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Posts tagged ‘Turkey’

The Significance of the Presidential Seal of Turkey


The Significance of the Presidential Seal of Turkey

The Significance of the Presidential Seal of Turkey

The Presidential Seal of Turkey points to only small part of the truth about the real history Turkic Mongolian groups.

Because if they tell the whole story it would tantamount to a declaration of war against all nations of the world.

Read the writings of Turanists, the Turkic Mongolian extremists, including the Jews, and what they say about the history of the ancient Turkic Mongolians since before the building the Great Wall of China
Instead of repeating the outdated and wrong concepts that have been engraved in history and in mind for thousands of years, researching, thinking, and discovery must be done, not to deny the truthful facts that are presented to the world honestly and effortlessly.
Many Turkic Mongolian groups stretched from East in India and Iran to West in Rome and the Americas

Wake up peoples of the world! Your slumber does not hurt you separately, but hurts the entire world.

Presidential Seal of Turkey

Erdoğan and Abbas with actors representing the 16 Great Turkic Empires (2015)

Erdoğan and Abbas with actors representing the 16 Great Turkic Empires (2015)

Turkey Leading Smear Hate and Terrorist Campaigns Against Myanmar (Burma)


Turkey Leading Smear Hate and Terrorist Campaigns Against Myanmar (Burma)

Now Turkey is leading a smear, hate, and terrorist campaigns against Myanmar (Burma) claiming that they want to protect Muslims or terrorist groups.

They want to open a new Syria in Myanmar and the Philippines.

A Facebook page called “Turkey President Erdoğan” states “The head of terrorist buddhists in Burma. – Ashin Wirathu – You are gonna face the biggest punishment – You are gonna beg to die!!!”

This issue has nothing to do with Turkey or Islam. Turkey has no legitimate right or history to represent Muslims and support separatists. If Turkey supports separatism let them give back the legitimate rights of Kurds, Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians first.

When terrorists are hiding behind civilians and babies no one can blame the Burmese of killing them. How many Muslim and non-Muslim civilians and babies were killed deliberately, and not during fighting, by Turkic groups in their bloody history?

The Rohingya insurgency in Western Myanmar is an ongoing insurgency in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar (formerly known as Arakan, Burma), waged by insurgents belonging to the Rohingya ethnic minority. Most clashes have occurred in the Maungdaw District, which borders Bangladesh.

From 1947 to 1961, local mujahideen fought government forces in an attempt to have the mostly Rohingya populated Mayu peninsula in northern Rakhine State secede from Myanmar, so it could be annexed by East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh). During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the mujahideen lost most of its momentum and support, resulting in most of them surrendering to government forces. (more…)

Turkish Islam and The Zones of Islam


Historical expansion of Turkic peoples

Historical expansion of Turkic Peoples

The historical expansion of Turkic Peoples influenced the great religions of the Middle East and Asia. New forms of these religions were created and became militant and political tools for Turkic expansionism. In early Islam civil wars erupted and that was turned into waves of Jihadist imperial ambitions by the Turkic elements in the new faith who constituted the bulk of armies and later on became the rulers in the new empires. Arabic Islam was very short-lived and it was replaced by conflicting Turkish Islam and its rival Persian Islam. Long before the appearance of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, Persia itself was no longer Iranian as a result of Turkic infiltration.

As Fethullah Gu¨len put it “We are not here as Turkish Muslims to put ourselves in the service of Islam, but to put Islam in the service of life.” What is meant by “life” in this quote actually means “Turkic life” which implies the use of different forms of Islam to serve their expansion policies.

Below is brief article was written by M.Hakan Yavuz (a professor of political science at the University of Utah, Department of Political Science, The Middle East Center), and was posted on turkicworld.org.

The full article (20 pages) was posted on the Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 24, No. 2, October 2004

Earlier versions of this paper were presented at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, 24 October 2001; Carleton University (Canada), 30 March 2002; Waseda University (Tokyo), 7 October 2002; and John Hopkins–Abant Platform, 19 April 2004.

Posting Foreword:

This brief and severely reduced review lets a 15-min course on the specifics of the Türkic and Turkish Islam, its common traits with other Islamic zones, and its uniqueness in the Islamic family. To remain within the historical scope, I deleted most of what addresses the current status and politics. I also “adjusted” somewhat derogatory references to Shamanism and substituted them with less misleading references to Tengrianism.

While the Arabs class their per-Islamic past as “unenlightened period” of idols and polytheism, The Türks are known to believe in a single omnipotent Tengri from the first records of their history, and the notorious confusion of Tengrianism religion with utilitarian services of Kams (Shamans belong to a different ethnos) brings a distortion as a remnant of old prejudices. For a complete PDF file, click on Link above.

The Routes of Turkic first invasions to India, Iran, Caucasus, Anatolia, East Europe, Levant, Arabia, and Africa around 600 BC. These invasions corrupted all region's major religions and created new tribal groups

The Routes of Turkic first invasions to India, Iran, Caucasus, Anatolia, East Europe, Levant, Arabia, and Africa around 600 BC. These invasions corrupted all region’s major religions and created new tribal groups

The Zones of Islam

There are at least seven diverse competing and conflicting zones of political Islam. Conversion patterns, colonial legacy, types of nationalism, and political economy all factor into these evolving separate zones. Under certain political conditions, one sees the emergence of consensus and similar ‘public opinion’ across zones on various issues. For instance, the Arab–Israeli conflict and Bosnia helped to form a shared position under the rubric of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, but not the conflicts involving indigenous Muslim populations in Nagorno-Karabakh, Kashmir, or Cyprus.

Each zone’s understanding of the political role of Islam no doubt varies in terms of numerous socio-political groups employing Islamic idioms and identity claims within their respective zones, while themselves being influenced at the regional level by national culture and diverse historical and economic factors. None of these zones works in isolation and there is a constant fertilization of ideas, practices, and skills across zones, and a flow of ideas, skills, and ways of framing issues by intellectuals. In addition, the production of religious knowledge and the use of Islam in everyday life in each zone, are conditioned by its history and socio-political environment.

Such a heuristic approach is essential to understanding the various contingent manifestations of political Islam while evaluating the evolution of political Islam in specific zones, such as Turkey, and its relation to the non-Islamic Western world. Across the seven zones of Islam, it is clear that there has been a rediscovery of Islamic identity. This has generally taken place along the unexpected path of nationalism, which, in earlier studies, was regarded as antithetical to Islamic identity. Since the 1990s, almost all zones experienced a transformation of nationalism into forms of ‘Islamic patriotism’. On the one hand, there is an evolving transnational Muslim consciousness as a result of the persecution of Muslim communities in different parts of the world, brought to Muslim households through the rapidly expanding communication networks of television and Internet. These same images have also facilitated formation of an assertive ethnic nationalism.

There are also attempts to redefine Islam n national terms in order to consolidate the nation-state and national identity. Thus Islam has been an important facet of all Arab, Persian, Turkish, South Asian and Malay–Indonesian nationalisms, and it has also been mobilized for transnational causes such as in Bosnia or Palestine. In other words, the revival of nationalism in these zones has also led to the revival of Islamic symbols, practices, and institutions that had previously been an integral part of the social fabric of these countries. In other words, it is not only the universal principles of Islam that ground our everyday actions, but also the practical and immediate issues which Muslims confront. Although Islam provides a universal set of principles to make life meaningful, the principles are vernacularized and localized in specific narratives. One has to observe the critical distance between the universal principles of Islam (rather than a utopian model of Medina) and local narratives through which believers seek to preserve and perpetuate these principles.

By offering these zones, I seek to bring this critical and dynamic distance between the ethical principles of Islam and the local narratives into the forefront in order to understand that there is no universal model or a single highway to salvation but, instead, there are multiple ways of being and becoming a Muslim. I will disaggregate the Islamic world into seven separate zones and identify the major historical and social factors which shape these zones. These seven diverse ethno-cultural zones are Arab, Persian (Shi’i), Turkish, South Asian (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan), Malay–Indonesian, African and Minority (Diaspora) zones. Each zone’s understanding of Islam is primarily informed by its own national culture and by diverse historical and economic factors. In this paper, I will deal briefly with the first two zones and dwell mostly on the Turkish zone of Islam.

(more…)

The Difference Between Persia and Iran


Scythia is the origin of Persians

Scythia is the origin of Persians

What Are The Differences Between Persia and Iran?

Are They the Same? The short answer is NO
Persians are of unknown origins!!!! I guess they are ancient Turkic invaders and colonizers of Iranian Balkh (Bactria), Mada (Media), Parsa (Persia), and Parthava (Parthia) from Scythia (now Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan).
This means that the Achaemenid empire was not Aryan but Turkic!!!!!
The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), sometimes known as First Persian Empire, was an empire in Southwest Asia, founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation. It expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to Thrace and Macedon on the northeastern border of Greece making it the biggest empire the world had yet seen.
achaemenid-provinces-during-the-rule-of-darius-i

Princess Mandana Defeated the Medians and Destroyed the Iranians by Foreign Persians

The history of Iran (Aryan) starts with the ancient “Shoosh Civilization” 6000 B.C.E. Susiana Civilization

The original populations in Northwest Iran were the Median people of “Media”.

Zoroaster was the prophet of Ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion, Zoroastrianism, inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Iran. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.

The religion, Zoroastrianism, was founded by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek; Zarthosht in India and Persia). Conservative Zoroastrians assign a date of 6000 BCE to the founding of the religion; other followers estimate 600 BCE. Historians and religious scholars generally date his life sometime between 1500 and 1000 BCE on the basis of his style of writing.

Some say Zoroaster’s birthday falls on March 26th 1767 B.C.E. Zarathushtra was the first prophet to introduce the concepts of: monotheism, equality, duality of good and evil (struggle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu), mankind’s free choice between the two alternatives, messianic redemption, resurrection, final judgment, heaven (the word “Paradise” comes from Old Persian), hell and the notion of an almighty, kind, loving and forgiving God. He believed man’s salvation in life and in the afterlife could only be ensured through Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds. Many of these concepts had a profound influence on Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

The basic moral principles that guide the life of a Zoroastrian are three: Humata, “Good Thoughts,” the intention or moral resolution to abide by Asha, the right order of things. Hukhata, “Good Words,” the communication of that intention. Havarashta, “Good Deeds,” the realization in action of that intention.

The dates given for Zoroaster by ancient and modern writers differ considerably. The oldest parts of the Zoroastrian scriptures are the Gathas, which are the direct teachings of Zoroaster and his conversations with Ahura Mazda in a series of visions. According to tradition, Zoroaster died when he was 77 years and 40 days. The later Pahlavi sources like Shahnameh, however claim an obscure conflict with Tuiryas (Turan / Turk) people, in which Zoroaster was murdered by karapan (old religion priest) Brādrēs in Balkh (now in Afghanistan). (The Arabs called Balkh Umm Al-Belaad or Mother of Cities due to its antiquity.)

The 10th/11th century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiya, the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya, among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster.

The Turkic Persians starting from Cyrus the Great corrupted the monolithic religion of Zoroastrianism and replaced it with an antithesis of Magi cult (magic) and they became known as Magus.

Much like the Roman religion for Rome, it was adopted in differing forms as the generally inclusive overarching state religion of the Achaemenid Empire and subsequent Parthian and Sasanian empires, lending it immense prestige in ancient times.

693 B.C.E. Assyrians Destroyed Susa. The glorious, ancient, biblical and historical city of Susa in Persia was captured and razed to ground by the notorious army of Ashur Banipal. The Assyrians had built a very strong army that ruled over a vast area without any tolerance for other civilizations. Their source of wealth was plundering the weak and not let them regain power. They enslaved many nations including the Jews and the entire Iranian plateau. Assyrians destroyed the Elam kingdom leaving behind an ancient ruin called the Burnt City. This marked the end of 2000 years of Elamite kingdom and the Start of a New Era for the Persian nomads.

The beginning of foreign influence in the Aryan Monarch led to Persia.

600–559 B.C.E. Princess Mandana was reportedly a granddaughter to both Cyaxares of Media and Alyattes II of Lydia of the Mermnads dynasty in western Anatolia. According to Herodotus, Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, King of Media and Aryenis (the daughter of King Alyattes of Lydia). The Mermnads dynasty in Lydia was established by Gyges who Bible scholars believe that he was the Biblical character Gog, ruler of Magog, who is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelation. Mandana was not from pure Iranian origins and she could be from non-Lydian descent (she could be of Turkic Cimmerian from her mother’s side). Mandana (Mandane) was a Median princess, daughter of the mighty King Astyages and later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great. Queen Mandana is a central character in legends describing Cyrus the Great’s early years.

Shortly after Mandana’s birth, Herodotus reports that Astyages had a strange dream where his daughter urinated so much that Asia would flood. He consulted the “Magi” (Court Magician) who interpreted the dream as a warning that Mandane’s son would overthrow his rule. To forestall that outcome, Astyages betrothed Mandane to the vassal prince, Cambyses I of Anshan, “a man of good family and quiet habits”, whom Astyages considered no threat to the Median throne. Astyages had a second dream when Mandane became pregnant where a vine grew from her womb and overtook the world. Terrified, he sent his most loyal court retainer, Harpagus, to kill the child. However, Harpagus was loath to spill royal blood and hid the child, Cyrus II, with a shepherd named Mitradates. Years later, Cyrus would defy his grandfather Astyages, leading to war between them; a war that Cyrus would have lost, but for Harpagus’ defection at the battle of Pasargadae, leading to the overthrow of Astyages, as the dream had forecast.

There are references to Mandana’s death as 559 BC; however, as this year is considered the date of her husband’s death (Cambyses I), it is unknown if that is the actual date of her death or when she changed status from Queen Consort to Queen Mother. King Darius the Great named his daughter “Mandana” after her.

The history of Mandana ancestry is important to understand her character and motivations. The Greeks of Homer’s time knew Lydia as Maeonia, which was probably an earlier name for the country. Three dynasties are mentioned by the ancient sources; the first is entirely mythical, the second begins with myth but is partly historical, and the third is entirely real. List of kings of Lydia shows that the dynasties were the Atyads (Tantalids), the Tylonids (Heraclids), and the Mermnads.

Mandana’s mother (Aryenis) is the granddaughter of Sadyattes 629–617 BC (or c. 625 – c. 600) son of Ardys II son of Gyges of Lydia. Gyges is the founder of the Mermnads dynasty c. 700 BC. Aryenis was the sister of King Croesus (Kroisos) of Lydia 560–546 BC (or 560, 547) who was defeated by Cyrus the Great who is his grandson from her daughter Mandana.

Gyges was the son of Dascylus. Dascylus was recalled from banishment in Cappadocia by the Lydian king Candaules and sent his son back to Lydia instead of himself. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Gyges soon became a favourite bodyguard of King Candaules.

According to The Histories of Herodotus, King Candaules bragged of his wife’s incredible beauty to his favorite bodyguard, Gyges of Lydia. “It appears you don’t believe me when I tell you how lovely my wife is,” said Candaules. “A man always believes his eyes better than his ears; so do as I tell you—contrive to see her naked.” Gyges refused; he feared what the King might do to him if he did accept.

Candaules was insistent, and Gyges had no choice but to obey. Candaules detailed a plan by which Gyges would hide behind a door in the royal bedroom to observe the Queen disrobing before bed. Gyges would then leave the room while the Queen’s back was turned.

That night, the plan was executed. However, the Queen saw Gyges as he left the room, and recognized immediately that she had been betrayed and shamed by her own husband. She silently swore to have her revenge, and began to arrange her own plan.

The next day, the Queen summoned Gyges to her chamber. Although Gyges thought nothing of the routine request, she confronted him immediately with her knowledge of his misdeed and her husband’s. “One of you must die,” she declared. “Either my husband, the author of this wicked plot; or you, who have outraged propriety by seeing me naked.” Gyges pleaded with the Queen not to force him to make this choice. She was relentless, and eventually he chose to betray the King so that he should live.

The Queen prepared for Gyges to kill Candaules by the same manner in which she was shamed. Gyges hid behind the door of the bedroom chamber with a knife provided by the Queen, and killed him in his sleep. Gyges married the Queen and became King, and father to the Mermnad Dynasty.

Internal conflicts & shift of Power. Cyrus the Great (576–530 B.C.E.) defeats the Median king Astyages at the battle of Pasargadae in 551 B.C.E. and becomes the king of both kingdoms. He established the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 550 B.C.E.

The Mermnads dynasty of Lydia was defeated and ended by Cyrus the Great (son of Mandana and the grandson of the defeated king of Lydia) at the battles of Pteria and Thymbra. He completely annexed Lydia after the Siege of Sardis.

Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), also called the “Arsacid Empire”

Sasanian Empire (224–651), also called the “Sassanid Empire” or the “Empire of Empires” was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V.

551 Bumin the founder of the Turkic Khaganate declares independence of the Turks around Altai Mountains conquers Ötüken in Mongolian Plateau and takes the title khagan (qaghan). His empire is known as Göktürk (Celestial Turk).

552 Shortly after sending his brother Istemi to the Western Regions as his yabgu (vassal), Bumin Qaghan dies. His elder son Issık becomes the khagan

554 Muqan Qaghan becomes the qaghan. After a series of successful campaigns the Göktürks begin to control the Silk Road.

558 In alliance with Sassanid Persia, Istemi defeats the Hephthalites and conquers Transoxania.

568 An alliance with the Byzantine Empire under Justin II is formed after a delegation of the Turks led by Sogdian Maniah arrived in Constantinople to trade silk with the Byzantines.

576 The alliance with the Byzantines ceases after the Byzantines (contrary to their agreement) accept a treaty with Avars, enemies of the Göktürks. The Göktürks seize a Byzantine stronghold in the Crimea.

580 Agathias identifies Burgunds (Βουρουγουνδοι) and Ultizurs as Bulgaric people of Hunnic circle tribes, near relatives of Turkic Cotrigurs and Utigurs.

581 Tardush, the second yabgu in the west lay siege to Tauric Chersonesus in Crimea.

584 Taspar Qaghan dies, civil war breaks out. (Ishbara Qaghan vs. Apa Qaghan) Tardush interferes.

The First Perso-Turkic War was fought during 588-589 between the Sassanid Persians and Hephthalite principalities and its lord the Göktürks. The conflict started with the invasion of the Persian Empire by the Turks and ended with a decisive Sassanid victory and the conquest of the Eastern Turks.

The Second Perso-Turkic War began in 606/607-608 with an invasion of Sassanid Persia by the Göktürks and Hephthalites. The war ended in 608 with the defeat of the Turks and Hephthalites by the Sasanians under the Armenian general Smbat IV Bagratuni.

The Third Perso-Turkic War 627–629 was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Pannonian Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come.

The Jewish problem is actually a Turkic problem


The Jewish problem is actually a Turkic problem

The Jewish problem is actually a Turkic problem

Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

Therefore, the Israelite Exodus of 1446 BC was only within Punt, from one region to another. The Jews are not Israelite at all; and the name Judah was just used deceptively to relate the Jews to the Israelite. The Israelite were scattered all over the world and they no longer exist as a nation or a tribe.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

Yiddish was the everyday language of most Jews in Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, and parts of Hungary and Czechoslovakia) for 1,000 years. The term “Yiddish” is derived from the German word for “Jewish.” The most accepted (but not the only) theory of the origin of Yiddish is that it began to take shape by the 10th century as Jews from France and Italy migrated to the Rhine Valley. They developed a language that included elements of Hebrew, and French, Italian, and German dialects. In the late middle Ages, when Jews settled in Eastern Europe, Slavic elements were incorporated into Yiddish.

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort. As for: Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, Gagauz, Turkish and Urum (partially and asymmetrically and also for: German and Yiddish language is clearly was made by the Khazar Ashkenazim Jews in Germany in the same way which they produced.

The Judeo-Spanish language is commonly referred to as Ladino. Ladino is a language derived from medieval Spanish, with influences from other languages such as Aragonese, Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese, and Mozarabic. Ladino also has vocabulary from Ottoman Turkish, Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic, French, Italian, Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. The Turkish government promoted Turkish language and suppressed the Kurdish language. Ladino was not suppressed, but according to scholars, the community itself helped to suppress it.

The Sephardim Are Also Turkic Just Like the Ashkenazim. Sephardim Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim “The Jews of Spain”, are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethno-genesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000).

The Sephardim established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided; evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity. Their millennial residence as an open and organized Jewish community in Iberia was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain’s Catholic Monarchs in the late 15th century, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.

Here are few related articles:

Relationships between Turks with Jews and towards Arabs and Europeans

Jesus Christ was Crucified by Turkic Jews NOT by Romans

The Turkic Origin of Jews Made in Babylonian Iraq in 530 BC

Replacing Semitic Judeans and Torah with Turkic Jews and Talmud

The Jewish problem is actually a Turkic problem

The Jewish problem is actually a Turkic problem

To find out the true origin of the Sephardim

It is necessary first to answer the following crucial questions:
1- When the Sephardim appeared in world history? The answer: immediately after the Turkic invasion and enslavement of North Africa under their false flags of Islam, and Arab imperialism.
2- From where the Sephardim came to the Iberian Peninsula? The answer: from Turkey and other Turkic colonies via North Africa.
3- To where the Sephardim went after their expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula in 1492? The answer: mainly to Turkey and North Africa; and some went to Western Europe.
4- Who helped the Sephardim most after their expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula in 1492? The answer: only the Turkic Ottoman Empire.
5- How the Sephardim lived in before, during and after their stay in the Iberian Peninsula? The answer: in Turkic invasions, occupation and slavery, money, prostitution businesses in Iberia and all Africa.
6- How their language, Ladino, is related to other languages? The answer: many borrowings from Turkish and to a lesser extent from Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and French.
7- What are the results of the Genetic studies of the Sephardim? The answer: The Turks are all over the world and their genetic are heavily mixed like no other nation despite the claims of Jewish marriage rules; but still they resemble other Turkic groups.

(The processes of inventing Jews, the Talmud, and Judaism is explained in the following article: The Invention of Judaism in Babylonian Iraq  and in another article Replacing Semitic Judeans and Torah with Turkic Jews and Talmud)

The six Turkic groups are:
1- Turkic Muslim in Anatolia and Balkan, (fake Caucasians since Byzantine–Seljuq wars in 1048 Ad),
2- Turkic Shia Persians (fake Iranians since the Achaemenids in 550 BC),
3- Turkic Khazar Zionist Jews (fake Israelite since the tricky Babylonian “Return” in 520 BC),
4- Turkic rulers of Arabia (fake Arabs, following the death of Islam in 655 AD),
5- Turkic “Hindu” Indians and Gypsy (fake Aryans since the Persian conquest in 530 BC), and
6- Turkic Europeans (fake liberal Christians since the “Holy” “Roman” “Empire” in 962 AD)

Turkic 6 groups

This is yet strong evidence that almost all Jews in the World are not Semitic at all; and they are originally from central Asia and not the Levant. The creation of the State of Israel is the work of Turkic peoples under the leadership of Turkey and the Turkic ruling elites in the Gulf Arab states.

New Genetic Research Confirms Koestler’s “Khazar” Theory! Ashkenazi Jews Are Not The Jews of The Bible! In 2012, a major genetic study of Ashkenazim was led by Johns Hopkins geneticist Eran Israeli-Elhaik. It concentrates on the compelling genetic evidence that eastern European Jewry’s roots are not just in the Mid-East but, perhaps even more so, in the Caucasus, the mountainous heartland of ancient Khazaria. (See “The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses“).

pan-tu13Research Article “The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses” by Eran Israeli-Elhaik, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA, 21208. McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA, 21208.

Conclusions: We compared two genetic models for European Jewish ancestry depicting a mixed Khazarian-European-Middle Eastern and sole Middle Eastern origins. Contemporary populations were used as surrogate to the ancient Khazars and Judeans, and their relatedness to European Jews was compared over a comprehensive set of genetic analyses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis depicting a large Caucasus ancestry along with Southern European, Middle Eastern, and Eastern European ancestries, in agreement with recent studies and oral and written traditions.

We conclude that the genome of European Jews is a tapestry of ancient populations including Judaized Khazars, Greco-Romans and Mesopotamian Jews, and Judeans and that their population structure was formed in the Caucasus and the banks of the Volga with roots stretching to Canaan and the banks of the Jordan.  Download the report from here

So it is clear that there is no political difference between Israel and Turkey. But only that Israel is the place for elite Turks. The Turks are all over the region and especially in elite families in the Gulf Arab oil states and in North Africa. Israel is a very small part of the Turkic picture only. They have mutual gains with the governments in USA and Europe and that is why they are allies.

The Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world. Within these territories the primarily Ashkenazi Jewish communities of many different areas flourished and developed many of modern Judaism’s most distinctive theological and cultural traditions
is this another proof that the Ashkenazi Jews are not Semites and they are Asian Turkic? If so then Anti-Semitism is actually Anti-Turkism.

It is getting clearer by the day that secret societies are actually representing just only one group of people with different nationalities and religions. All of them have Turkic Khazar blood. These people are the elite families in the Gulf Arab Muslim oil-doms, Zionist non-Semite Jewish Israelis, ruling Turks in Islamist Turkey, and the big Ashkenazim and Sephardim bankers and main corporations in the Christian and secular US and Europe.

The elite families in the Gulf Arab oil-doms they are not Arabs and were not made by Arabs. Turkey and Israel are two faces for the same coin that is the Turkic peoples. It is convincing and very important to understand that the Jewish problem is actually a bad misrepresentation of the Turkic problem.

This old misconception is not only damaging Iran, Russia, Germany but also all Europe and even the true Israelite and the whole world without exception. The Turkic Khazars split into both Ashkenazim and Sephardim and other smaller groups.

Hitler and the Nazi were against the Khazar Ashkenazi m in Germany and in the Slavic Eastern Europe. It is impossible to tell if Hitler knew that they are not Semites and definitely not Israelite, but only new Asian pretentious converts. So Hitler was actually not Anti-Semitic or Anti Slavic but Anti Turkic, even if it was apparent to him; because those Jews of Germany and Europe and the USA are not Semitic but Turkic.

Once the world identifies their origin and history it would be much easier to consolidate the lines and strengthen the international support from the Americas up to Russia and Japan including Africa and Asia. The acts of the Turks and Ottomans are well known in Anatolia, Caucasus, Greece, the Balkan, North Africa, the rest of Africa, Arab countries, and even India and China. Telling the truth shall not be labeled anti-Semitic. Those known as capitalists or communists who claim to be Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Israel, Arabia, Anatolia, Europe and USA are barricading behind fake religions, history and ideologies. It is necessary to dismantle their covers first.

This is to explain that, after decades of media brainwash, it is difficult to discover that the devastation of Communism, Capitalism, and fabricated religions. Such degenerating ideas were threatening the Germans, and that is why they created Nazism to avoid the terrible fate of Russia and of all Europe. They worked hard to protect themselves and Europe from the Turkic people who called themselves Jews.

The original Semitic Israeli nation was shocked and was terrified and the Turkic Khazar Jews manipulated this situation for their interests. Calling Hitler’s and Nazi’s actions against Turkic Khazar Jews as Anti-Semitism is ironic since the Khazar Ashkenazi Jews are not Semites at all. The Ashkenazim as well as the Sephardim are systematically trying to deny that their true origin and the origin of their Yiddish and Ladino Languages are from Turkic Khazar. They both claim that their Zionist ambitions and businesses are legitimate, nationalistic and religious.

pan-tu1

pan-Turanianism

A Short Introduction to Pan-Turanism By: Dr Kaveh Farrokh
What is pan-Turanianism? Simply put, pan-Turanianism is an ideology that aims at creating a Turkic super state stretching from the Balkans in Europe, eastwards across Turkey, Iran (Persia), the Caucasus, Central Asia up to and including northwest China. The logic behind this is that all people who speak Turkish must be incorporated into this Turkic super state.

Hungarian pan-Turanianist activists go even further. They have proposed that the entire Eurasian landmass between Hungary and Norway in Europe to Japan and Korea was once an empire known as “Turania”. Apart from non-scholastic websites, no linguistic, anthropological and archeological evidence for such an empire exists.

Pan-Turanian racialists and historians would beg to differ. They are impervious to logical explanations even in the face of hard evidence. Such is the case of all who are infected with the virulent virus of racialism.

Pan-Turanianism, like Nazi “racial sciences”, or Stalinist “History”, has failed to convince the majority of western scholarship to its cause, and has been as equally unsuccessful in Eastern Europe, with the exception of Hungary and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

12744598_10207255420156607_8157750503597975473_nMuch of pan-Turanian ideology is similar to pan-Germanic racism and Nazism; philosophies from which the Grey Wolves and pan-Turanian ideologues have drawn much of their inspiration (see Parts III & IV). Like the Nazis in the 1930s and 1940s, the pan Turanian Turks envision their Turan super-state (like the Nazi “Germania”), in terms of “lebensraum” (German for “living space”) for all Turkic speaking peoples. The late president of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Abulfazl Elchibey (1938-2000), a Grey Wolf sympathizer himself (see Part II, item 4), is reputed to have stated that “…the road to Turkistan runs through Tabriz”. Tabriz has been an integral part of Persia for thousands of years.

Pan-Turanianism is perhaps one of the last racialist movements that first began in the 19th century. Traditional history cites its early origins amongst Ottoman officers and intelligentsia studying and residing in 1870s Imperial Germany. The fact that many Ottoman Turkish officials were becoming aware of their sense of “Turkishness” is beyond doubt of course, and the role of subsequent nationalists, such as Ziya Gokalp (see Part II, item 7a) is fully established historically.

the Grey Wolves and pan-Turanian ideologues

the Grey Wolves and pan-Turanian ideologues

Pan-Turanian ideologues have placed a very high priority on re-inventing past history. Much of this is based on the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Attaturk (1881-1938) (see photo below), who stated that: “Writing history is as important as making history”

Turkic History in 6-minute video

History of the Jews in Spain
Origins and History of Sephardic Jewry

http://kehillatisrael.net

07-0100Roman_Empire_Jews

18-0600Jewish_world

Hitler Was Not Anti-Semitic or Anti Slavic But Anti Turkish


Hitler Was Not Anti-Semitic or Anti Slavic But Anti Turkish

Hitler Was Not Anti-Semitic or Anti Slavic But Anti Turkish

Hitler and the Nazi were against the Khazar Ashkenazi Jews in Germany and in the Slavic Eastern Europe who claimed late conversion to Judaism.

It is impossible to tell if Hitler knew that they are not Semites or Israelite, but only new Asian Jews. The original Semitic Israeli nation was shocked and was terrified and the Turkish Khazar Jews knew and manipulated this situation for their interests.

Calling Hitler’s and Nazi’s actions against Turkic Khazar Jews as Anti-Antisemitism is ironic since the Khazar Ashkenazi Jews are not Semites at all.

The processes of inventing Jews, the Talmud, and Judaism is explained in the following article: The Invention of Judaism in Babylonian Iraq  and in another article Replacing Semitic Judeans and Torah with Turkic Jews and Talmud

Turkic History in 6-minute video

(more…)

The Turkish Jewish Khazar


The Turkish Jewish Khazar

The Turkish Jewish Khazar

Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

Therefore, the Israelite Exodus of 1446 BC was only within Punt, from one region to another. The Jews are not Israelite at all; and the name Judah was just used deceptively to relate the Jews to the Israelite. The Israelite were scattered all over the world and they no longer exist as a nation or a tribe.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

(The processes of inventing Jews, the Talmud, and Judaism is explained in the following article: The Invention of Judaism in Babylonian Iraq  and in another article Replacing Semitic Judeans and Torah with Turkic Jews and Talmud)

Another article of great importance is:

Biblical Promised Land was Asir Not Israel and the Exodus was from Ethiopia Not Egypt

The six Turkic main groups (without mentioning those in Russia, Africa, and Central Asia) are:
1- Turkic Muslim in Anatolia, Caucasus, and Balkan, (fake Caucasians since Eastern Tourkia (Khazaria) in 650 AD),
2- Turkic Shia Persians (fake Iranians since the Achaemenids in 550 BC),
3- Turkic Talmudic Zionist Jews (fake Israelite since the tricky Babylonian “Return” in 520 BC),
4- Turkic rulers of Arabia (fake Arabs, following the death of Islam in 655 AD),
5- Turkic “Hindu” Indians and Gypsy (fake Aryans since the Persian conquest in 530 BC), and
6- Turkic Europeans (fake liberal Christians since the “Holy” “Roman” “Empire” in 962 AD)

Plus these groups are the Turkified Scythians who invaded, enslaved, and created the Slavs and Thracians in Caucasus and Balkans since 600 BC.

Turkic 6 groups

Khazars were descendants of the Turkic tribe, known as the Huns or Hun, who invaded and savaged Europe from Asia around 450 AD. Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the breakup of the western Turkish steppe empire, known as the Khazar Khanate or Khazaria.

Their influence in Eastern Europe extended well into the countries we now know as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. The Khazars were pagans before they became Jews. Around 740 AD, Bulan, the King of Khazaria, adopted the religion of Judaism and the whole nation followed him.

Their home was not the Dead Sea, but the Caspian Sea, which became known as the `Khazar Sea’.
Khazaria long served as a buffer state between the Byzantine Empire and both the nomads of the northern steppes and the Umayyad Empire, after serving as Byzantium’s proxy against the Sasanian Persian empire. The alliance was dropped around 900. Byzantium began to encourage the Alans to attack Khazaria and weaken its hold on Crimea and the Caucasus, while seeking to obtain an entente with the rising Rus’ power to the north, which it aspired to convert to Christianity.

Turkic History in 6-minute video

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The History of the Jewish Khazars


The History of the Jewish Khazars, book written by D. M. Dunlop.

The History of the Jewish Khazars, book written by D. M. Dunlop.

The History of the Jewish Khazars, book written by D. M. Dunlop.
published in 1967, Princeton University Press. 292 pp.

Judaized Turks

For the sober historian speculation about what might have been is a frivolous distraction, but for those of us with less responsibility it has its charms. What would have happened if Xerxes’ invasion had been successful, or if Charles Martel had not driven the Moslems back behind the Pyrenees, or if the Russians had adopted the Christianity of Rome rather than of Byzantium? With these questions we are familiar. We are less familiar with the questions that the Khazars suggest. What would have happened if the Khazars had not kept the Moslems from breaking out north of the Caucasus, or if they had been able to maintain their state, or if their kin the Turks, Bulgars, and Magyars and their neighbors the Russians had followed the example of their rulers and aristocracy and adopted Judaism?

These are idle questions, of course, but they are not fantastic. The Khazars were not a myth invented by Judah ha-Levi in the 12th century as a convenient narrative vehicle for his theology. They are not even an invention of the Arab League, which would have it that modern Jews are descended from them rather than from Palestinian ancestors; or of American anti-Semites, of whom some now refer to “Khazars” as they once referred to “Eskimos,” for coy concealment, and others try to invest the name with an uncanny and sinister quality. From the 7th century until some hundreds of years later the Khazars were a power where Asia Minor meets Europe. Mr. Dunlop, citing Constantine Porphyrogenitus, reminds us that in the 10th century letters to their ruler from the Byzantine court, for which ceremony was no trivial matter, “bore a more handsome gold seal than that judged necessary for correspondence with the Pope of Rome or the successor of Charlemagne.” Khazar princesses were wives and mothers of emperors in Constantinople, and more than one Caesar of the Eastern Roman empire was enthroned with Khazar support. The Khazars ruled in the area more or less clearly defined on the west, south, and east by the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Caspian Sea, and vaguely on the north by the Volga and Don Rivers. It was they who defeated the repeated attempts of Islam at its most virile and expansive to push into Eastern Europe. Poor as our reliable information about them is, we can be sure of their importance before the destruction of their state, probably in the second half of the 10th century, by the Russians, or at the latest in the 13th century by the Mongols.

(more…)

Will Zionism and Pan-Turkism Use Terrorism to Replace Russia?


Will Zionism and Pan-Turkism Use Terrorism to Replace Russia

Will Zionism and Pan-Turkism Use Terrorism to Replace Russia

There is serious conflict between the supports of Yiddish, who see the future of Jews as being in Russia, whereas the Zionists see the Jewish future is in the Jewish homeland of Eretz Yisrael and the Jewish intelligentsia is split over this aspect of Jewish ideology. Zionism cannot operate just in Israel but it must have a wider living space like in Russia.

Wayne MADSEN wrote on 26.11.2013 at Strategic Culture Foundation on-line journal
The CIA’s plan for «Pan-Turania» to Replace the USSR,

Held for decades deep within the Central Intelligence Agency’s Top Secret Archives and Records Center was a plan, co-opted from an unnamed German Turkish expert, known as a «Turcologist», that would have seen a victorious Nazi Germany carve the Soviet Union into a group of puppet states based on Turanian nationalism. This «Pan Turania Idea» report, not declassified by the CIA until Christmas Eve of 2005, was, in fact, adopted by the CIA during the early days of the Cold War as a means to dissolve much of the USSR and replace it with a Pan-Turanian federation.

«Pan-Turanianism» was a concept originally developed by the British Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister Lord Palmerston as a way to destroy the Russian empire and replace it with Turkic and Mongol vassal states that would answer to the Ottoman sultan and ultimately, to the British crown. Pan-Turanianism influenced the «Young Turks» movement of Kemal Ataturk and was conceived, along with «pan-Arabism» that would eventually destroy the Ottoman Empire, by Wilfred Blunt, a British intelligence officer who headed the Secret Intelligence Service’s Cairo office.

…………

Read the full article here

Turkey, as a NATO country near Russia’s border, developed a powerful “deep state” where intelligence operatives, terrorists and gangsters crossed paths and shared political alliances, a grim reality that author Martin A. Lee explored in 1997 and a dark legacy that reaches to the present.

……….
Read the full article here

 

Turks in Anatolia Is Support to Khazar Modern Jews & Israel


the first wave of Turkish invasions in Asia Minor (1050-1204)

the first wave of Turkish invasions in Asia Minor (1050-1204)

Important Update Notice on 24 July 2018: I have updated my Abyssinian Hypothesis  after discovering the that single-hump camel (The dromedary) was unknown in Arabia, Aram, Assyria, and Kemet before 950 BC, while in abundance in the land of Punt.

This led to make the following major changes:
1- The proposed origin of Israelite from being Arabic-speaking Arab Yemenis to Ge’ez-speaking African Puntite;
2- Rename the Abyssinian Hypothesis to the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis;
3- The Turkic Mongolian colonizers and rulers of Neo-Babylonia invited elders from the House of Israel to Babylonia in around 580 BC in what is called the Babylonian Exile to help the create Judaism and colonize Aramaic land in 530 BC;
4- The Hebrew Language and the Hebrew Israelite are products of admixture between Ge’ez Israelite, Turkic Mongolian Persians, and colonized Aramaic. They existed only after 530 C; and
5- The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel are those Israelite who  left the land of Punt and decided to collaborate with Turkic Mongolians to invent Judaism and colonize Aramaic lands; and turned into Hebrew Israelite.

For more details on the Ge’ez Puntite Hypothesis read the following three articles:
1- How Persians Cooked a Cult and Called it Judaism Part 1
2- The Turkic Mongolian-African Israelite Joint-ventures
3- Jesus Pointing to “The Lost Sheep of the house of Israel” and “the Gentiles”
[End of notice]

The Turkic migration is the expansion of the Turkic tribes in Europe and Middle East between 6th and 11th centuries. The region of origin of the Turks is Central Asia, Xinjiang, Mongolia and Siberia.

The Khazars were a national group of general Turkic type, independent and sovereign in Eastern Europe between the seventh and tenth centuries C.E. During part of this time it was alleged that the leading Khazars professed Judaism. The name is frequently pronounced with an a-vowel, as in the Greek Χάξαροι and Arabic Khazar (Ḥazar), but there are traces of a different pronunciation in Hebrew (Kuzari, pl. Kuzarim), Greek (Χότξιροι), and Chinese (Kʿo-sa). During the first half of the eighth century, the Khazar’s converted to Judaism. The Khazar kingdom essentially became a new Jewish kingdom. Some scholars trace the origins of Ashkenazi Jews to the conversion of the Khazars. The influence of the Khazar conversions are significant enough to be a major topic of research for scholars today.

(The processes of inventing Jews, the Talmud, and Judaism is explained in the following article: The Invention of Judaism in Babylonian Iraq  and in another article Replacing Semitic Judeans and Torah with Turkic Jews and Talmud )

It was first suggested in the late 1800’s that Ashkenazi European Jews may have a link to the Turkic Khazars, as it was believed that nomadic Khazar leaders had converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century CE. This thesis that Jews were descended from Khazars was widely publicized in Tel Aviv University Professor Shlomo Sand’s 2008 book “The Invention of the Jewish People”.

Certainly identified Turkic tribes were known by the 6th century and by the 10th century most of Central Asia was settled by Turkic tribes. The Seljuq dynasty invaded Anatolia starting in the 11th century, ultimately resulting in permanent Turkic settlement there. Meanwhile, other Turkic tribes either ultimately formed independent nations, such as Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan or formed enclaves within other nations, such as Chuvashia. Turkic peoples also survived in their original range, such as the Uyghurs in China and the Sakha Republic of Siberia, as well as in other scattered places of the Far East and Central Asia.

At midnight August 2, 1492, when Columbus embarked on what would become his most famous expedition to the New World, his fleet departed from the relatively unknown seaport of Palos because the shipping lanes of Cadiz and Seville were clogged with Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain by the Edict of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain.

The Jews forced either to convert to Christianity or to “leave” the country under menace “they dare not return… not so much as to take a step on them not trespass upon them in any manner whatsoever” left their land, their property, their belongings all that was theirs and familiar to them rather than abandon their beliefs, their traditions, their heritage. In the faraway Ottoman Empire, one ruler – Sultan Bayazid II- extended an immediate welcome to the persecuted Jews of Spain, the Sephardim.

Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1324 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. The Jews welcomed the Ottomans as saviors. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until 50 years ago.

Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.1 Similarly, Jews expelled from Hungary in 1376, from France by Charles VI in September 1394, and from Sicily early in the 15th century found refuge in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1420s, Jews from Salonika then under Venetian control fled to Edirne. In 1470, Jews expelled from Bavaria by Ludvig X found refuge in the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman rule was much kinder than Byzantine rule had been. In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Western European Jews received three invitations to settle in the Ottoman Empire. Two were from Muslim sultans, Muhammad (Mehmet) II in the middle of the 15th century and Bayazid II in 1492. The third came in a letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) in 1454 to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century that “invited his coreligionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey.” Rabbi Sarfati wrote that “here every man dwells at peace under his own vine and fig tree.”

When Mehmet II “the Conqueror” took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm. Sultan Mehmet II issued a proclamation to all Jews “… to ascend the site of the Imperial Throne, to dwell in the best of the land, each beneath his Dine and his fig tree, with silver and with gold, with wealth and with cattle…”.

Turkey A Haven for Sephardic Jews

Sultan Bayazid II’s offer of refuge gave new hope to the persecuted Sephardim. In 1492, the Sultan ordered the governors of the provinces of the Ottoman Empire “not to refuse the Jews entry or cause them difficulties, but to receive them cordially.” According to Bernard Lewis, “the Jews were not just permitted to settle in the Ottoman lands, but were encouraged, assisted and sometimes even compelled”.

Immanual Aboab attributes to Bayazid II the famous remark that “the Catholic monarch Ferdinand was wrongly considered as wise, since he impoverished Spain by the expulsion of the Jews, and enriched Turkey.” The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed.

These Jews settled in various Ottoman cities, such as Salonika, but it was not until the late sixteenth century that they moved to Smyrna, which has become a major port city. The arrival of the Sephardim altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews (descendants of Greek-speaking Jews) was totally absorbed.

Over the centuries an increasing number of European Jews, escaping persecution in their native countries, settled in the Ottoman Empire. In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.8 In March of 1556, Sultan Suleyman “the Magnificent” wrote a letter to Pope Paul IV asking for the immediate release of the Ancona Marranos, which he declared to be Ottoman citizens. The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the “Super Power” of those days.

The Life of Ottoman Jewry

For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivaled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Four Turkish cities: Istanbul, Izmir, Safed and Salonica became the centers of Sephardic Jewry. The Tu B’Shevat seder was developed in Izmir in the seventeenth century. The creator may have been Shabetai Zvi, the pseudo Messiah and founder of the Sabbatean movement. In reaction to Zvi, Izmir’s Jews withdrew from any secular pursuits.

Jews DoctorPrayerLeft: Jewish Doctor – 1568 (Woodcut from “Nicolay de Nicolay”, page 185); Right: Prayer offered for the Victory of Turkish armies in the war against Russia with the presence of the Sadrazam (Prime Minister) Ibrahim Edhem Pasha Ahrida Synagogue (London Illustrated News 9.6.1877) Most of the court physicians were Jews: Hakim Yakoub, Joseph and Moshe Hamon, Daniel Fonseca, Gabriel Buenauentura to name only very few ones. One of the most significant innovations that Jews brought to the Ottoman Empire was the printing press. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul.

Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques. Another Portuguese Marrano, Aluaro Mandes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan. Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. Jewish women such as Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi “La Seniora” and Esther Kyra exercised considerable influence in the Court.

In the free air of the Ottoman Empire, Jewish literature flourished. Joseph Caro compiled the Shulkhan Arukh. Shlomo haLevi Alkabes composed the Lekhah Dodi a hymn which welcomes the Sabbath according to both Sephardic and Ashkenazi ritual. Jacob Culi began to write the famous MeAm Loez. Rabbi Abraham ben Isaac Assa became known as the father of Judeo-Spanish literature.

On October 27, 1840 Sultan Abdulmecid issued his famous ferman concerning the “Blood Libel Accusation” saying: “… and for the love we bear to our subjects, we cannot permit the Jewish nation, whose innocence for the crime alleged against them is evident, to be worried and tormented as a consequence of accusations which have not the least foundation in truth…”.

Under Ottoman tradition, each non-Moslem religious community was responsible for its own institutions, including schools. In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, “La Escola”, causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864. The same year the Takkanot haKehilla (By-laws of the Jewish Community) was published, defining the structure of the Jewish community.

Equality & A New Republic

Efforts at reform of the Ottoman Empire led to the proclamation of the Hatti Humayun in 1856, which made all Ottoman citizens, Moslem and non-Moslem alike, equal under the law. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces. World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. In its place rose the young Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was elected president, the Caliphate was abolished and a secular constitution was adopted.

Recognized in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne as a fully independent state within its present-day borders, Turkey accorded minority rights to the three principal non-Moslem religious minorities and permitted them to carry on with their own schools, social institutions and funds. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey’s adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.

During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system.

During World War II, Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure. Several Turkish diplomats, Ambassadors Behic Erkin and Numan Menemencioglu; Consul Generals Fikret Sefik Ozdoganci, Bedii Arbel, Selahattin Ulkumen; Consuls Namik Kemal Yolga and Necdet Kent, just to name a few, spent all their efforts to save from the Holocaust the Turkish Jews in those countries, and succeeded.9 Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, has been recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile (“Hassid Umot ha’Olam”) in June 1990. Turkey continues to be a shelter, a haven for all those who have to flee dogmatism, intolerance and persecution.

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