007 with US$1 billion of initial funding by the China Development Bank and is envisioned to grow to US$5 billion in the future. The fund entered into its second round of fundraising in May 2010 to raise US$2 billion.

Investments

The fund’s primary purpose is foster Sino-African investment through bridging finance, financial advice, Africa specific managerial advice, and identification of potential investment opportunities as well as connecting African projects to Chinese investors.

As of 2010 the fund had invested in 30 projects in Africa worth around US$800 million. In 2009 alone, the fund invested US$140 million of China’s total US$1.3 billion invested in Africa that year. The fund primarily focused on industrial development. For example, in 2010 it teamed up with several partners by contributing 382.5 million ZAR into a 1.65 billion ZAR investment by Jidong Cement to build a cement plant in Limpopo, South Africa.

The fund has also participated in acquiring natural resource assets by forming a joint venture with China National Nuclear Corporation (then China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group) to acquire most of the Husab Mine for US$996 million in February 2012.

 

CAD Fund to boost footprint in Africa, By Zhou Yan (China Daily)
Updated: 2010-05-28 09:11

The China-Africa Development Fund (CAD Fund), China’s largest private equity (PE) fund focused on African investments, has kicked off its second-phase of fund raising to raise $2 billion over three years, a top fund official said on Thursday.

“The capital-raising plan will be open to qualified entities that have interest in making investments in Africa,” Li Dongya, managing director for operations and management at the CAD Fund told China Daily.

He said the capital raised would be used for infrastructure construction, agriculture, manufacturing and electricity projects.

The fund was started with $1 billion from China Development Bank Corp in 2007, after President Hu Jintao promised to set up the CAD Fund at the Beijing Summit on China-Africa Cooperation in 2006.

The central government plans to eventually expand the fund to $5 billion, but has not set any timetable.

“We have decided to invest around $800 million in 30 projects in Africa, and the initial $1 billion is likely to be used up by the end of this year,” Li said. He added that the fund’s investment in 2009 alone was $140 million compared with China’s total investment of $1.3 billion in Africa last year.

CAD Fund’s direct capital and other domestic companies’ investments facilitated by the fund accounted for more than 30 percent of the country’s combined investments in Africa during 2009, said Li.

The fund made a rare move in media in December 2013 when it was the financial partner in the acquisition of 20% of Independent News and Media SA, a newspaper publishing house in South Africa, for 400 million ZAR.

Figures from the Ministry of Commerce show that bilateral trade between China and Africa rose 76 percent to $27.8 billion during the first quarter of this year compared with the same period last year. China-Africa trade hit all time high of $106.8 billion in 2008, followed by a slump in 2009 due to the global financial crisis.

CAD Fund has teamed up with Chinese companies for investments in Africa and is largely a financial investor. The fund does not hold controlling stakes in any project and limits its holdings between 10-50 percent, said Li.

“Our mission is to encourage domestic companies to invest in Africa and introduce China’s experience during its progress under the reform and opening up policies to the African companies, and also explore new markets for domestic companies in African nations,” he said.

The government-backed PE fund is targeting double-digit returns on its investments (ROI).

“We are a market-oriented fund, but cannot realize profits from each project quickly, given the continent’s unexpected difficulties for foreign investors and the lagging infrastructure facilities,” Li said, adding that the ROI targets are likely to be met over the next few years.

“We are in discussions with over 100 projects currently, and will focus more on agriculture, manufacturing, and infrastructure construction like electricity and harbors in the next phase after the manufacturing sector now,” Li said.

CAD Fund has facilitated projects in Africa, including a glass manufacturer and a cement factory in Ethiopia, a power station in Ghana, and industrial parks in Egypt.

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