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The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part 1 of Five


The Eight Families

The Four Horsemen of Banking (Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup and Wells Fargo) own the Four Horsemen of Oil (Exxon Mobil, Royal Dutch/Shell, BP and Chevron Texaco); in tandem with Deutsche Bank, BNP, Barclays and other European old money behemoths. But their monopoly over the global economy does not end at the edge of the oil patch.

According to company 10K filings to the SEC, the Four Horsemen of Banking are among the top ten stock holders of virtually every Fortune 500 corporation.[1]

So who then are the stockholders in these money center banks?

This information is guarded much more closely. My queries to bank regulatory agencies regarding stock ownership in the top 25 US bank holding companies were given Freedom of Information Act status, before being denied on “national security” grounds. This is rather ironic, since many of the bank’s stockholders reside in Europe.

One important repository for the wealth of the global oligarchy that owns these bank holding companies is US Trust Corporation – founded in 1853 and now owned by Bank of America. A recent US Trust Corporate Director and Honorary Trustee was Walter Rothschild. Other directors included Daniel Davison of JP Morgan Chase, Richard Tucker of Exxon Mobil, Daniel Roberts of Citigroup and Marshall Schwartz of Morgan Stanley. [2]

J. W. McCallister, an oil industry insider with House of Saud connections, wrote in The Grim Reaper that information he acquired from Saudi bankers cited 80% ownership of the New York Federal Reserve Bank- by far the most powerful Fed branch- by just eight families, four of which reside in the US. They are the Goldman Sachs, Rockefellers, Lehmans and Kuhn Loebs of New York; the Rothschilds of Paris and London; the Warburgs of Hamburg; the Lazards of Paris; and the Israel Moses Seifs of Rome.

CPA Thomas D. Schauf corroborates McCallister’s claims, adding that ten banks control all twelve Federal Reserve Bank branches. He names N.M. Rothschild of London, Rothschild Bank of Berlin, Warburg Bank of Hamburg, Warburg Bank of Amsterdam, Lehman Brothers of New York, Lazard Brothers of Paris, Kuhn Loeb Bank of New York, Israel Moses Seif Bank of Italy, Goldman Sachs of New York and JP Morgan Chase Bank of New York. Schauf lists William Rockefeller, Paul Warburg, Jacob Schiff and James Stillman as individuals who own large shares of the Fed. [3] The Schiffs are insiders at Kuhn Loeb. The Stillmans are Citigroup insiders, who married into the Rockefeller clan at the turn of the century.

Eustace Mullins came to the same conclusions in his book The Secrets of the Federal Reserve, in which he displays charts connecting the Fed and its member banks to the families of Rothschild, Warburg, Rockefeller and the others. [4]

The control that these banking families exert over the global economy cannot be overstated and is quite intentionally shrouded in secrecy. Their corporate media arm is quick to discredit any information exposing this private central banking cartel as “conspiracy theory”. Yet the facts remain.

The House of Morgan

The Federal Reserve Bank was born in 1913, the same year US banking scion J. Pierpont Morgan died and the Rockefeller Foundation was formed. The House of Morgan presided over American finance from the corner of Wall Street and Broad, acting as quasi-US central bank since 1838, when George Peabody founded it in London.

Peabody was a business associate of the Rothschilds. In 1952 Fed researcher Eustace Mullins put forth the supposition that the Morgans were nothing more than Rothschild agents. Mullins wrote that the Rothschilds, “…preferred to operate anonymously in the US behind the facade of J.P. Morgan & Company”. [5]

Author Gabriel Kolko stated, “Morgan’s activities in 1895-1896 in selling US gold bonds in Europe were based on an alliance with the House of Rothschild.” [6]

The Morgan financial octopus wrapped its tentacles quickly around the globe. Morgan Grenfell operated in London. Morgan et Ce ruled Paris. The Rothschild’s Lambert cousins set up Drexel & Company in Philadelphia.

The House of Morgan catered to the Astors, DuPonts, Guggenheims, Vanderbilts and Rockefellers. It financed the launch of AT&T, General Motors, General Electric and DuPont. Like the London-based Rothschild and Barings banks, Morgan became part of the power structure in many countries.

By 1890 the House of Morgan was lending to Egypt’s central bank, financing Russian railroads, floating Brazilian provincial government bonds and funding Argentine public works projects. A recession in 1893 enhanced Morgan’s power. That year Morgan saved the US government from a bank panic, forming a syndicate to prop up government reserves with a shipment of $62 million worth of Rothschild gold. [7]

Morgan was the driving force behind Western expansion in the US, financing and controlling West-bound railroads through voting trusts. In 1879 Cornelius Vanderbilt’s Morgan-financed New York Central Railroad gave preferential shipping rates to John D. Rockefeller’s budding Standard Oil monopoly, cementing the Rockefeller/Morgan relationship.

The House of Morgan now fell under Rothschild and Rockefeller family control. A New York Herald headline read, “Railroad Kings Form Gigantic Trust”. J. Pierpont Morgan, who once stated, “Competition is a sin”, now opined gleefully, “Think of it. All competing railroad traffic west of St. Louis placed in the control of about thirty men.”[8]

Morgan and Edward Harriman’s banker Kuhn Loeb held a monopoly over the railroads, while banking dynasties Lehman, Goldman Sachs and Lazard joined the Rockefellers in controlling the US industrial base. [9]

In 1903 Banker’s Trust was set up by the Eight Families. Benjamin Strong of Banker’s Trust was the first Governor of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. The 1913 creation of the Fed fused the power of the Eight Families to the military and diplomatic might of the US government. If their overseas loans went unpaid, the oligarchs could now deploy US Marines to collect the debts. Morgan, Chase and Citibank formed an international lending syndicate.

The House of Morgan was cozy with the British House of Windsor and the Italian House of Savoy. The Kuhn Loebs, Warburgs, Lehmans, Lazards, Israel Moses Seifs and Goldman Sachs also had close ties to European royalty. By 1895 Morgan controlled the flow of gold in and out of the US. The first American wave of mergers was in its infancy and was being promoted by the bankers. In 1897 there were sixty-nine industrial mergers. By 1899 there were twelve-hundred. In 1904 John Moody – founder of Moody’s Investor Services – said it was impossible to talk of Rockefeller and Morgan interests as separate. [10]

Public distrust of the combine spread. Many considered them traitors working for European old money. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil, Andrew Carnegie’s US Steel and Edward Harriman’s railroads were all financed by banker Jacob Schiff at Kuhn Loeb, who worked closely with the European Rothschilds.

Several Western states banned the bankers. Populist preacher William Jennings Bryan was thrice the Democratic nominee for President from 1896 -1908. The central theme of his anti-imperialist campaign was that America was falling into a trap of “financial servitude to British capital”. Teddy Roosevelt defeated Bryan in 1908, but was forced by this spreading populist wildfire to enact the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. He then went after the Standard Oil Trust.

In 1912 the Pujo hearings were held, addressing concentration of power on Wall Street. That same year Mrs. Edward Harriman sold her substantial shares in New York’s Guaranty Trust Bank to J.P. Morgan, creating Morgan Guaranty Trust. Judge Louis Brandeis convinced President Woodrow Wilson to call for an end to interlocking board directorates. In 1914 the Clayton Anti-Trust Act was passed.

Jack Morgan – J. Pierpont’s son and successor – responded by calling on Morgan clients Remington and Winchester to increase arms production. He argued that the US needed to enter WWI. Goaded by the Carnegie Foundation and other oligarchy fronts, Wilson accommodated. As Charles Tansill wrote in America Goes to War, “Even before the clash of arms, the French firm of Rothschild Freres cabled to Morgan & Company in New York suggesting the flotation of a loan of $100 million, a substantial part of which was to be left in the US to pay for French purchases of American goods.”

The House of Morgan financed half the US war effort, while receiving commissions for lining up contractors like GE, Du Pont, US Steel, Kennecott and ASARCO. All were Morgan clients. Morgan also financed the British Boer War in South Africa and the Franco-Prussian War. The 1919 Paris Peace Conference was presided over by Morgan, which led both German and Allied reconstruction efforts. [11]

In the 1930’s populism resurfaced in America after Goldman Sachs, Lehman Bank and others profited from the Crash of 1929. [12] House Banking Committee Chairman Louis McFadden (D-NY) said of the Great Depression, “It was no accident. It was a carefully contrived occurrence…The international bankers sought to bring about a condition of despair here so they might emerge as rulers of us all”.

Sen. Gerald Nye (D-ND) chaired a munitions investigation in 1936. Nye concluded that the House of Morgan had plunged the US into WWI to protect loans and create a booming arms industry. Nye later produced a document titled The Next War, which cynically referred to “the old goddess of democracy trick”, through which Japan could be used to lure the US into WWII.

In 1937 Interior Secretary Harold Ickes warned of the influence of “America’s 60 Families”. Historian Ferdinand Lundberg later penned a book of the exact same title. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas decried, “Morgan influence…the most pernicious one in industry and finance today.”

Jack Morgan responded by nudging the US towards WWII. Morgan had close relations with the Iwasaki and Dan families – Japan’s two wealthiest clans – who have owned Mitsubishi and Mitsui, respectively, since the companies emerged from 17th Century shogunates. When Japan invaded Manchuria, slaughtering Chinese peasants at Nanking, Morgan downplayed the incident. Morgan also had close relations with Italian fascist Benito Mussolini, while German Nazi Dr. Hjalmer Schacht was a Morgan Bank liaison during WWII. After the war Morgan representatives met with Schacht at the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland. [13]

The House of Rockefeller

BIS is the most powerful bank in the world, a global central bank for the Eight Families who control the private central banks of almost all Western and developing nations. The first President of BIS was Rockefeller banker Gates McGarrah- an official at Chase Manhattan and the Federal Reserve. McGarrah was the grandfather of former CIA director Richard Helms. The Rockefellers- like the Morgans- had close ties to London. David Icke writes in Children of the Matrix, that the Rockefellers and Morgans were just “gofers” for the European Rothschilds. [14]

BIS is owned by the Federal Reserve, Bank of England, Bank of Italy, Bank of Canada, Swiss National Bank, Nederlandsche Bank, Bundesbank and Bank of France.

Historian Carroll Quigley wrote in his epic book Tragedy and Hope that BIS was part of a plan, “to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole…to be controlled in a feudalistic fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert by secret agreements.”

The US government had a historical distrust of BIS, lobbying unsuccessfully for its demise at the 1944 post-WWII Bretton Woods Conference. Instead the Eight Families’ power was exacerbated, with the Bretton Woods creation of the IMF and the World Bank. The US Federal Reserve only took shares in BIS in September 1994. [15]

BIS holds at least 10% of monetary reserves for at least 80 of the world’s central banks, the IMF and other multilateral institutions. It serves as financial agent for international agreements, collects information on the global economy and serves as lender of last resort to prevent global financial collapse.

BIS promotes an agenda of monopoly capitalist fascism. It gave a bridge loan to Hungary in the 1990’s to ensure privatization of that country’s economy. It served as conduit for Eight Families funding of Adolf Hitler- led by the Warburg’s J. Henry Schroeder and Mendelsohn Bank of Amsterdam. Many researchers assert that BIS is at the nadir of global drug money laundering. [16]

It is no coincidence that BIS is headquartered in Switzerland, favorite hiding place for the wealth of the global aristocracy and headquarters for the P-2 Italian Freemason’s Alpina Lodge and Nazi International. Other institutions which the Eight Families control include the World Economic Forum, the International Monetary Conference and the World Trade Organization.

Bretton Woods was a boon to the Eight Families. The IMF and World Bank were central to this “new world order”. In 1944 the first World Bank bonds were floated by Morgan Stanley and First Boston. The French Lazard family became more involved in House of Morgan interests. Lazard Freres- France’s biggest investment bank- is owned by the Lazard and David-Weill families- old Genoese banking scions represented by Michelle Davive. A recent Chairman and CEO of Citigroup was Sanford Weill.

In 1968 Morgan Guaranty launched Euro-Clear, a Brussels-based bank clearing system for Eurodollar securities. It was the first such automated endeavor. Some took to calling Euro-Clear “The Beast”. Brussels serves as headquarters for the new European Central Bank and for NATO. In 1973 Morgan officials met secretly in Bermuda to illegally resurrect the old House of Morgan, twenty years before Glass Steagal Act was repealed. Morgan and the Rockefellers provided the financial backing for Merrill Lynch, boosting it into the Big 5 of US investment banking. Merrill is now part of Bank of America.

John D. Rockefeller used his oil wealth to acquire Equitable Trust, which had gobbled up several large banks and corporations by the 1920’s. The Great Depression helped consolidate Rockefeller’s power. His Chase Bank merged with Kuhn Loeb’s Manhattan Bank to form Chase Manhattan, cementing a long-time family relationship. The Kuhn-Loeb’s had financed – along with Rothschilds – Rockefeller’s quest to become king of the oil patch. National City Bank of Cleveland provided John D. with the money needed to embark upon his monopolization of the US oil industry. The bank was identified in Congressional hearings as being one of three Rothschild-owned banks in the US during the 1870’s, when Rockefeller first incorporated as Standard Oil of Ohio. [17]

One Rockefeller Standard Oil partner was Edward Harkness, whose family came to control Chemical Bank. Another was James Stillman, whose family controlled Manufacturers Hanover Trust. Both banks have merged under the JP Morgan Chase umbrella. Two of James Stillman’s daughters married two of William Rockefeller’s sons. The two families control a big chunk of Citigroup as well. [18]

In the insurance business, the Rockefellers control Metropolitan Life, Equitable Life, Prudential and New York Life. Rockefeller banks control 25% of all assets of the 50 largest US commercial banks and 30% of all assets of the 50 largest insurance companies. [19] Insurance companies- the first in the US was launched by Freemasons through their Woodman’s of America- play a key role in the Bermuda drug money shuffle.

Companies under Rockefeller control include Exxon Mobil, Chevron Texaco, BP Amoco, Marathon Oil, Freeport McMoran, Quaker Oats, ASARCO, United, Delta, Northwest, ITT, International Harvester, Xerox, Boeing, Westinghouse, Hewlett-Packard, Honeywell, International Paper, Pfizer, Motorola, Monsanto, Union Carbide and General Foods.

The Rockefeller Foundation has close financial ties to both Ford and Carnegie Foundations. Other family philanthropic endeavors include Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, General Education Board, Rockefeller University and the University of Chicago- which churns out a steady stream of far right economists as apologists for international capital, including Milton Friedman.

The family owns 30 Rockefeller Plaza, where the national Christmas tree is lighted every year, and Rockefeller Center. David Rockefeller was instrumental in the construction of the World Trade Center towers. The main Rockefeller family home is a hulking complex in upstate New York known as Pocantico Hills. They also own a 32-room 5th Avenue duplex in Manhattan, a mansion in Washington, DC, Monte Sacro Ranch in Venezuela, coffee plantations in Ecuador, several farms in Brazil, an estate at Seal Harbor, Maine and resorts in the Caribbean, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. [20]

The Dulles and Rockefeller families are cousins. Allen Dulles created the CIA, assisted the Nazis, covered up the Kennedy hit from his Warren Commission perch and struck a deal with the Muslim Brotherhood to create mind-controlled assassins. [21]

Brother John Foster Dulles presided over the phony Goldman Sachs trusts before the 1929 stock market crash and helped his brother overthrow governments in Iran and Guatemala. Both were Skull & Bones, Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) insiders and 33rd Degree Masons. [22]

The Rockefellers were instrumental in forming the depopulation-oriented Club of Rome at their family estate in Bellagio, Italy. Their Pocantico Hills estate gave birth to the Trilateral Commission. The family is a major funder of the eugenics movement which spawned Hitler, human cloning and the current DNA obsession in US scientific circles.

John Rockefeller Jr. headed the Population Council until his death. [23] His namesake son is a Senator from West Virginia. Brother Winthrop Rockefeller was Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas and remains the most powerful man in that state. In an October 1975 interview with Playboy magazine, Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller- who was also Governor of New York- articulated his family’s patronizing worldview, “I am a great believer in planning- economic, social, political, military, total world planning.”

But of all the Rockefeller brothers, it is Trilateral Commission (TC) founder and Chase Manhattan Chairman David who has spearheaded the family’s fascist agenda on a global scale. He defended the Shah of Iran, the South African apartheid regime and the Chilean Pinochet junta. He was the biggest financier of the CFR, the TC and (during the Vietnam War) the Committee for an Effective and Durable Peace in Asia- a contract bonanza for those who made their living off the conflict.

Nixon asked him to be Secretary of Treasury, but Rockefeller declined the job, knowing his power was much greater at the helm of the Chase. Author Gary Allen writes in The Rockefeller File that in 1973, “David Rockefeller met with twenty-seven heads of state, including the rulers of Russia and Red China.”

Following the 1975 Nugan Hand Bank/CIA coup against Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, his British Crown-appointed successor Malcolm Fraser sped to the US, where he met with President Gerald Ford after conferring with David Rockefeller. [24]

Next Week: Part II: Freemasons & The Bank of the United States

Notes
[1] 10K Filings of Fortune 500 Corporations to SEC. 3-91
[2] 10K Filing of US Trust Corporation to SEC. 6-28-95
[3] “The Federal Reserve ‘Fed Up’. Thomas Schauf. http://www.davidicke.com 1-02
[4] The Secrets of the Federal Reserve. Eustace Mullins. Bankers Research Institute. Staunton, VA. 1983. p.179
[5] Ibid. p.53
[6] The Triumph of Conservatism. Gabriel Kolko. MacMillan and Company New York. 1963. p.142
[7] Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History that Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons and the Great Pyramids. Jim Marrs. HarperCollins Publishers. New York. 2000. p.57
[8] The House of Morgan. Ron Chernow. Atlantic Monthly Press NewYork 1990
[9] Marrs. p.57
[10] Democracy for the Few. Michael Parenti. St. Martin’s Press. New York. 1977. p.178
[11] Chernow
[12] The Great Crash of 1929. John Kenneth Galbraith. Houghton, Mifflin Company. Boston. 1979. p.148
[13] Chernow
[14] Children of the Matrix. David Icke. Bridge of Love. Scottsdale, AZ. 2000
[15] The Confidence Game: How Un-Elected Central Bankers are Governing the Changed World Economy. Steven Solomon. Simon & Schuster. New York. 1995. p.112
[16] Marrs. p.180
[17] Ibid. p.45
[18] The Money Lenders: The People and Politics of the World Banking Crisis. Anthony Sampson. Penguin Books. New York. 1981
[19] The Rockefeller File. Gary Allen. ’76 Press. Seal Beach, CA. 1977
[20] Ibid
[21] Dope Inc.: The Book That Drove Kissinger Crazy. Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. Washington, DC. 1992
[22] Marrs.
[23] The Rockefeller Syndrome. Ferdinand Lundberg. Lyle Stuart Inc. Secaucus, NJ. 1975. p.296
[24] Marrs. p.53

www.deanhenderson.wordpress.com
http://deanhenderson.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/the-federal-reserve-cartel-part-i-the-eight-families/#more-1287

18 Responses to “The Federal Reserve Cartel: Part I: The Eight Families”

zaknick Says: June 1, 2011 at 2:08 pm
Magnificent.
I wish there was an eject button from this planet.

Dan P. Says: June 3, 2011 at 12:18 pm
Great work….. I look forward to reading the other parts. One really cant script this stuff. You should make a movie as it would win every award. The left wing loonies would eat it up!

darkstern Says: June 4, 2011 at 8:38 am
The most critically important history of the past century for understanding the nature and shaping forces of the world today. What every person in the world really needs to know but are instead quite deliberately dazzled by smoke and mirrors, bread and circuses.

casescorner.com Says: June 4, 2011 at 10:57 am
Excellent Research Dean! – I’ll be sure to post all four parts, on my ‘News blog.’ – Thanks! BTW, I agree with ‘zaknick’ (I sometimes also wish, there was an ‘eject’ button from this planet …) Take Care, and May God Bless.

Mike Says: June 4, 2011 at 11:07 am
Lehmans? Really?

Noor Says: June 4, 2011 at 11:06 pm
Great work and research almost at a Eustace Mullins level! Good to find someone picking up the slack…. posted this on my site with credits and links of course… Looking very very forward to the next installment.

WASP Says: June 5, 2011 at 8:13 pm
THOROUGHLY WELL RESEARCHED, AND ONE OF THE MOST ENLIGHTENING EXPOSÉS OF THE HISTORY, & LATENT POWER STRUCTURES, THAT HAVE BEEN INSTRUMENTAL IN SHAPING OUR HISTORY IN THE LAST CENTURY. THAT I HAVE READ.
I TOO WISH THERE WAS AN EJECT BUTTON WE COULD OPERATE FOR OUR WORLD, BUT WOULD ADD, FOR THEM NOT US. REGARDS ………….. WASP

Dean Henderson Says: June 5, 2011 at 8:39 pm
Thanks WASP! Love the “them not us” part!

Joe A. Says: June 6, 2011 at 7:58 pm
Dean,
Great article. I look forward to the rest of the series.
You do have one mistake that should be corrected in the 4th to last paragraph:
”Brother Winthrop Rockefeller was Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas and remains the most powerful man in that state.”
He died 5 years ago – July 16, 2006 from cancer. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winthrop_Paul_Rockefeller
Hope this helps. Keep up the great work!

Dean Henderson Says: June 6, 2011 at 8:36 pm
Thanks for the update Joe. I’ll correct that. Glad you found the article insightful…

faithfulskeptic Says: June 6, 2011 at 11:08 pm
BTW, there’s a an obscure scion of one of the 8 families, name of Robbie Rockefeller, in Tasmania – has he been “sent to the colonies” for the sake of the family’s image?

Steven Berry Says: June 10, 2011 at 7:30 pm
This essay id tremendous..It should be must reading for the many who still walk in darkness caused by entertainment instead of education as a mindset..Two things..Unless the Grace Commission report has been set aside..we know that not one penny of our collected Federal Income Taxes has ever gone to pay for the lazy and fat thing called federal Government..That money id gathered by the agents of the IRS…every year..and promptly sent to the Bank of England where the Bauer Boys divide the loot among the members of the Federal reserve Corp holding paper on the illegal abomination..Oh ..I am wrong..Before the IRS A gents take control of the stolen funds, they are ordered to stop by and give 1% of the money to..The Secty general of The United Nations..Like their slower and violent brethren called Mafia….It is always good business to allow important “others” to have a tithe of our money…I am utterly amazed by the seeming majority of citizens that have forgotten or forgiven Satan’s Agents Rothschild/Bauer to not even bring there attention from cable T.V….While their asses are being ordained as the next version of the Nazi death camp guests..The national debt is 100% owned by..guess who…No not China Nor Russia..but once again …the Rothschild Clan’s stamp of ownership has America by the shrinking scrotum and all I can say is..make sure your powders dry and ready me lads…We must not let the bastards have their way with us and not even make them rue the day that they thought us impotent

Rick Says: June 14, 2011 at 6:52 am
Thank you for this revelation. I wonder when the moment comes that these MF are taken’ out.

Tapestry Says: June 15, 2011 at 8:04 am
where do I buy your book? On here? I’m in the UK.

Dean Henderson Says: June 15, 2011 at 9:28 am
go to the book links on the site- createspace for print. smashwords for e:book. also, amazon. thanks!

Earl Gordon Says: June 19, 2011 at 8:55 am
Eliminate the Fed and give our government back the right to print money. We don’t need the fiat money (bogus paper) that the Fed charge us interest on to print and loan to government. Take back the interest that was paid to the Fed over the past years, since 1913 and use it to pay off our national debt. By not paying the Fed interest anymore, we could lower our taxes at least by the amount of interest they charge. Lets also get rid of the IRS and go the Fair Tax method.

Dean Henderson Says: June 19, 2011 at 9:13 am
Sounds good to me Earl! Read my “Cancel Federal Reserve Debt” post in the achives for a step by step plan to do just what you’re saying…

Alice C. Linsley Says: August 8, 2011 at 4:01 pm
Very enlightening. This will appear at Ethics Forum with link to Left Hook. I look forward to reading the subsequent parts.

About the author:
Dean Henderson was born in Faulkton, South Dakota. He earned an M.S. in Environmental Studies from the University of Montana, where he edited The Missoula Paper and was a columnist for the Montana Kaimin. His articles have appeared in Multinational Monitor, In These Times, Paranoia and several other magazines.

A life long political activist and traveler to fifty countries, Henderson co-founded of the University of Montana Green Party and the Ozark Heritage Region Peace and Justice Network. He is former Vice-President of the Central Ozarks Farmer’s Union and former President of the Howell County Democrats.

In 2004 he won the Democratic nomination for Congress in Missouri’s 8th District.

Dean’s Books Available in print and e-book formats:

Big Oil & Their Bankers in the Persian Gulf…
https://www.createspace.com/3476183
http://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/DeanHenderson

The Grateful Unrich: Revolution in 50 Countries
www.createspace.com/3477016
www.smashwords.com/profile/view/DeanHenderson

Read Dean’s Weekly Left Hook Column at: www.deanhenderson.wordpress.com

Dean Henderson is the author of Big Oil & Their Bankers in the Persian Gulf: Four Horsemen, Eight Families & Their Global Intelligence, Narcotics & Terror Network and The Grateful Unrich: Revolution in 50 Countries. His Left Hook blog is at http://www.deanhenderson.wordpress.com

Dean Henderson is a frequent contributor to Global Research. Global Research Articles by Dean Henderson: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=listByAuthor&authorFirst=Dean&authorName=Henderson

Big Oil & Their Bankers In The Persian Gulf


Four Horsemen, Eight Families & Their Global Intelligence, Narcotics & Terror Network
Authored by Dean Henderson

Big Oil… pulls back the covers to expose a centuries-old cabal of global oligarchs, whose control over the global economy is based on hegemony over the planet’s three most valuable commodities: oil, guns and drugs- combined with ownership of the world’s central banks.

Henderson implicates these oligarchs in the orchestration of a string of conspiracies from Pearl Harbor to the Kennedy Assassination to 911. He follows the trail of dirty money up the food chain to the interbred Eight Families who- from their City of London base- control the Four Horsemen of Oil, the global drug trade and the permanent war economy.

“Big Oil… is an extraordinary expose of the powers and events that are exacting a heavy toll on us, the people”.
– Nexus New Times Magazine. Australia.

“Big Oil… is hair-raising and a masterpiece which deserves not less than the Pulitzer Prize in Journalism. This book should be a requisite for every American to study.”
– Dr. Carlos J. Canggiano, M.D., Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico.

(The following is excerpted from Chapter 20: Big Oil & Their Bankers In The Persian Gulf)

The Secret Handshake

The Eight Families banking cartel and their Four Horsemen progeny find Islamic fundamentalism quite compatible with the global monopoly capitalism from which they derive their immense wealth. Both ideologies advocate centralized control, intolerance of opposition, rule by decree and a return to feudalistic rule by monarchy. They share common enemies in nationalism and socialism, which seek to redistribute ill-gotten wealth and power.

Throughout history the “Illuminati bankers” have created Islamist provocateurs to terrorize popular nationalist movements that aimed to wrest control over their nations from the bankers’ IMF/World Bank program of global domination. The most recent examples of this are playing out in both Libya and Syria. But this is an ancient alliance.

The Knights Templar worked with the Muslim Brotherhood Assassins to carry out Crusade-era plots against Saracen Muslim nationalists. The founder of the Assassins was Hasan bin Sabah, who shares names with the Kuwaiti ruling Hashemite clan. The latter had been employed by the British to repel the Turks from the oil-rich Persian Gulf region by the end of the 18th Century.

After WWII CIA Director Allen Dulles- cousin of the Rockefellers- cut a deal with the Muslim Brotherhood-Benoist-Mechin- whose power center lies within the Wahhabist House of Saud. The deal was cut in Lausanne, Switzerland. (1)

The Eight Families and their surrogate intelligence agencies backed Islamic fundamentalists during the CIA overthrow of the leftist Sukarno government in Indonesia in 1964. [2]

When the Shah of Iran was deposed, the CIA and British intelligence provided fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini with a list of leftist Tudeh Party leaders whom they wished exterminated.

In Afghanistan, the CIA launched its biggest covert operation since Vietnam, a $3.8 billion campaign which backed Gulbuddin Hekmatyar’s Hezbi-i Isbmi acid-throwing extremists in their proxy war against a succession of socialist governments in Kabul. These Frankensteins were then deployed throughout Central Asia and the Balkans to terrorize governments unfriendly to Four Horsemen and Eight Families hegemony.

Israeli Mossad used the fundamentalist Hamas as a fifth column against the nationalistic Palestinian President Yasser Arafat and has funded Egyptian Islamic Jihad along with fundamentalists in Jordan. [3]

Former Egyptian President Anwar Sadat- a staunch banker ally- encouraged Islamists in his country as a counterbalance to pro-Nasser leftist groups.

CIA-backed Islamists in Somalia tore that country apart for Big Oil. The House of Saud finances most of these efforts.

In 1996, according to the London Observer, British MI6 used al Qaeda operatives in Libya in an attempt to assassinate nationalist President Mohamar Qaddafi.

Osama bin Laden supervised the building of CIA terrorist training camps at Khost and held accounts at BCCI. He did so as an emissary of the Muslim Brotherhood House of Saud, once stating, “To counter these atheist Russians, the Saudis chose me as their representative in Afghanistan. I set up my first camp where these volunteers were trained by Pakistani and American officers. The weapons were supplied by the Americans, the money by the Saudis.”[4]

Is it any wonder that 15 of the 19 hijackers on 911 were Saudi? Or that 24 members of the bin Laden family were allowed to fly on private jets to a “secret assembly point in Texas” shortly after 911, when all other air traffic in the US was grounded, so that the family could evacuate to Saudi Arabia. Raytheon even provided a jet which carried Saudi royals from Tampa to Lexington, KY. No Saudis were held for questioning by the FBI. On the evening of 911, Saudi Prince Bandar- House of Saud point man in funding CIA covert operations for decades- stood smoking a cigar on the White House balcony alongside President Bush. [5]

Agha Khan is the spiritual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, whose modern-day tentacles include the House of Saud, Hamas, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Shi’ite Ismaili sect, Louis Farrakhan’s Muslim Brotherhood and al Qaeda. The House of Saud serves as financier to all of these neo-Crusaders.

The Eight Families emerged from a tangle of secret societies- Freemasons, Knights Templar, Teutonic Knights, Rosicrucians, Cabalist Order of Melchizidek, Knights of Malta and Knights of St. John’s Jerusalem. These groups also descend from the Sumerian and Egyptian Brotherhood of the Snake, later carrying out the political machinations of the Genoese banking families who funded the expansion of the Roman Empire and who now control the City of London.

The fortunes of the Muslim Brotherhood House of Saud became intertwined with those of the “Illuminati Bankers” when ARAMCO discovered oil in the Kingdom in 1938. From this moment forward the old Crusader pals reunited, working together to control the world using oil as their centerpiece. While the House of Saud represents the Muslim Brotherhood, the Saudi branch of Freemasonry is concentrated among ARAMCO executives and the SAMA “White Father” bankers. Other Gulf State Hashemite rulers were cut into the Illuminati/Muslim Brotherhood global petro-hegemony scheme in 1981 with the formation of the GCC.

In late November 2002 Newsweek reporter Michael Isakoff broke a story revealing that Princess Haifa- wife of Saudi Ambassador Prince Bandar- had written checks to two Saudi intermediaries, who delivered the proceeds to two of the alleged 911 hijackers. Within days of the revelations, the two Saudis were allowed to leave the US before a credible investigation of the money trail had even gotten under way. Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) accused the Bush Administration of protecting the House of Saud by blocking a meaningful investigation into Saudi involvement in 911. Leaders of a Joint Congressional Task Force investigating 911 accused both the FBI and CIA of withholding classified documents from their probe.

It was Bandar who twenty years earlier had personally donated $20 million to the Nicaraguan contras. Were his wife and the other wealthy Saudis with whom the al Qaeda money trail was intertwined, simply playing the same paymaster role the Saudis have played for the CIA for decades?

The Masterminds

Ex-Naval Intelligence officer William Cooper- author of Behold a Pale Horse- did a radio talk show in Phoenix in October 2001. Cooper lost both his legs when he was run off the road after exposing various elements of Illuminati plans for a New World Order. Now he suggested CIA and Israeli Mossad involvement in 911, naming Mossad operative Josie Hadas as the handler of the Arab patsies involved in the hijackings. Internet and cable feeds from the broadcast were immediately cut. A few days later Cooper was gunned down at 1:00 AM in his home by Maricopa County deputies. [7]

While Bush propagandists hammered home the “Arab terrorist” thesis, serving up photos of 911 “hijackers” within hours and conveniently “finding” Mohamed Atta’s passport in the WTC rubble, several US agencies were quietly tracking down leads concerning Mossad spy rings active in the US on and since 911.

Israelis were detained in Detroit, Albuquerque and an unnamed West Coast city. A Ryder truck full of Israelis was caught casing Whidbey Island Naval Station in Washington. According to a May 13, 2002 Fox News report, the truck tested positive for TNT and RDX military-grade explosives. US intelligence also investigated a mysterious ring of “Israeli art students” who had infiltrated US law enforcement facilities and military bases over the past two years.

In early 2002 a group of Israelis was stopped in a Philadelphia suburb in a truck containing surveillance footage of the Sears Tower in Chicago. On 911 a group of five Israelis were detained in Hoboken, NJ for suspicious behavior. [8] The Jewish weekly Forward fingered them as Mossad agents. ABC News reported in June 2002 that a woman with an apartment near ground zero witnessed several Israelis in a white van videotaping the planes as they hit the WTC and celebrating the event.

Der Spiegel reported that a group of Mossad agents had rented an apartment near the one used by alleged 911 hijackers Mohammed Atta and Marwan al-Shehhi in Hollywood, FL just prior to 911. The Israelis conducted round-the-clock surveillance on the flight schools where Atta and al-Shehhi trained and neglected to inform US intelligence of their presence or of their activities.

Was Osama bin Laden working for Mossad or the CIA- as University of Ottawa Economics Professor Michel Chossudovsky has stated? According to John Trochmann of the Militia of Montana, bin Laden carried a “CIA-issue RC 58 Harris satellite phone” and his family was a primary backer of the CIA’s Iridium satellite tracking consortium. Did elements of the CIA and Mossad deploy 19 modern-day mind-controlled Assassins, of which 15 just happened to be from the Muslim Brotherhood Kingdom of Saudi Arabia- whose point man in funding the Afghan mujahadeen, which constitute the core of al Qaeda, was CIA agent Osama bin Laden?

What did 911 fall guy Zaccarias Mousaui mean when he told the judge at his July 25, 2002 arraignment that he was not involved in 911, but that the US government had another person in custody who was involved and that “the government knew all about 911 plans” before the tragedy took place? Why did the CIA refuse to hand over a key al Qaeda operative to the Mousaui prosecution? What don’t they want him to tell the court?

When Osama bin Laden died is irrelevant. What matters is that he died. Dead men don’t talk.

Did the CIA- using its Carlyle Group channel headed by ex-CIA Director George Bush- hatch this brutal attack to further insert US forces into Central Asia to protect the Four Horsemen Caspian Sea black goldmine, giving Israeli butchers another pretext in their occupation of Palestinian lands and promoting a new Clash of Civilizations WWIII Crusade against pesky nationalist Muslims- beginning with an invasion of oil-rich Iraq? What of the timing of the bin Laden family investments via Carlyle? Was Osama really the black sheep of the bin Laden family?

According to the French newspaper Le Figaro, the CIA met with Osama bin Laden on numerous occasions in the months before 911. In July 2001 bin Laden underwent kidney treatment at the American Hospital in Dubai, where he was visited frequently by a CIA agent. He was also visited regularly by his Saudi extended family, who apparently had not disowned Osama as Western media had us believe.

According to the Washington Post, Qazi Hussein Ahmed- leader of the Pakistan-based Jamiaat-i-Islami, which helped create the Taliban- visited CIA at Langley in July 2001. Why, the Village Voice queried, was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar’s emissary to Washington Rahmattulah Hashami rebuffed by the Bush State Department when he promised in summer 2001 to hold onto bin Laden until the CIA could apprehend him? Why, Vanity Fair asked, had the CIA turned down an earlier offer from Sudan?

Newsweek wondered why top-ranking Pentagon officials suddenly canceled flight plans for September 10th? The Wall Street Journal questioned the timing of Saudi Defense Minister Prince Sultan’s canceling of a mid-September trip to Japan and wondered why Saudi Intelligence Prince Turki al-Faisal – who was especially cozy with the Taliban and who met with Osama bin Laden regularly- suddenly resigned his post of 25 years on August 31, 2001?

While Unocal adviser and Afghan President Hamid Karzai huddled with Unocal official and Bush Afghan envoy Zalmay Khalilzad, US Ambassador to Pakistan Wendy Chamberlain busied herself meeting with Pakistan’s Oil Minister Usman Aminuddin and her Saudi counterparts to plan the new Turkmenistan-Indian Ocean trans-Afghan pipeline. In 2005 Unocal was bought by Chevron Texaco, assuring Four Horsemen control over the recently completed pipeline.

On November 28, 2001 the Bush White House quietly celebrated the official opening of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium pipeline- the Four Horsemen-owned, Bechtel-built, Mossad-guarded pipeline through Turkey to the Black Sea. Bush stated, “The CPC project also advances my Administration’s energy policy by developing a network of pipelines that includes Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, Baku-Supsa and Baku-Novorossiysk.”

Bush’s closest confidant at the White House was said to be Condaleeza Rice, who sat on Chevron’s board before becoming a Stanford University expert on Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Did Bush bring Rice on board knowing US troops would soon headed to Central Asia? Was it mere coincidence that Uzbekistan- which Trilateral Commission founder and BP Amoco board member Brzezinski identified as the key country in his global chess game- was suddenly receiving US bases? Why did US military exercises begin in the region months before 911?

The Guardian of London reported that US Army Rangers were training in Afghan neighbor Kyrgyzstan in the summer of 2001. There were Montana media reports of Uzbek and Tajik troops training in Alaska and Montana prior to 911. In early September 2001 the British deployed thousands of troops to Oman under the guise of Operation Swift Sword, while the US sent 17,000 troops to Egypt, ostensibly to take part in Operation Bright Star. Were these forward troops deployed in anticipation of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq?

A July 2001 meeting in Berlin attended by former US Ambassador to Pakistan Tom Simmons, former Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs Karl Inderfurth and former State Department South Asian expert Lee Coldren included Russian and Pakistani intelligence officials. The US delegation informed their Pakistani and Russian counterparts of US plans to bomb Afghanistan come October 2001. [9]

Canadian Vision Television discussed the US Central Asian agenda on its January 28, 2002 program Insight Media File, which suggested CIA involvement in the 911 attacks. US Naval Intelligence Officer Lt. Delmart Vreeland had alerted Canadian authorities to the possibility of terror attacks on the US and Canada. Vreeland was en route to Russia and China to retrieve documents relating to Russian and Chinese responses to the US missile defense program.

Vreeland was detained by Canadian authorities and jailed. His 8-11-01 prison letter specifically mentions the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, the White House, the Sears Tower, the Royal Bank of Canada and the Ottawa Parliament as possible terrorist targets in the “days ahead”. His letter said the plan was to, “Let one happen. Stop the rest.” The letter was admitted as evidence for the defense by a Canadian court. The US Defense Department has confirmed Vreeland’s rank. [10]

Despite Vreeland’s warning and those of numerous governments around the world, on 911 the Air Force National Guard was ordered to stand down from standard procedure of intercepting any plane that strays from its designed flight path, much less jumbo jets flying towards the World Trade Center and Pentagon. While much political hay was made by Bush cronies about last-ditch failed attempts to scramble fighters to shoot down the planes, the fact is that fighters should have automatically intercepted those planes.

Someone in the Executive Branch had to have ordered those planes to stand down. Even when token jets were scrambled, they flew from Otis Air National Guard Base in Falmouth, MA and Langley Air Base in Hampton, VA. Meanwhile two combat-ready squadrons- the 121st Fighter Squadron of the 113th Fighter Wing and the 321st Marine Fighter Attack Squadron- sat grounded at Andrews Air Force Base, a mere fifteen miles from the Pentagon.

According to an August 22, 2002 AP story a “top US intelligence agency was planning an exercise last September 11th in which an errant aircraft would crash into one of its buildings”. The Washington Post reported on September 16, 2001 that American Flight 77, which allegedly crashed into the Pentagon, was piloted by Charles Burlingame, whose previous job was as F-4 fighter pilot for the US Navy. In this capacity Burlingame drafted an emergency response plan to the crashing of a plane into the Pentagon. The morning Burlingame’s plane apparently did just that, Pentagon medic Matt Rosenberg was studying Burlingame’s draft in Corridor 8 of the building.

Dick Cheney would have been in charge of the planned 911 “exercise”, since on May 8, 2001 he was named to head the Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP), which would identify US vulnerabilities to domestic terrorism. Cheney’s ODP was running four different exercises on 911: Operation Northern Guardian, Operation Vigilant Guardian, Operation Vigilant Warrior and Operation Northern Vigilance.

The latter removed most fighter jets from the East Coast and sent them to Canada and Alaska. The first two simulated hijackings of commercial airliners in the Northeast. The third may have been the strike component. NORAD was briefed to expect these exercises. That morning their radars showed twenty-two hijacked planes. [11] They didn’t know which ones were hijacked and which ones were part of the “exercise”.

On September 10, 2001 members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees leaked a memo alleged lead hijacker Mohammed Atta sent to the man US intelligence deems the mastermind of 911- Khalid Sheikh Mohammad. The memo used language which one would associate with a military exercise, stating that “the match is about to begin. Tomorrow is ‘zero hour’.” Cheney was outraged that the memo was leaked and ordered the FBI to investigate members of the Congressional committees. All information regarding Khalid Sheikh Mohammad remains classified.

The End of the American Empire

There has been a well-founded notion since America’s inception that the European Rothschild-led Illuminati bankers have sought to bring America to its knees, overturn the American Revolution and return it to the fold of the Crown of England- whose power is derived from oligarchical remnants of the Roman Empire

This medieval rollback could be easily accomplished through the mere withdrawal of Eight Families funding of America’s $14 trillion debt, which has mostly accrued owing to the US military’s role as mercenary praetorian guard of the Illuminati global empire. Coupled with a devastating US military defeat, America could be brought to its knees.

On August 15, 1871 Sovereign Grand Commander of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry General Albert Pike wrote a letter to Italian P-1 33rd Degree Grand Commander and Mafia founder Guiseppe Mazzini. In the letter Pike talked of a Brotherhood plan for three World Wars. The first, he said, would destroy czarist Russia and create a Communist “bogeyman” which the bankers could employ to justify their foreign interventions around the world. The second, Pike said, would be used to create Israel, which would become a mercenary force for the international bankers, protecting oil interests for Rothschild and Rockefeller combines.

The Third World War, stated Pike’s letter, would pit Arabs against Zionists, and would culminate in a New World Order completely controlled by the international bankers and their secret societies. Pike described the events that would unfold as pretext for WWIII, “We must provoke a social cataclysm which in all its horror…everywhere, the citizens obliged to defend themselves against the world minority of revolutionaries…will receive the true light through…the pure doctrine of Lucifer, brought finally out into public view.”[12]

A group of commercial airline pilots, many of them Vietnam veterans, met in the aftermath of 911 to discuss the logistical aspects of the tragedy. They concluded overwhelmingly that the three Arabs who supposedly flew the jumbo jets into the WTC and the Pentagon could absolutely not have done so with the limited flight simulator experience they received at US flight schools. The group found it odd that the transponders on the planes had all been turned off, since this would serve no purpose if the Arabs were in control of the planes. The group came to believe that the planes’ flight paths were programmed by AWAC surveillance planes flying off the Atlantic coast.

This fly by wire technology has existed for decades and is employed on drone CIA Predator spy planes. During WWII the US used the technology to fly unmanned drones into Japanese tunnels in the Pacific to destroy arms caches. The openings of these tunnels were only 20-30 feet in diameter. Modern fly by wire systems such as Global Hawk, Home Run Tech and Black Star are much more advanced.

The commercial pilots said this accounts for the transponders being turned off, since this is necessary to hand over manual control of an aircraft to computerized AWACS, which then fly the plane by remote control. This would also account for the pinpoint accuracy of the attacks, which had to have been calibrated using engineering specifications to have brought down the WTC towers, in tandem with pre-set explosives attached to the elevator shafts.

In this scenario, long-time CIA Islamist Assassins were put up to hijacking the planes by their Mossad handlers for deniability and anti-Arab propaganda purposes. The hijackers would have known nothing of the plans to crash the planes into the Pentagon and Twin Towers. This was where the AWACS took control of the operation. To this day there has been no evidence presented that the Arabs were actually in the cockpits of those jets.

The only countries- other than the US- who possess this remote electronic capability are Israel, Russia, China and the UK. Did Israeli Mossad and British MI6 perpetrate 911 as part of an ongoing counter-revolutionary master plan to bring down the US? Did the orders come from Buckingham Palace?

Could a new global financial/military alliance- organized by the Eight Families- be emerging? Were Deutsche Bank and Standard Chartered paymasters for this alliance? Deutsche Bank founder Dr. Hermann Josef Abs was a leading banker to the Nazis and remained the bank’s Honorary Chairman until his 1994 death. [13] When Deutsche Bank bought Banker’s Trust ownership of the Four Horsemen shifted to the Bohn Warburg combine that financed Hitler. Deutsche Bank quickly became the world’s largest bank.

The launch of the euro a few months later represented a serious challenge to the US dollar as world reserve currency. In 2002 the dollar began to weaken dramatically. In August 2002 Russia and China conducted another round of joint military exercises, just as Bush was beating the drums of war over Iraq. France increasingly backed Russian and Chinese positions in the UN Security Council. As the US veered left and voted in President Barack Obama, a majority of European countries began voting in far-right presidents.

Did the Illuminati bankers bait the US into a Central Asian ring of fire surrounded by China, Russia and India- who recently formed the G-3 coalition as counterweight to US global hegemony”?

In June 2001 a female Russian doctor stated in a Pravda column that the US would be subject to a massive terrorist attack in late August 2001. She was then asked what she believed was coming next. She suggested selling dollars and buying Russian rubles, saying that the secret group behind 911 was the most powerful force in the world, worth over $300 trillion. She said this group would soon “strike America in the back” while it was down and that the next shoe to drop would be the decimation of the US economy, which she predicted would begin in 2002. [14] The NASDAQ crash, a plummeting dollar and a massive housing bust proved her right again. This “secret group” could only be the Illuminati Rothschild-led Eight Families.

Cecil Rhodes- the Rothschild protégé who laid the foundations for the creation of the Business Roundtable in the early 20th century- wrote his last will and testament in 1877. Rhodes’ will was implemented through the establishment of the Royal Institute for International Affairs in London. Its sister group in the US is the Council on Foreign Relations. Rhodes founded the Standard Chartered Bank, whose UAE Dubai branch allegedly supplied the 911 hijackers with the funds needed to carry out the attack.

Rhodes last will and testament aspired, “to establish a trust, to and for the establishment and promotion and development of a secret society, the true aim and object whereof shall be the extension of British rule throughout the world…and the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire.”[15]

Notes
[1] Dope Inc: The Book that Drove Kissinger Crazy. The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. Washington, DC. 1992.
[2] “Ex-Agents Say CIA Compiled Death Lists for Indonesia”. Kitty Kadane. San Francisco Examiner. 5-20-90
[3] “Islamic Terrorists: Creature of the US Taxpayer?” John K. Cooley. International Herald Tribune. 3-13-96
[4] Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. Ahmed Rashid. Yale Publishing. New Haven, CT. 2000
[5] Dude, Where’s My Country. Michael Moore WarnerBooks New York 2003
[7] “A Tribute to William Cooper”. David Icke. http://www.davidicke.com 11-01
[8] “Is Netanyahu Plotting Terror Inside US?” Jeffrey Steinberg. Executive Intelligence Review. 5-24-02
[9] “Lucy, You gotta lot a ‘Splainin to Do”. Michael Rupert. http://www.copvcia 2-02
[10] “Canadian Court Case Reveals US Naval Officer had Advance Knowledge of 911 Attacks”. Michael Rupert. http://www.rense.com 1-25-02
[11] “Paranotes: War Games Drills Confuse NORAD on 911”. Al Hidell. Paranoia. Issue 37. Winter 2005
[12] Descent Into Slavery. Des Griffin. Emissary Publications. Pasadena 1991

[13] Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History that Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons and the Great Pyramids. Jim Marrs. HarperCollins Publishers. New York. 2000. p.182
[14] http://www.newsmax.com October 2001
[15] Dope Inc: The Book that Drove Kissinger Crazy. The Editors of Executive Intelligence Review. Washington, DC. 1992.

Dean Henderson is the author of Big Oil & Their Bankers in the Persian Gulf: Four Horsemen, Eight Families & Their Global Intelligence, Narcotics & Terror Network and The Grateful Unrich: Revolution in 50 Countries. His Left Hook blog is at www.deanhenderson.wordpress.com

Dean Henderson is a frequent contributor to Global Research. Global Research Articles by Dean Henderson: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=listByAuthor&authorFirst=Dean&authorName=Henderson

About the author:
Dean Henderson was born in Faulkton, South Dakota. He earned an M.S. in Environmental Studies from the University of Montana, where he edited The Missoula Paper and was a columnist for the Montana Kaimin. His articles have appeared in Multinational Monitor, In These Times, Paranoia and several other magazines.

A life long political activist and traveler to fifty countries, Henderson co-founded of the University of Montana Green Party and the Ozark Heritage Region Peace and Justice Network. He is former Vice-President of the Central Ozarks Farmer’s Union and former President of the Howell County Democrats.

In 2004 he won the Democratic nomination for Congress in Missouri’s 8th District.

Dean’s Books Available in print and e-book formats:

Big Oil & Their Bankers in the Persian Gulf…
https://www.createspace.com/3476183
http://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/DeanHenderson

The Grateful Unrich: Revolution in 50 Countries
www.createspace.com/3477016
www.smashwords.com/profile/view/DeanHenderson

Read Dean’s Weekly Left Hook Column at: www.deanhenderson.wordpress.com

How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Five/ 5 Parts


1961–1963 John F. Kennedy Administration

Legislative Branch
• Thomas F. Johnson (D-MD) In 1962, he was indicted on charges of members of Maryland’s S&L industry bribing him and lost his seat. Later was convicted of conspiracy and conflict of interest in 1968, served 3 1/2 months of a 6 month sentence and was fined $5,000.
• Frank Boykin (D-AL) Was placed on six months’ probation in 1963 following conviction in a case involving a conflict of interest and conspiracy to defraud the government. His prison sentence was suspended on age and health grounds and was fined $40,000 total. He was pardoned by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965.
1953–1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration
Executive Branch
• Richard Nixon (R): Eisenhower’s V-P nominee delivers “Checkers Speech”, to deflect scandal about $18,000 in gifts, maintaining the only personal gift he had received was a dog (1952)
• (Llewelyn) Sherman A. Adams (R), Chief of Staff to President Dwight Eisenhower. Cited for Contempt of Congress and forced to resign because he refused to answer questions about an oriental rug and vicuna coat given to his wife.(1958)

Legislative Branch:
• McCarthyism: A broad political and cultural purge against people suspected of sympathy with communism, starting near the end of World War II and reaching its climax in the investigations of Sen. Joseph McCarthy. The Senate passed a resolution of condemnation against McCarthy in 1954 after an embarrassing investigation of the United States Army, ending his career, but anti-communist purges continued for several years.
• Thomas J. Lane (D-MA) convicted for evading taxes on his congressional income. Served 4 months in prison, but was re-elected three more times before his 1962 defeat due to re-districting. (1956)
• Ernest K. Bramblett (R-CA) Received a suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine in 1955 for making false statements in connection with payroll padding and kickbacks from congressional employees.
1945–1953 Harry S. Truman Administration
Executive Branch
• A Justice Department investigation of the Internal Revenue Service led to the firing or resignation of 166 lower level employees causing President Harry Truman (D) to be stained with charges of corruption (1950)
Legislative Branch
• Walter E. Brehm (R-OH) convicted of accepting contributions illegally from one of his employees. Received a 15 month suspended sentence and a $5,000 fine.
• J. Parnell Thomas (R-NJ): a member of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), was convicted of salary fraud and given an 18 month sentence and a fine, resigning from Congress in 1950. He was imprisoned in Danbury Prison with two of the Hollywood Ten he had helped put there. After serving his 18 months he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952,
• Andrew J. May (D-KY) Convicted of accepting bribes in 1947 from a war munitions manufacturer. Was sentenced to 9 months in prison, after which he was pardoned by Truman (D) in 1952.
• James Michael Curley (D-MA) was sentenced to 6–18 months on mail fraud and spent five months in prison before his sentence was commuted by President Truman (1947)
1924–1945
Legislative Branch
• Marion Zioncheck (D-WA) Killed after he jumped or was possibly pushed out a window in Seattle, WA while still in office. He was known to have been feuding with J. Edgar Hoover. (1936)
• Hiram Bingham Senator (R-CT) Censured for hiring to his staff a lobbyist employed by a manufacturing organization. (1929)
Judicial Branch
• Halsted Ritter (R) U.S. District Judge of Florida, impeached for secretly taking a $4,500 fee from a former law partner. Convicted of bringing the judiciary into disrepute (accepting free meals and lodging during receivership proceedings.) Removed from office. (1936)
• George English (D) U.S. District Judge of Illinois, impeached for taking an interest-free loan from a bank of which he was director. Resigned before his Senate trial. (1926)
1921–1923 Warren G. Harding Administration
Executive Branch
• Warren G. Harding (R-OH) President 1920–1923. His administration was marred by scandals stemming from men in his administration who followed him from Ohio who came to be known as the Ohio Gang. They include;
1. Albert Fall (R-NM) Secretary of the Interior who was bribed by Harry F. Sinclair for control of the Teapot Dome federal oil reserves in Wyoming. He was the first U.S. cabinet member to ever be convicted; he served two years in prison. (1922)
2. Edwin C. Denby (R-MI), Secretary of the Navy: resigned for his part in the Teapot Dome oil reserve scandal.
3. Harry M. Daugherty (R-OH), Attorney General: resigned on March 28, 1924, because of an investigation about a bootlegging kickback scheme by his chief aide Jess Smith. Found not guilty. (1924)
4. Jess Smith (R) aid to Attorney General Daugherty (R) who destroyed incriminating papers and then committed suicide.
5. Charles R. Forbes (R) appointed by Harding as the first director of the new Bureau of Veterans Affairs. After constructing and modernizing VA hospitals, he was convicted of bribery and corruption and sentenced to two years in jail.
6. Charles Cramer (R) Forbes’ general counsel, committed suicide. (1923)
7. Thomas W. Miller (R-DE), Head of the Office of Alien Property: convicted of fraud by selling valuable German patents seized after World War I for far below market price as well as bribery. Served 18 months.
Legislative Branch
• Thomas L. Blanton (D-TX) censured for inserting obscene material into the congressional record. According to Franklin Wheeler Mondell (R-WY) the letter was said to contain language that was “unspeakable, vile, foul, filthy, profane, blasphemous and obscene”. A motion to expel him failed by 8 votes.(1921)
1900–1920
Executive Branch
• Newport Sex Scandal: Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated an investigation into allegations of “immoral conduct” (homosexuality) at the Naval base in Newport, Rhode Island. After the report, the investigators themselves were also accused of homosexuality. (1919)
Legislative Branch
• William Lorimer Senator (R-IL), The ‘blond boss of Chicago’ was expelled from the U.S. Senate in 1912 for accepting bribes.
• Benjamin R. Tillman and John McLaurin, Senators (D-SC) censured for fighting in the senate chamber.
Judicial branch
• Robert Archbald(R) U.S. Commerce Court Judge of Pennsylvania, for corrupt alliances with coal mine workers and railroad officials. Convicted and removed from office. (1912)
1900-1909 Theodore Roosevelt Administration
Legislative Branch
• John Hipple Mitchell Senator (R-OR) was involved with the Oregon land fraud scandal, for which he was indicted and convicted while a sitting U.S. Senator. (1905)
• Joseph R. Burton Senator (R-KS) was convicted of bribery in 1904 on the charge of illegally receiving compensation for services rendered before a federal department and served five months in prison. (1904)
1878–1899
Executive Branch
• Nehemiah G. Ordway (R) Governor of Dakota Territory was removed by President Chester A. Arthur after he was indicted for corruption. (1884)
• Ezra Ayres Hayt, Commissioner of Indian Affairs under Rutherford B. Hayes was forced to resign by Secretary of Interior Carl Schurz due to allegations of rampant corruption. (1880)
Legislative Branch
• Stephen W. Dorsey, Senator (R-AR) was included in the investigation of corruption of Star Route postal contracts under the administrations of President James A. Garfield (R) and President Chester A. Arthur (R). (1881)
1869–1877 Ulysses S. Grant Administration
Executive branch
• William Belknap (R), United States Secretary of War under President Ulysses S. Grant(R): Resigned just before he was impeached by the United States House of Representatives for bribery. (1876)
• Whiskey Ring: Massive corruption of Ulysses S. Grant’s (R) administration involving whiskey taxes, bribery and kickbacks ending with 110 convictions. (1875)
1. Orville E. Babcock (R) personal secretary to Ulysses S. Grant who was indicted in the Whiskey Ring scandal and 10 days later in the Safe Burglary Conspiracy. He was acquitted both times.
2. John J. McDonald (R) Supervisor of the Internal Revenue Service. Convicted and sentenced to three years.
3. W.O. Avery Chief Clerk of the Treasury Department. Convicted.
• Sanborn contract: kickback scheme between William Adams Richardson(R) Grant’s Secretary of the Treasury and John D. Sanborn (1874)
• Black Friday (1869): When financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk tried to corner the gold market by getting Ulysses S. Grant’s brother in law Abel Corbin to convince Grant to appoint General Daniel Butterfield as Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury where he could then give them insider information.(1869)
• George M. Robeson, Grant’s Secretary of the Navy, was admonished by the House for gross misconduct and corruption in relation to his dealings with Alexander Cattel. (1876)
• Salary Grab Act: The act that increased the salaries of the President, Congress and the Supreme Court. (1873)
• Columbus Delano Secretary of the Interior under Grant, resigned after allegedly taking bribes in order to secure fraudulent land grants.
Legislative branch
• Crédit Mobilier of America scandal:
1. Oakes Ames (R-MA) bribed Congress with Union Pacific stock.
2. James Brooks (D-NY) also implicated; both were censured for their involvement. (1872)
Judicial branch
• Mark Delahay U.S. District impeached for misconduct in office and unsuitable personal habits, including intoxication. Resigned before his Senate trial. (1873)
1865–1869 Andrew Johnson administration
Executive branch
• Andrew Johnson: President (I) Abraham Lincoln’s vice-president, was impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act. He was acquitted by one vote. (1868)
1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln administrations
Executive branch
• Simon Cameron (R): Lincoln’s Secretary of War resigned in 1862 due to corruption charges. His behavior was so notorious that Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, when discussing Cameron’s honesty with Lincoln, told him that “I don’t think that he would steal a red hot stove”. When Cameron demanded Stevens retract this statement, Stevens told Lincoln “I believe I told you he would not steal a red-hot stove. I will now take that back.” (1860–1862)
1857–1861 James Buchanan administration
Legislative Branch
• Preston Brooks (D) Congressman from South Carolina burst onto the floor of the US Senate and beat Senator Charles Sumner (D) with a cane until he was bleeding and unconscious while two others held the Senate off at gun point. (1856)
• Daniel Sickles (D-NY) shot and killed the district attorney of the District of Columbia Philip Barton Key II, son of Francis Scott Key, whom Sickles had discovered was having an affair with Sickles’s young wife, Teresa. He was tried and acquitted in the first use of the temporary insanity plea. (1859)
1849–1850 Zachary Taylor administration
Executive Branch
• George W. Crawford (Whig-GA) Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Zachary Taylor (Whig) was the center of the Galphin Affair land scandal with the help of Reverdy Johnson (Whig) Attorney General and William M. Meredith (Whig) Secretary of the Treasury, in which Crawford defrauded the federal government of $191,353. (1849)
1829–1837 Andrew Jackson administrations
Executive Branch
• Samuel Swartwout was appointed by President Andrew Jackson to the New York City Collector’s Office. At the end of his term he had embezzled $1.225 million in customs receipts and used the monies to purchase land. He fled to Europe to avoid prosecution.
• Robert Potter: Congressman from North Carolina who resigned from Congress after castrating two men he believed were having an affair with his wife. (1831). Later, in North Carolina, he was expelled from its legislature for cheating at cards or for pulling a gun and a
knife during a card game. (1835)
1817-1825 James Monroe administrations
Legislative Branch
• Corrupt Bargain: supposed bargain by John Quincy Adams with Henry Clay. (1824)
1801–1809 Thomas Jefferson administrations
Executive branch
• General James Wilkinson: was appointed to be Governor of the upper Louisianna Purchase. He then conspired with Spain to get Kentucky to secede from the Union in order to be allowed shipping on the Mississippi. (1787–1811)
• Aaron Burr: New Empire (Southwest) Burr conspiracy (1804–1807) In which Burr allegedly tried to seize a large part of the Louisiana Purchase and establish his own country. He was arrested for treason, but was acquitted for lack of evidence. (1807)
• Aaron Burr: duel with Alexander Hamilton (1804). See also Burr’s “New Empire” conspiracy
• John Pickering, Federal Judge appointed by George Washington was impeached and convicted in absentia by the U.S. Senate for drunkenness and use of profanity on the bench in spite of the fact neither act was a high crime or misdemeanor. (1804)
Judicial Branch
• Samuel Chase Supreme Court Justice appointed by George Washington impeached for political favoritism and acquitted in 1805.
1797–1801 John Adams administration
Executive Branch
• XYZ Affair: French seizure of over 300 US ships and demands for bribes and apologies, led to a Quasi-War causing the US Congress to issue the famous phrase, “Millions for defense, sir, but not one cent for tribute!” Real war was averted by treaty. (1798–1800)
• Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican KY). First Congressman recommended for censure for spitting on Ralph Griswold (Federalist-CT). The censure failed to pass. Also found guilty of violating John Adams’ Alien and Sedition Acts and sentenced to four months in jail, during which he was re-elected (1798)
1789–1797 George Washington administrations
Legislative Branch
• William Blount Senator (Democratic-Republican-TN) Expelled from the Senate for trying to aid the British in a takeover of West Florida. (1797)
1777–1788
Executive Branch
• Conway Cabal: movement or conspiracy to remove George Washington as commander of the Continental Army by Thomas Conway and Horatio Gates (1777–1778)
• Silas Deane: accused of mismanagement and treason while ambassador to France. Intending to clear himself of the charges he died suddenly, and the charges were eventually reversed or dropped. (1777)

END of Volume One.

How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Four/ 5 Parts


1977–1981 James E. Carter Administration

Executive Branch
• Debategate: briefing book of President Jimmy Carter stolen and given to Ronald Reagan before U.S. presidential election, 1980
• Bert Lance (D), Director of OMB, resigned amidst allegations of misuse of funds during the sale of a Georgia bank to BCCI. No charges were ever filed.(1977)
Legislative branch
• Fred Richmond (D-NY) – Convicted of tax fraud and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months in prison. Charges of soliciting sex from a 16-year-old boy were dropped after he submitted to counseling. (1978)
• Charles Diggs (D-MI), convicted on 29 charges of mail fraud and filing false payroll forms which formed a kickback scheme with his staff. Sentenced to 3 years (1978)
• Herman Talmadge Senator (D-GA), On October 11, 1979 Talmadge was denounced by the Senate for “improper financial conduct.” He failed to be re-elected. (1979)
• Michael Myers (D-PA) Received suspended six-month jail term after pleading no contest to disorderly conduct charged stemming from an incident at a Virginia bar in which he allegedly attacked a hotel security guard and a cashier.
• Charles H. Wilson (D-CA) censured after he converted $25,000 in campaign funds to his own use and accepted $10,500 from a man with a direct interest in legislation before Congress. This was a later non-Park incident.
• John Connally (R-TX), Milk Money scandal. Accused of accepting a $10K bribe. He was acquitted. (1975)
• Richard Tonry (D-LA) pleaded guilty to receiving illegal campaign contributions.
• Koreagate scandal involving alleged bribery of more than 30 members of Congress by the South Korean government represented by Tongsun Park. Several other Koreans and Congressmen were allegedly involved, but not charged or reprimanded. The most notable are:
1. Richard T. Hanna (D-CA) pleaded guilty and sentenced to 6–30 months in federal prison. Wound up serving a year in prison.
2. Otto E. Passman (D-LA) was accused of bribery and other charges, but found innocent.
3. John J. McFall, Edward Roybal, and Charles H. Wilson, all (D-CA). Roybal was censured and Wilson was reprimanded, while McFall was reprimanded,
1974–1977 Gerald Ford Administration
Executive Branch
• Nixon pardon: The pardon by President Gerald Ford (R) of former President Richard Nixon (R), (who had appointed Ford his vice-president), just before Nixon could be tried by the Congress for conspiracy and impeached for his role in the Watergate scandle. (1974)
Legislative Branch
• Andrew J. Hinshaw (R-CA) Congressman convicted of accepting bribes while Assessor of Orange County. He served one year in prison. (1977)
• Wayne L. Hays (D-OH), resigned from Congress after hiring and promoting his mistress, Elizabeth Ray See sex scandals. (1976)
• Henry Helstoski (D-NJ) Indicted on charges of accepting bribes to aid immigrants but the case was dismissed by the Supreme Court. (1976)
• James F. Hastings (R-NY), convicted of kickbacks and mail fraud. Took money from his employees for personal use. Served 14 months at Allenwood penitentiary (1976)
• Robert L. F. Sikes (D-FL) reprimanded for conflict of interest in failing to disclose stock holdings.
• John V. Dowdy (D-TX), Served 6 months in prison for perjury. (1973)
• Bertram Podell (D-NY), pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest. He was fined $5,000 and served four months in prison (1974)
• Frank Brasco (D-NY) Sentenced to three months in jail and fined $10,000 for conspiracy to accept bribes from a reputed Mafia figure who sought truck leasing contracts from the Post Office and loans to buy trucks.
• Frank Clark (D-PA) Paid congressional salaries to 13 Pennsylvania residents who performed no official duties.
Judicial Branch
• Otto Kerner, Jr. (D) Resigned as a judge of the Federal Seventh Circuit Court District after conviction for bribery, mail fraud and tax evasion while Governor of Illinois. He was sentenced to 3 years in prison and fined $50,000. (1974)
1969–1974 Richard M. Nixon Administration
Executive Branch
• Spiro Agnew (R-MD), Richard Nixon’s Vice President, convicted of tax fraud stemming from bribery charges in Maryland and forced to resign. Nixon replaced him as V.P. with Gerald R. Ford (R-MI)(1973)
• Bebe Rebozo investigated for accepting large contribution to Nixon campaign. No charges filed (1973)
• Watergate (1972–1973) Republican ‘bugging’ of the Democratic Party National Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel led to a burglary which was discovered. The cover up of the affair by President Richard Nixon (R) and his staff resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 pleading guilty. Eventually, Nixon resigned his position.
1. John N. Mitchell (R) Attorney General of the United States, convicted of perjury.
2. Richard Kleindienst (R) Attorney General, found guilty of “refusing to answer questions” given one month in jail.
3. Jeb Stuart Magruder (R) Head of Committee to Re-elect the President, pled guilty to 1 count of conspiracy, August 1973
4. Frederick C. LaRue (R) Advisor to John Mitchell, convicted of obstruction of justice.
5. H. R. Haldeman (R) Chief of Staff for Nixon, convicted of perjury
6. John Ehrlichman (R) Counsel to Nixon, convicted of perjury.
7. Egil Krogh Jr. (R) Aid to John Ehrlichman, sentenced to 6 months.
8. John W. Dean III (R) Counsel to Nixon, convicted of obstruction of justice.
9. Dwight L. Chapin (R) Deputy Assistant to Nixon, convicted of perjury.
10. Herbert W. Kalmbach (R) personal attorney to Nixon, convicted of illegal campaigning.
11. Charles W. Colson (R) Special Consul to Nixon, convicted of obstruction justice.
12. Herbert L. Porter (R) Aid to the Committee to Re-elect the President. Convicted of perjury.
13. G. Gordon Liddy (R) Special Investigations Group, convicted of burglary.
14. E. Howard Hunt (R) ‘security consultant,’ convicted of burglary.
15. James W. McCord Jr. (R) guilty of six charges of burglary, conspiracy and wiretapping.
16. Virgilio Gonzalez guilty of burglary.
17. Bernard Barker guilty of burglary.
18. Eugenio Martinez guilty of burglary.
19. Frank Sturgis guilty of burglary.
• Pentagon Papers Exposed unconstitutional actions and coverup by Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson (D) and Richard Nixon (R) in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos from 1964 through 1971.
• Richard Helms, Head of the CIA, denied his role in the overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende and was convicted of perjury. He also destroyed all record of over 150 CIA mind control experiments of the MKULTRA project for which he was not prosecuted.
Legislative Branch
• Cornelius Gallagher (D-NJ) pleaded guilty to tax evasion, and served two years in prison.
• J. Irving Whalley (R-PA) Received suspended three-year sentence and fined $11,000 in 1973 for using mails to deposit staff salary kickbacks and threatening an employee to prevent her from giving information to the FBI.
• Martin B. McKneally (R-NY) Placed on one-year probation and fined $5,000 in 1971 for failing to file income tax return. He had not paid taxes for many years prior.
Judicial Branch
• Harold Carswell (R): Was not nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court (1970) after publication of a 20-year-old speech: “I yield to no man… in the firm, vigorous belief in the principles of white supremacy.” Was also alleged to be hostile to women’s rights. Later arrested in (1976) for homosexual advances in a men’s washroom.
1963–1969 Lyndon B. Johnson Administration
Executive Branch
• Bobby Baker (D), adviser to President Lyndon B. Johnson: resigned after charges of favoritism (1963)
• Billy Sol Estes (D): convicted felon who donated to Lyndon Johnson and influenced Texas elections (1961);
• Walter Jenkins, President Johnson’s longtime aide and friend: resigned after being arrested on a morals charge (1964)
Legislative Branch
• Ted Kennedy Senator (D-MA) drove his car into the channel between Chappaquiddick Island and Martha’s Vineyard, killing passenger Mary Jo Kopechne. Kennedy pleaded guilty to leaving the scene of an accident and received a suspended sentence of two months (1969)
• Thomas J. Dodd, Senator (D-CT): Censured by the Senate for financial misconduct (1967)
• Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (D-NY): was expelled from Congress but won the special election as his own replacement (1967)
• Daniel Brewster (D-MD) Senator pleaded no contest to accepting an illegal gratuity in 1975 and fined $10,000. Brewster was convicted in 1972 of accepting $14,500 from a lobbyist, and got a six-year term in 1973 over the conviction, but the conviction was overturned on grounds of unclear jury instructions.
Judicial Branch
• Abe Fortas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (D): resigned when he was discovered to be a paid consultant to a convicted criminal. No charges were ever filed. (1969)

How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Three/ 5 Parts


1993–2000 Bill Clinton Administration

Executive Branch
• Webster Hubbell (D) Associate Attorney General, pleaded guilty to mail fraud and tax evasion while in private practice. Sentenced to 21 months in prison (1995)
• Henry Cisneros (D) Secretary of Housing. Resigned and plead guilty (1999) to a misdemeanor charge of lying to the FBI about the amount of money he paid his former mistress, Linda Medlar while he was Mayor of San Antonio, Texas. He was fined $10,000 (1999)
• Ronald Blackley, (D) Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy’s Chief of Staff, sentenced to 27 months for perjury. Mike Espy was found innocent on all counts. http://laws.findlaw.com/dc/983036a.html

(1999)
• Bill Clinton President(D) Impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice for allegedly lying under oath about sexual relations with intern Monica Lewinsky. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate and remained in office. Clinton subsequently was cited for contempt of court and agreed to a five-year suspension of his Arkansas law license. (1998). On October 1, 2001, Bill Clinton was barred from practicing law before the Supreme Court of the United States (2001)
• Pardongate President Bill Clinton (D) granted 140 pardons on his last day in office January 20, 2001 for a total of 396. which seemed large compared to the total of 74 by George H. W. Bush, but not when compared to Ronald Reagans total of 393.
• Whitewater scandal (1994–2000) independent counsel Kenneth Starr (R) investigated the Clintons’ role in peddling influence for the Whitewater (real estate) Development Corporation while he was Governor of Arkansas. No criminal charges were brought against either President Bill Clinton (D) or First Lady Hillary Clinton (D)
• Wampumgate Bruce Babbitt (D), Secretary of the Interior 1993–2001, accused of lying to Congress about influencing a 1995 American Indian tribe casino decision. Babbitt was cleared of all wrongdoing.
• Filegate alleged misuse of FBI resources by Clinton Security Chief, Craig Livingstone (D), to compile an ‘enemies’ list (1996); Investigation found insufficient evidence of criminal wrongdoing
• Vincent Foster (D) the White House lawyer was alleged to have been murdered by either Bill or Hillary Clinton, for various reasons and with varying degrees of involvement. The suicide was investigated by the Park Police Service, the FBI, Independent Consultant Robert Fiske and finally by Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr all of whom ruled that it was a simple suicide (1993)
• Travelgate, involving the firing of White House travel agents. In 1998 Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr (R) exonerated President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton of any involvement (1993)

Legislative Branch
• Barbara-Rose Collins (D-MI) found to have committed 11 violations of law and house rules stemming from use of campaign funds for personal use.
• Wes Cooley (R-OR), Cooley was convicted of having lied on the 1994 voter information pamphlet about his service in the Army. He was fined and sentenced to two years probation (1997)
• Austin Murphy (D-PA) convicted of engaging in voter fraud for filling out absentee ballots for members of a nursing home.
• Newt Gingrich (R-GA), the Speaker of the House, was accused of financial improprieties leading to House reprimand and $300,000 in sanctions leading to his resignation (1997)
• Walter R. Tucker III (D-CA) resigned from the House before conviction on charges of extortion and income tax fraud while he was Mayor of Compton, California. Sentenced to 27 months in prison.(1996)
• Nicholas Mavroules (D-MA) pleaded guilty to bribery charges.
• House banking scandal The House of Representatives Bank found that 450 members had overdrawn their checking accounts, but had not been penalized. Six were convicted of charges, most only tangentially related to the House Bank itself. Twenty two more of the most prolific over-drafters were singled out by the House Ethics Committee. (1992)
1. Buzz Lukens (R-OH) convicted of bribery and conspiracy.
2. Carl C. Perkins (D-KY) pled guilty to a check kiting scheme involving several financial institutions (including the House Bank).
3. Carroll Hubbard (D-KY)convicted of illegally funneling money to his wife’s 1992 campaign to succeed him in congress.
4. Mary Rose Oakar (D-OH) was charged with seven felonies, but pleaded guilty only to a misdemeanor campaign finance charge not related to the House Bank.
5. Walter Fauntroy (D-DC) convicted convicted of filing false disclosure forms in order to hide unauthorized income.
6. Jack Russ Sgt. at Arms, convicted of three counts.
• Congressional Post Office scandal (1991–1995) A conspiracy to embezzle House Post Office money through stamps and postal vouchers to congressmen.
1. Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL) Rostenkowski was convicted and sentenced to 18 months in prison, in 1995.
2. Joe Kolter (D-PA) Convicted of one count of conspiracy and sentenced to 6 months in prison.
3. Robert V. Rota Postmaster, convicted of one count of conspiracy and two counts of embezzlement.
• Jay Kim (R-CA) accepted $250,000 in illegal 1992 campaign contributions and was sentenced to two months house arrest (1992)
1989–1993 George H. W. Bush Administration
Executive Branch
• Catalina Vasquez Villalpando, (R) Treasurer of the United States. Pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and tax evasion. The only US Treasurer ever sent to prison. (1992)
• Iran-Contra Affair pardons. On December 24, 1992, George H. W. Bush (R) granted clemency to five convicted government officials and Caspar Weinberger, whose trial had not yet begun. This action prevented any further investigation into the affair.
1. Caspar Weinberger (R) Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan
2. Robert C. McFarlane (R) National Security Advisor to Ronald Reagan
3. Elliott Abrams Asssistant Secretary of State to Ronald Reagan
4. Clair George CIA Chief of Covert Ops
5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA’s Central American Task Force
6. Duane R. Clarridge (R)
Legislative Branch
• Albert Bustamante (D-TX) convicted of accepting bribes.
• Lawrence J. Smith (D-FL) pleaded guilty to tax fraud and lying to federal election officials and served three months in jail, fined $5,000, 2 years probation and back taxes of $40,000
• David Durenberger Senator (R-MN) denounced by Senate for unethical financial transactions and then disbarred (1990). He pled guilty to misuse of public funds and given one year probation (1995)
Judicial Branch
• Clarence Thomas (R) Supreme Court nominee accused of sexual harassment by former employee Anita Hill. He was approved anyway.
• Walter Nixon US Judge (D-MS) Was impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate for perjury on November 3, 1989.
1981–1989 Ronald Reagan Administration
Executive Branch
• Raymond J. Donovan (R) Secretary of Labor under Ronald Reagan, was investigated and acquitted of larceny and fraud concerning subway construction in New York City(1987)
• Housing and Urban Development Scandal A scandal concerning bribery by selected contractors for low income housing projects.
1. Samuel Pierce (R) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development because he made “full and public written acceptance of responsibility” was not charged.
2. James G. Watt (R) Secretary of Interior, 1981–1983, charged with 25 counts of perjury and obstruction of justice, sentenced to five years probation, fined $5,000 and 500 hours of community service
3. Deborah Gore Dean, (R) Executive Assistant to (Samuel Pierce, Secretary of HUD 1981–1987, and not charged). Dean was onvicted of 12 counts of perjury, conspiracy, bribery. Sentenced to 21 months in prison (1987)
4. Phillip D. Winn (R) Assistant Secretary of HUD, 1981–1982, pled guilty to bribery in 1994.
5. Thomas Demery, (R) Assistant Secretary of HUD, pled guilty to bribery and obstruction
6. Joseph A. Strauss, (R) Special Assistant to the Secretary of HUD, convicted for accepting payments to favor Puerto Rican land developers in receiving HUD funding.
7. Silvio D. DeBartolomeis convicted of perjury and bribery.
• Wedtech scandal Wedtech Corporation convicted of bribery for Defense Department contracts
1. Edwin Meese (R) Attorney General, resigned but never convicted
2. Lyn Nofziger (R) White House Press Secretary, conviction of lobbying was overturned.
3. Mario Biaggi (D-NY) sentenced to 2½ years.
4. Robert García (D-NY) sentenced to 2½ years.
• Savings and loan scandal in which 747 institutions failed and had to be rescued with $160,000,000,000 of taxpayer monies in connection with the Keating Five. see Legislative scandals.
• Iran-Contra Affair (1985–1986); A plan conceived by CIA head William Casey (R) and Oliver North (R) of the National Security Counsel to sell TOW missiles to Iran for the return of US hostages and then use part of the money received to fund Contra rebels trying to overthrow the left wing government of Nicaragua, which was in direct violation of Congress’ Boland Amendment. Ronald Reagan appeared on TV stating there was no “arms for hostages” deal, but was later forced to admit, also on TV, that yes, there indeed had been:
1. Caspar Weinberger (R) Secretary of Defense, was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice on June 16, 1992. Weinberger received a pardon from George H. W. Bush on December 24, 1992 before he was tried.
2. William Casey (R) Head of the CIA. Thought to have conceived the plan, was stricken ill hours before he would testify. Reporter Bob Woodward records that Casey knew of and approved the plan.
3. Robert C. McFarlane (R) National Security Adviser, convicted of withholding evidence, but after aplea bargain was given only 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
4. Elliott Abrams (R) Asst Sec of State, convicted of withholding evidence, but after a plea bargain was given only 2 years probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/summpros.htm
5. Alan D. Fiers Chief of the CIA’s Central American Task Force, convicted of withholding evidence and sentenced to one year probation. Later pardoned by President George H. W. Bush
6. Clair George Chief of Covert Ops-CIA, convicted on 2 charges of perjury, but pardoned by President George H. W. Bush before sentencing.
7. Oliver North (R) convicted of accepting an illegal gratuity, obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and destruction of documents, but the ruling was overturned since he had been granted immunity.
8. Fawn Hall, Oliver North’s secretary was given immunity from prosecution on charges of conspiracy and destroying documents in exchange for her testimony.
9. John Poindexter National Security Advisor (R) convicted of 5 counts of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury, defrauding the government, and the alteration and destruction of evidence. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling.
10. Duane Clarridge An ex-CIA senior official, he was indicted in November 1991 on 7 counts of perjury and false statements relating to a November 1985 shipment to Iran. Pardoned before trial by President George H. W. Bush.
11. Richard V. Secord Ex-major general in the Air Force who organized the Iran arms sales and Contra aid. He pleaded guilty in November 1989 to making false statements to Congress. Sentenced to two years of probation.
12. Albert Hakim A businessman, he pleaded guilty in November 1989 to supplementing the salary of North by buying a $13,800 fence for North with money from “the Enterprise”, which was a set of foreign companies Hakim used in Iran-Contra. In addition, Swiss company Lake Resources Inc., used for storing money from arms sales to Iran to give to the Contras, plead guilty to stealing government property. Hakim was given two years of probation and a $5,000 fine, while Lake Resources Inc. was ordered to dissolve.
13. Thomas G. Clines Once an intelligence official who became an arms dealer, he was convicted in September 1990 on four income tax counts, including underreporting of income to the IRS and lying about not having foreign accounts. Sentenced to 16 months of prison and fined $40,000.
14. Carl R. Channell A fund-raiser for conservative causes, he pleaded guilty in April 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization to fund the Contras. Sentenced to two years probation.
15. Richard R. Miller Associate to Carl R. Channell, he pleaded guilty in May 1987 to defrauding the IRS via a tax-exempt organization led by Channell. More precisely, he plead guilty to lying to the IRS about the deductibility of donations to the organization. Some of the donations were used to fund the Contras. Sentenced to two years of probation and 120 of community service.
16. Joseph F. Fernandez CIA Station Chief of Costa Rica. Indicted on five counts in 1988. The case was dismissed when Attorney General Dick Thornburgh refused to declassify information needed for his defense in 1990.
• Inslaw Affair (1985–1994+); a protracted legal case that alleged that top-level officials of President Ronald Reagan’s (R) Department of Justice were involved in software piracy of the Promis program from Inslaw Inc. forcing it into bankruptcy. Attorney General Edwin Meese (R) and his successor Attorney General Dick Thornburgh (R) were both found to have blocked the investigation of the matter. They were succeeded by Attorney General William P. Barr (R) who also refused to investigate and no charges were ever filed.
1. D. Lowell Jensen, (R) Deputy Attorney General was held in Contempt of Congress.
2. C. Madison Brewer A high ranking Justice Department official was held in Contempt of Congress.
• Michael Deaver (R) Deputy Chief of Staff to Ronald Reagan 1981–85, pleaded guilty to perjury related to lobbying activities and was sentenced to 3 years probation and fined $100,000
• Sewergate A scandal in which funds from the EPA were selectively used for projects which would aid politicians friendly to the Reagan administration.
1. Anne Gorsuch Burford (R) Head of the EPA. Cut the EPA staff by 22% and refused to turn over documents to Congress citing “Executive Privilege”, whereupon she was found in Contempt and resigned with twenty of her top employees.(1980)
2. Rita Lavelle (R) An EPA Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency? misused ‘superfund’ monies and was convicted of perjury. She served six months in prison, was fined $10,000 and given five yrs probation.
Legislative Branch
• David Durenberger Senator (R-MN), denounced by the Senate for unethical financial transactions (1990) and then disbarred as an attorney. In 1995 he pled guilty to 5 misdemeanor counts of misuse of public funds and was given one years probation.
• Jesse Helms Senator (R-NC), His campaign was found guilty of “voter caging” when 125,000 postcards were sent to mainly black neighborhoods and the results used to challenge their residency and therefore their right to vote. (1990)
• Barney Frank Congressman (D-MA), Lived with convicted felon Steve Gobie who ran a gay prostitution operation from Frank’s apartment without his knowledge. Frank was Admonished by Congress for using his congressional privilege to eliminate 33 parking tickets attributed to Gobie.(1987)
• Donald E. “Buz” Lukens (R-OH), Convicted of two counts of bribery and conspiracy. (1996) See also Sex scandals.
• Anthony Lee Coelho (D-CA) Resigns rather than face inquiries from both the Justice Department and the House Ethics Committee about an allegedly unethical “junk bond” deal, which netted him $6,000. He was never charged with any crime (1989)
• Jim Wright (D-TX) House Speaker, resigned after an ethics investigation led by Newt Gingrich alleged improper receipt of $145,000 in gifts (1989)
• Keating Five (1980–1989) The failure of Lincoln Savings and Loan led to Charles Keating (R) donating to the campaigns of five Senators for help. Keating served 42 months in prison. The five were investigated by the Senate Ethics Committee which found that:
1. Alan Cranston Senator (D-CA) reprimanded.
2. Dennis DeConcini Senator (D-AZ) acted improperly
3. Don Riegle Senator (D-MI) acted improperly
4. John Glenn Senator (D-OH) used poor judgment
5. John McCain Senator (R-AZ) used poor judgment
• Abscam FBI sting involving fake ‘Arabs’ trying to bribe 31 congressmen.(1980) The following six Congressmen were convicted:
1. Harrison A. Williams Senator (D-NJ) Convicted on 9 counts of bribery and conspiracy. Sentenced to 3 years in prison.
2. John Jenrette Representative (D-SC) sentenced to two years in prison for bribery and conspiracy.
3. Richard Kelly (R-FL) Accepted $25K and then claimed he was conducting his own investigation into corruption. Served 13 months.
4. Raymond Lederer (D-PA) “I can give you me” he said after accepting $50K. Sentenced to 3 years.
5. Michael Myers (D-PA) Accepted $50K saying, “…money talks and bullshit walks.” Sentenced to 3 years and was expelled from the House.
6. Frank Thompson (D-NJ) Sentenced to 3 years.
7. John M. Murphy (D-NY) Served 20 months of a 3 year sentence.
8. Also arrested were NJ State Senator Angelo Errichetti (D) and members of the Philadelphia City Council. See Local scandals.
• Mario Biaggi (D-NY), Convicted of obstruction of justice and accepting illegal gratuities he was sentenced to 2½ years in prison and fined $500K for his role in the Wedtech scandal, see above. Just before expulsion from the House, he resigned. The next year he was convicted of another 15 counts of obstruction and bribery. (1988)
• Pat Swindall (R-GA) convicted of 6 counts of perjury. (1989)
• George V. Hansen (R-ID) censured for failing to file out disclosure forms. Spent 15 months in prison.
• James Traficant (D-OH), convicted of ten felony counts including bribery, racketeering and tax evasion and sentenced to 8 years in prison. He was expelled from the House July 24, (2002.)
• Frederick W. Richmond (D-NY),Convicted of tax evasion and possession of marijuana. Served 9 months(1982)
• Dan Flood (D-PA) censured for bribery. After a trial ended in a deadlocked jury, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to a year’s probation.
• Joshua Eilberg (D-PA) pleaded guilty to conflict-of-interest charges. In addition, he convinced president Carter to fire the U.S. Attorney investigating his case.
Judicial Branch
• Alcee Hastings (D-FL), Federal District court judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate of soliciting a bribe (1989). Subsequently elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1992)
• Harry Claiborne (D-NE), Federal District court Judge impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate on two counts of tax evasion. He served over one year in prison.

How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part Two/ 5 Parts


List of federal political scandals in the United States

2009– Obama Administration

Legislative Branch
• Joe Wilson (R-SC) The congressman from South Carolina interrupted a major televised speech about health care reform by President Barack Obama to a joint session of Congress. After Obama said that no illegal aliens would be accepted under his health plan, Rep. Wilson shouted, “You lie!” The incident resulted in a formal rebuke by the House of Representatives. He later admitted that the outburst was “inappropriate”. (2009)
• Charles B. Rangel (D-NY) Rep. Rangel was found guilty on 11 charges by the House Ethics Committee. On December 2, 2010, the full House of Representatives voted 333-79 to censure Rangel.
• Tom DeLay (R-TX) On November 24, 2010 a Texas jury convicted DeLay of money laundering connected to the Jack Abramoff scandal. On January 10, 2011, he was sentenced to three years of prison in Texas.
Judicial Branch
• G. Thomas Porteous The Federal Judge for Eastern Louisiana was unanimously impeached by the US House of Representatives on charges of corruption and perjury in March 2010. He was not convicted by the US Senate and removed from office. He had been appointed by Bill Clinton. (2010)
• Samuel B. Kent The Federal District Judge of Galveston, Texas was sentenced to 33 months in prison for lying about sexually harassing two female employees. He had been appointed to office by George H. W. Bush in 1990. (2009)
2001–2008 George W. Bush Administration
Executive Branch
• Lewis Libby (R) Chief of Staff to Vice President Dick Cheney (R), was convicted of perjury and obstruction of justice in the Plame Affair on March 6, 2007. He was sentenced to 30 months in prison and fined $250,000. The sentence was commuted by George W. Bush (R) on July 1, 2007. The felony remains on Libby’s record though the jail time and fine were commuted.
• Alphonso Jackson (R) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development resigned while under investigation by the FBI for revoking the contract of a vendor who told Jackson he did not like President George W. Bush (R) (2008)
• Karl Rove (R) Senior Adviser to President George W. Bush was investigated by the Office of Special Counsel for “improper political influence over government decision-making”, as well as for his involvement in several other scandals such as Lawyergate, Bush White House e-mail controversy and Plame affair. He resigned in April 2007. (See Karl Rove in the George W. Bush administration)
• “Lawyergate” Or the Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy refers to President Bush firing, without explanation, eleven Republican federal prosecutors whom he himself had appointed. It is alleged they were fired for prosecuting Republicans and not prosecuting Democrats. When Congressional hearings were called, a number of senior Justice Department officials cited executive privilege and refused to testify under oath, including:
1. Michael A. Battle (R) Director of Executive Office of US Attorneys in the Justice Department.
2. Bradley Schlozman (R) Director of Executive Office of US Attorneys who replaced Battle
3. Michael Elston (R) Chief of Staff to Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty
4. Paul McNulty (R) Deputy Attorney General to William Mercer
5. William W. Mercer (R) Associate Attorney General to Alberto Gonzales
6. Kyle Sampson (R) Chief of Staff to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales
7. Alberto Gonzales (R) Attorney General of the United States
8. Monica Goodling (R) Liaison between President Bush and the Justice Department
9. Joshua Bolten (R) Deputy Chief of Staff to President Bush was found in Contempt of Congress
10. Sara M. Taylor (R) Aid to Presidential Advisor Karl Rove
11. Karl Rove (R) Advisor to President Bush
12. Harriet Miers (R) Legal Counsel to President Bush, was found in Contempt of Congress
• Bush White House e-mail controversy – During the Lawyergate investigation it was discovered that the Bush administration used Republican National Committee (RNC) web servers for millions of emails which were then destroyed, lost or deleted in possible violation of the Presidential Records Act and the Hatch Act. George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, Karl Rove, Andrew Card, Sara Taylor and Scott Jennings all used RNC webservers for the majority of their emails. Of 88 officials, no emails at all were discovered for 51 of them. As many as 5 million e-mails requested by Congressional investigators of other Bush administration scandals were therefore unavailable, lost, or deleted.
• Lurita Alexis Doan (R) Resigned as head of the General Services Administration. She was under scrutiny for conflict of interest and violations of the Hatch Act. Among other things she asked GSA employees how they could “help Republican candidates.”
• Jack Abramoff Scandal in which the prominent lobbyist with close ties to Republican administration officials and legislators offered bribes as part of his lobbying efforts. Abramhoff was sentenced to 4 years in prison. See Legislative scandals.
1. David Safavian GSA (General Services Administration) Chief of Staff, found guilty of blocking justice and lying and sentenced to 18 months
2. Roger Stillwell (R) Staff in the Department of the Interior under George W. Bush. Pleaded guilty and received two years suspended sentence.
3. Susan B. Ralston (R) Special Assistant to the President and Senior Advisor to Karl Rove, resigned October 6, 2006 after it became known that she accepted gifts and passed information to her former boss Jack Abramoff.
4. J. Steven Griles (R) former Deputy to the Secretary of the Interior pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice and was sentenced to 10 months.
5. Italia Federici (R) staff to the Secretary of Interior, and President of the Council of Republicans for Environmental Advocacy, pled guilty to tax evasion and obstruction of justice. She was sentenced to four years probation.
6. Jared Carpenter (R) Vice-President of the Council of Republicans for Environmental Advocacy, was discovered during the Abramoff investigation and pled guilty to income tax evasion. He got 45 days, plus 4 years probation.
7. Michael Scanlon (R) former staff to Tom DeLay: working for Abramoff, pleaded guilty to bribery.
8. Tony Rudy (R) former staff to Tom DeLay, pleaded guilty to conspiracy.
9. Bob Ney (R-OH) bribed by Abramoff, pleaded guilty to conspiracy, sentenced to 30 months.
10. Neil Volz (R) former staff to Robert Ney, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy in 2006 charges stemming from his work for Bob Ney. In 2007 he was sentenced to two years probation, 100 hours community service, and a fine of $2,000.
11. Mark Zachares (R) staff in the Department of Labor, bribed by Abramoff, guilty of conspiracy to defraud.
12. Robert E. Coughlin (R) Deputy Chief of Staff, Crimianl Division of the Justice Department pleaded guilty to conflict of interest after accepting bribes from Jack Abramoff. (2008)
13. William Heaton (R), former chief of staff for Bob Ney (R), pleaded guilty to a federal conspiracy charge involving a golf trip to Scotland, expensive meals, and tickets to sporting events between 2002 and 2004 as payoffs for helping Abramoff’s clients.
14. Kevin A. Ring (R) former staff to John Doolittle (R-CA) indicted on 8 counts of corruption. The judge declared a mistrial.
15. John Albaugh (R) former chief of staff to Ernest Istook (R-OK) pled guilty to accepting bribes connected to the Federal Highway Bill. Istook was not charged. (2008)
16. James Hirni, (R) former staff to Tim Hutchinson (R-AR) was charged with wire fraud for giving a staffer for Don Young (R) of Alaska a bribe in exchange for amendments to the Federal Highway Bill. (2008)
• Kyle Foggo Executive director of the CIA was convicted of honest services fraud in the awarding of a government contract and sentenced to 37 months in federal prison at Pine Knot, Kentucky. On September 29, 2008, Foggo pleaded guilty to one count of the indictment, admitting that while he was the CIA executive director, he acted to steer a CIA contract to the firm of his lifelong friend, Brent R. Wilkes.
• Julie MacDonald (R) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior, resigned May 1, 2007 after giving government documents to developers (2007)
• Claude Allen (R) Appointed as an advisor by President Bush on Domestic Policy, Allen was arrested for a series of felony thefts in retail stores. He was convicted on one count and resigned soon after.
• Lester Crawford (R) Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, resigned after 2 months. Pled guilty to conflict of interest and received 3 years suspended sentence and fined $90,000 (2006)
• 2003 Invasion of Iraq depended on intelligence that Saddam Hussein was developing “weapons of mass destruction” (WMDs) meaning nuclear, chemical and/or biological weapons for offensive use. The Downing Street memo were minutes of a British secret meeting with the US (dated 23 July 2002, leaked 2005) which include a summary of MI6 Director Sir Richard Dearlove’s report that “Bush wanted to remove Saddam, through military action, justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMD. But the intelligence and the facts were being fixed around the policy” This was called the ‘smoking gun’ concerning W. Bush’s run up to war with Iraq.(2005)
• Yellowcake forgery: Just prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Bush administration presented evidence to the UN that Iraq was seeking material (yellowcake uranium) in Africa for making nuclear weapons. Though presented as true, it was later found to be not only dubious, but outright false.
• Bush administration payment of columnists with federal funds to say nice things about Republican policies. Illegal payments were made to journalists Armstrong Williams (R), Maggie Gallagher (R) and Michael McManus (R) (2004–2005)
• Sandy Berger (D) former Clinton security adviser pleads guilty to a misdemeanor charge of unlawfully removing classified documents from the National Archives in (2005)
• Bernard Kerik (R) nomination in 2004 as Secretary of Homeland Security was derailed by past employment of an illegal alien as a nanny, and other improprieties. On Nov 4, 2009 he pled quilty to two counts of tax fraud and five counts of lying to the federal government(2009) and was sentenced to four years in prison.
• Torture: Top US officials including George W. Bush and Dick Cheney authorized enhanced interogation techniques of prisoners, including waterboarding (called torture by many) by US troops and the CIA in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. In 2010 Bush stated “He’d do it again…” and Cheney stated on ABC’s This Week, “I was a big supporter of waterboarding.” (2004)
• Christine Todd Whitman (R), was appointed head of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by George W. Bush on January 31, 2001. Under her direction the EPA produced a report detailing the expected effects of global warming in the United States. The report was dismissed by Bush as the work of “the bureaucracy.” On June 27, 2003 after having several more public conflicts with the Bush administration, Whitman resigned from her position to spend more time with her family.
• Plame affair (2004), in which CIA agent Valerie Plame’s name was leaked to the press in retaliation for her husband’s criticism of the reports used by George W. Bush to legitimaize the Iraq war.
• Thomas A. Scully, (R) administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), withheld information from Congress about the projected cost of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, and allegedly threatened to fire Medicare’s chief actuary, Richard Foster, if Foster provided the data to Congress. (2003) Scully resigned on December 16, 2003.
• NSA warrantless surveillance Shortly after the September 11 attacks in 2001, President George W. Bush (R) implemented a secret program by the National Security Agency to eavesdrop on domestic telephone calls by American citizens without warrants, thus by-passing the FISA court which must approve all such actions. (2002) In 2010, Federal Judge Vaughn Walker ruled this practice to be illegal.
• Enron collapse (2002) leading to investigation of its CEO Kenneth Lay (R), a former member of the Republican National Committee and once considered a possible pick for Secretary of the Treasury, was a top political ally and financial donor to President George W. Bush. Lay was found guilty of 10 counts of securities fraud, but died before sentencing.
• Janet Rehnquist (R) appointed Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services by George W. Bush. In 2002, Governor Jeb Bush’s (R-FL) Chief of Staff Kathleen Shanahan asked Rehnquist to delay auditing a $571 million federal overpayment to the State of Florida. Rehnquist ordered her staff to delay the investigation for five months until after the Florida elections. When Congress began an investigation in to the matter, Rehnquist resigned in March 2003, saying she wanted to spend more time with her family.
• John Yoo (R) An attorney in the Office of Legal Counsel inside the Justice Department who, working closely with vice president Dick Cheney and The Bush Six, wrote memos stating the right of the president to –
1. suspend sections of the ABM Treaty without informing Congress
2. bypass the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act allowing warrentless wiretapping of US Citizens within the United States by the National Security Agency.
3. state that the First Amendment and Fourth Amendments and the Takings Clause do not apply to the president in time of war as defined in the USA PATRIOT Act
4. allow Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (torture) because provisions of the War Crimes Act, the Third Geneva Convention, and the Torture convention do not apply.
Many of his memos have since been repudiated and reversed. Later review by the Justice Department reported that Yoo and Jay Bybee used “poor judgement” in the memos, but no charges have yet been filed.
Legislative Branch
• Ted Stevens Senator (R-AK) convicted on seven counts of bribery and tax evasion October 27, 2008 just prior to the election. He continued his run for re-election, but lost. Once the Republican was defeated in his re-election, new US Attorney General Eric Holder (D) dismissed the charges “in the interest of justice” stating that the Justice Department had illegally withheld evidence from defense counsel.
• Charles Rangel (D-NY) failed to report $75,000 income from the rental of his villa in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic and was forced to pay $11,000 in back taxes.(September 2008)
• Rick Renzi (R-AZ) Announced he would not seek another term. Seven months later, on February 22, 2008 he pleaded not guilty to 35 charges of fraud, conspiracy and money laundering.
• Jack Abramoff Scandal, (R) lobbyist found guilty of conspiracy, tax evasion and corruption of public officials in three different courts in a wide ranging investigation. Currently serving 70 months and fined $24.7 million. See Scandals, Executive Branch. The following were also implicated:
1. Tom DeLay (R-TX) The House Majority Leader was reprimanded twice by the House Ethics Committee and his aides indicted (2004–2005); eventually DeLay himself was investigated in October 2005 in connection with the Abramoff scandal, but not indicted. DeLay resigned from the House 9 June 2006. Delay was found to have illegally channeled funds from Americans for a Republican Majority to Republican state legislator campaigns. He was convicted of two counts of money laundering and conspiracy in 2010.
2. James W. Ellis (R) executive director of Americans for a Republican Majority a PAC, was indicted for money laundering.
3. John D. Calyandro (R) of Americans for a Republican Majority
4. Bob Ney (R-OH) pleaded guilty to conspiracy and making false statements as a result of his receiving trips from Abramoff in exchange for legislative favors. Ney received 30 months in prison.
5. Robert E. Coughlin (R) Deputy Chief of Staff, Criminal Division, Justice Department, pled guilty to accepting bribes.
• John Doolittle (R-CA) both he and his wife were under investigation (January 2008). Under this cloud, Doolittle decided not to run for re-election in November 2008. The Justice Department announced in June 2010 they had terminated the investigation and found no wrong doing.
• Randy Cunningham (R-CA)pleaded guilty on November 28, 2005 to charges of conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion in what came to be called the Cunningham scandal. Sentenced to over eight years.
• Kyle Foggo Executive director of the CIA was convicted of honest services fraud in the awarding of a government contract and sentenced to 37 months in the federal prison at Pine Knot, Kentucky. On September 29, 2008, Foggo pleaded guilty to one count of the indictment, admitting that while CIA executive director he acted to steer a CIA contract to the firm of his lifelong friend, Brent R. Wilkes.
• Cynthia McKinney (D-GA) struck a U.S. Capitol Police officer in the chest after he attempted to stop her from going around a security checkpoint. McKinney apologized on the floor of the House and no charges were filed (March 29, 2006)
• William J. Jefferson (D-LA) in August 2005 the FBI seized $90,000 in cash from Jefferson’s home freezer. He was re-elected anyway, but lost in 2008. Jefferson was convicted of 11 counts of bribery and sentenced to 13 years on November 13, 2009, and his chief of staff Brett Pfeffer was sentenced to 84 months in a related case.
• Bill Janklow (R-SD) convicted of second-degree manslaughter for running a stop sign and killing a motorcyclist. Resigned from the House and given 100 days in the county jail and three years (2003)
• Robert Torricelli Senator (D-NJ) after 14 years in the House and one term in the Senate, Torricelli declined to run again when accused of taking illegal contributions from Korean businessman David Chang. (2002)
• Jim Traficant (D-OH) found guilty on 10 felony counts of financial corruption, he was sentenced to 8 years in prison and expelled from the House (2002)

How Corrupt Are Western Democracies? Part One/ 5 Parts


Some of The Major Cases of France; UK; and USA only

List of French political scandals:

Until 1958
• 1816 – shipwreck of and search for French frigate Medusa off the west coast of Africa.
• 1847 – Teste-Cubières corruption scandal, revealed in May 1847
• 1847 – Charles de Choiseul-Praslin’s suicide after having murdered his wife, daughter of Horace Sébastiani, Minister of the July Monarchy.
• 1880s – Boulanger Affair
• 1887 – Schnaebele incident
• 1887 – Wilson scandal, which led to the resignation of President Jules Grévy
• 1890s – Panama scandals
• 1894 – the Dreyfus Affair, treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus – exposed by writer Émile Zola on January 13, 1898.
• 1928 – Marthe Hanau affair
• 1930 – Albert Oustric affair
• 1934 – The Stavisky Affair, embezzlement and political corruption.
• 1949 – The Generals Affair, a political-military scandal during the First Indochina War.
• 1950 – The Henri Martin Affair, a political-military scandal during the First Indochina War.
• 1958 – The ballets roses, a scandal most notably involving then President of the Senate, André Le Troquer, in which a group of girls aged 15 to 17 performed “ballets” that ended in orgies.
Under the Fifth Republic
• 1965 – The Ben Barka affair, disappearance of the Moroccan opposition leader Mehdi Ben Barka.
• 1968 – The Markovic affair
• 1974
o Eurodif Affair.
o Cardinal Jean Daniélou’s death in the house of a prostitute (1974)
o Le Monde reveals the existence of the SAFARI government database, prompting the creation of the CNIL agency in charge of respect of civil rights and data privacy.
• 1979
o Robert Boulin Affair (Boulin was a minister of the third Raymond Barre government, found dead in mysterious circumstances on October 30, 1979)
o Diamonds Affair involving Bokassa.
• 1981 – The Canard enchaîné uncovered the Collaborationist role of former Minister Maurice Papon under Vichy France. The latter will be eventually convicted of crimes against humanity.
• 1985 – Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior by the French DGSE intelligence agency
• 1986 – Chernobyl disaster: Jacques Chirac’s government wrongly alleged that the “radioactive cloud” had stopped at the French borders.
• 1987-1988 – Iskandar Safa and the Hostage Scandal involving Prime Minister Jacques Chirac and Interior Minister Charles Pasqua.
• 1980s – Contaminated blood scandal
• The Canard enchaîné satirical newspaper fought to bring to light evidence of alleged corruption during President Jacques Chirac’s tenure as mayor of Paris. (see: Chirac’s role in Parisian corruption scandals)
• 1990s – Angolagate (arms-for-oil scandal)
o Taiwan frigates scandal (aka La Fayette scandal – fr:Affaire des frégates de Taïwan)
• 1994 – Yann Piat Affair (a former Front National far-right MP, assassinated on February 25, 1994)
• 1998 – Affair Elf-Dumas
• 1999 – “Affair of the beach huts”, leading to the arrest of prefect Bernard Bonnet
• 2005
o The revelations of the Canard enchaîné on Finance Minister Hervé Gaymard’s (UMP) lavish state-funded apartment led to his resignation in 2005.
• 2006
o Clearstream affair allegedly involving French prime minister Dominique de Villepin (UMP) accused of attempting to discredit his political rivals, including UMP leader Nicolas Sarkozy, by spreading false allegations concerning the Taiwan frigates scandal.
• 2010
o Bettencourt affair
Political scandals in the United Kingdom
Political scandals in the United Kingdom are commonly referred to by the press and commentators as “‘sleaze”.
1890s
• Liberator Building Society scandal, in which the Liberal Party MP Jabez Balfour was exposed as running several vast fraudulent companies to conceal colossal financial losses. Balfour fled to Argentina, but was eventually arrested and imprisoned.
1910s
• Marconi scandal of insider trading by Liberal Party Ministers including:
o Rufus Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, the Attorney General
o The Master of Elibank, Lord Murray, the Treasurer of the Liberal Party,
o David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, the Chancellor of the Exchequer
o Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, Postmaster General; was falsely implicated. (1912)
• Shell Crisis of 1915, which led to the fall of Herbert Henry Asquith’s Liberal Party government during World War I.
1920s
• Lloyd George and the honours scandal. Honours sold for large campaign contributions (1922)
• Zinoviev Letter (1924)
1930s
• Jimmy Thomas budget leak (1936)
1940s
• Hugh Dalton budget leak (1947)
• John Belcher corruptly influenced – led to Lynskey Tribunal
1950s
• Crichel Down and the resignation of Thomas Dugdale (1954)
• Suez Crisis (1956)
1960s
• Soviet agent John Vassall working for Minister Tam Galbraith (1962)
• Profumo Affair (1963): Secretary of State for War John Profumo had an affair with prostitute Christine Keeler (to whom he had been introduced by pimp and drug-dealer Stephen Ward) who was having an affair with a Soviet spy at the same time.
1970s
• Corrupt architect John Poulson and links to Conservative Home Secretary Reginald Maudling, Labour council leader T. Dan Smith and others (1972-4): Maudling resigned, Smith sentenced to imprisonment.
• Earl Jellicoe and Lord Lambton sex scandal (1973): Conservatives, junior defence minister Lambton is arrested for using prostitutes and Cabinet minister Jellicoe also confesses.
• Labour MP John Stonehouse’s faked suicide (1974)
• Harold Wilson’s Prime Minister’s Resignation Honours (known satirically as the “Lavender List”) gives honours to a number of wealthy businessmen whose principles were considered antipathetic to those held by the Labour party (May 1976)
• Peter Jay’s appointment as British Ambassador to the U.S. by his father in law, the then Labour Prime Minister James Callaghan. At the time Jay was a journalist with little diplomatic experience.(1976)
• “Rinkagate”: Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe was arrested and tried for allegedly paying a hitman to murder his homosexual lover, model Norman Scott, while walking his dog on Exmoor; the hitman only shot the dog, Rinka. Thorpe was forced to resign due to his clandestine gay affairs, but was acquitted of conspiracy to murder.
1980s
• Joseph Kagan, Baron Kagan, earlier ennobled by the Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson’s notorious Lavender List (1976), was convicted of fraud (1980)
• Cecil Parkinson affair with secretary Sara Keays resulting in their child, Flora Keays (1983)
• Al Yamamah contract alleged to have been obtained by bribery (1985)
• Westland affair (1986)
• Jeffrey Archer and the prostitute allegations (1986), and his subsequent conviction for perjury (2001)
• Edwina Currie resigns as a junior Health minister for incorrectly claiming that millions of British eggs were infected with salmonella, stating that “most of [British] egg production” was infected (1988)
• “Homes for votes” gerrymandering scandal (1987–1989)
• BSE (1989)
1990s
• Nicholas Ridley compares the EU to the Third Reich in an interview in The Spectator magazine (1990)
• Arms-to-Iraq and the closely connected Iraqi Supergun affair (1990)
• David Mellor resignation after press disclosure of his affair with Antonia de Sancha and gratis holiday from a daughter of a PLO official (1992)
• Squidgygate, the covert leaking of a bugged phone call between the Princess of Wales and James Hewitt, although the phrase originally referred to the exposure of the Princess’s extramarital affair (1992)
• Michael Mates gift of watch to Asil Nadir (1993)
• Monklandsgate dominated the Monklands East by-election. It mainly consisted of allegations of sectarian spending discrepancies between Protestant Airdrie and Catholic Coatbridge, fuelled by the fact that all 17 of the ruling Labour group were Roman Catholics. (1994)
• Back to Basics, a government policy slogan portrayed by opponents and the press as a morality campaign to compare it with a contemporaneous succession of sex scandals in John Major’s government which led to the resignation of Tim Yeo and the Earl of Caithness, among others (1994)
• Cash-for-questions affair involving Neil Hamilton, Tim Smith and Mohamed Al-Fayed (1994)
• Jonathan Aitken and the hotel bill allegations, and subsequent conviction for perjury after his failed libel action against The Guardian, resulting in Aitken being only the third person to have to resign from the Privy Council in the 20th century. (1995)
• Bernie Ecclestone was involved in a political scandal when it transpired he had given the Labour Party a million pound donation – which raised eyebrows when the incoming Labour government changed its policy to allow Formula One to continue being sponsored by tobacco manufacturers. The Labour Party returned the donation when the scandal came to light. (1997)
• Double resignation rocks government. Peter Mandelson, Trade and Industry Secretary, resigns after failing to disclose £373,000 loan from Paymaster General Geoffrey Robinson. (1998)
• Ron Davies resigns from the cabinet after being robbed by a man he met at Clapham Common and then lying about it (1998)
• Jerry Hayes was “outed” as a homosexual by the News of the World. with the headline “TORY MP 2-TIMED WIFE WITH UNDER-AGE GAY LOVER”. Hayes had met Young Conservative Paul Stone at the 1991 Conservative conference and that same evening, “committed a lewd act which was in breach of the law at the time”. Stone had been 18 at the time, whilst the legal age for homosexual sex in 1991 was 21. He had previously supported Section 28 and other anti-gay legislation. (1997)
2000s
• Officegate (2001). Henry McLeish, Labour First Minister of Scotland, failed to refund the House of Commons for income he had received from the sub-let of his constituency office in Glenrothes while still a Westminster MP.
• Keith Vaz, Peter Mandelson and the Hinduja brothers. Mandelson forced to resign again due to misleading statements. (2001)
• Jo Moore, within an hour of the 9/11 attacks, Moore sent an email to the press office of her department suggesting: It’s now a very good day to get out anything we want to bury. Councillors’ expenses? Although prior to the catastrophic collapse of the towers, the phrase “a good day to bury bad news” (not actually used by Moore) has since been used to refer to other instances of attempting to hide one item of news behind a more publicised issue.
• In 2002, Edwina Currie revealed that she had had an affair, beginning in 1984, with John Major before he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. This was criticised more harshly than may otherwise have been the case as Major had frequently pushed his Back To Basics agenda (see above), which was taken by the media as a form of moral absolutism.
• The Burrell affair – allegations about the behavior of the British Royal Family and their servants with possible constitutional implications. (2002)
• Ron Davies stands down from Welsh assembly following accusations of illicit gay sex. Mr Davies had claimed he had been badger-watching in the area. (2003)
• The apparent suicide of Dr David Kelly and the Hutton Inquiry. On 17 July 2003, Kelly, an employee of the Ministry of Defence, apparently committed suicide after being misquoted by BBC journalist Andrew Gilligan as saying that Tony Blair’s Labour government had knowingly “sexed up” the “September Dossier”, a report into Iraq and weapons of mass destruction. The government was cleared of wrongdoing, while the BBC was strongly criticised by the subsequent inquiry, leading to the resignation of the BBC’s chairman and director-general.
• In 2005, David McLetchie, leader of the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party is forced to resign after claiming the highest taxi expenses of any MSP. These included personal journeys, journeys related solely with his second job as a solicitor, and Conservative Party business, for example travel to Conservative conferences. Conservative backbench MSP Brian Monteith has the whip withdrawn for briefing against his leader to the Scotland on Sunday newspaper.
• Liberal Democrats Home Affairs spokesman Mark Oaten resigns after it is revealed by the News of the World that he paid rentboys to perform sexual activities on him.
• (2006). Tessa Jowell, Labour cabinet minister, embroiled in a scandal about a property remortgage allegedly arranged to enable her husband to realise £350,000 from an off-shore hedge fund, money he allegedly received as a gift following testimony he had provided for Silvio Berlusconi in the 1990s. Popularised by the press as “Jowellgate”.
• In March 2006 it emerged that the Labour party had borrowed millions of pounds in 2005 to help fund their general election campaign. While not illegal, on 15 March the Treasurer of the party, Jack Dromey stated publicly that he had neither knowledge of or involvement in these loans and had only become aware when he read about it in the newspapers. A story was running at the time that Dr Chai Patel and others had been recommended for Life peerages after lending the Labour party money. He called on the Electoral Commission to investigate the issue of political parties taking out loans from non-commercial sources. See Cash for Peerages.
Cash for Honours (2006). Following revelations about Dr Chai Patel and others who were recommended for peerages after lending the Labour party money, the Treasurer of the party, Jack Dromey said he had not been involved and did not know the party had secretly borrowed millions of pounds in 2005. He called on the Electoral Commission to investigate the issue of political parties taking out loans from non-commercial sources.
• In November 2007, it emerged that more than £400,000 had been accepted by the Labour Party from one person through a series of third parties, causing the Electoral Commission to seek an explanation. Peter Watt resigned as the General Secretary of the party the day after the story broke and was quoted as saying that he knew about the arrangement but had not appreciated that he had failed to comply with the reporting requirements.
• On 24 January 2008, Peter Hain resigned his two cabinet posts (Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Secretary of State for Wales) after the Electoral Commission referred donations to his Deputy Leadership campaign to the police.
• Derek Conway (2008). Conservative Party MP found to have reclaimed salaries he had paid to his two sons who had in fact not carried out the work to the extent claimed. Ordered to repay £16,918, suspended from the House of Commons for 10 days and removed from the party whip.
• Cash for Influence (2009). Details of covertly recorded discussions with 4 Labour Party peers in which their ability to influence legislation and the consultancy fees that they charge (including retainer payments of up to £120,000) were published by The Sunday Times.
• Smeargate – The scandal brought to light in April 2009 by the publishing of secret ‘smear campaign’ plans made by members of the UK Labour government aimed at tarnishing several Conservative MPs careers.
• United Kingdom Parliamentary expenses scandal following the disclosure of widespread actual and alleged misuse of the permitted allowances and expenses claimed by Members of Parliament and attempts by MPs to exempt themselves from Freedom of Information legislation.
2010s
• The Iris Robinson scandal in which First Minister of Northern Ireland Peter Robinson stepped aside for a 6 weeks in January 2010 following revelations of his wife’s involvement in an extramarital affair, her attempted suicide and allegations that he had failed to properly declare details of loans she had procured for her lover to develop a business venture.
• The 2010 Cash for Influence Scandal, in which undercover reporters for the Dispatches television series posed as political lobbyists offering to pay Members of Parliament to influence policy.
• On 29 May 2010 Chief Secretary to the Treasury David Laws resigned from the Cabinet and was referred to the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards after the Daily Telegraph newspaper published details of Laws claiming around £40,000 in expenses on a second home owned by a secret gay partner between 2004 and 2009 whilst House of Commons rules have prevented MP’s from claiming second home expenses on properties owned by a partner since 2006. By resigning Laws became the shortest serving Minister in modern British political history with less than 18 days service as a Cabinet Minister.

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