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Slavic-Turkic origins of the Ashkenazim Jews


The major migrations that formed Eastern European Jewry according to the Khazarian and Rhineland Hypotheses are shown in yellow and browns, respectively

The major migrations that formed Eastern European Jewry according to the Khazarian and Rhineland Hypotheses are shown in yellow and browns, respectively

Here are two researches which examine the Slavic-Turkic origins of the Ashkenazim Jews:

1- The Ashkenazic Jews: A Slavo-Turkic People in Search of a Jewish Identity, by Paul Wexler, Publisher: Slavica Pub; First edition. (December 1, 1993), ISBN-10: 0893572411

2- Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses by Eran Israeli-Elhaik, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Published: 14 December 2012

The Ashkenazic Jews: A Slavo-Turkic People in Search of a Jewish Identity, by Paul Wexler

This book, a linguist’s reassessment of early European Jewish history, will be of interest to anyone who has ever wondered how the Jewish people, lacking their own territorial base and living as a minority among often hostile non-Jewish peoples over the four corners of the globe, succeeded in preserving a separate identity for close to two thousand years.

The book makes a number of innovative and controversial claims about the relationship of the contemporary Jews to the Old Palestinian Jews. Recognizing the limitations of historical documentation, this book shows how facts about Yiddish and Modern Israeli Hebrew (presented in four recent books) can assist historians and archeologists in evaluating known data and artifacts as well as generate a new hypothesis about the origins of the Ashkenazic Jews, the north European Jews who have consituted the majority of the Jews in the world for the last several centuries.

In Wexler’s view, the Ashkenazic Jews most likely descend from a minority ethnic Palestinian Jewish emigre population that intermarried with a much larger heterogeneous population of converts to Judaism from Asia Minor, the Balkans and the Germano-Sorb lands (the Sorbs are a West Slavic population that still numbers about 70,000 in the former German Democratic Republic). Widespread conversions to Judaism that began in Asia Minor in the Christian era and ended with the institutionalization of Christianity among the Western Slavs in the beginning of the second millennium saved the tiny ethnic Palestinian Jewish population in the diaspora from total extinction.

The major non-Jewish contributors to the ethnogenesis of the Ashkenazic Jews were Slavs, though there was probably also a minor Turkic strain — both in the Caspian-Black Sea area (the descendants of the Khazars, a mainly Turkic group that converted to Judaism in the eighth century) and in the Balkans and Hungary. In all of these areas, the Turkic population early became submerged with the coterritorial Slavs. In addition to Yiddish terms of Slavic, Greek, Romance and German origin which express aspects of the Jewish religion and folk culture, the book shows that many elements of Ashkenazic folklore and religion themselves were of Slavic origin — either West (Sorbian and Polabian) or Balkan Slavic.

There is a lengthy discussion of the evidence for widespread conversion to Judaism in Asia Minor, southern Europe and the Germano-Sorbian lands up to the twelfth century and the reasons why pagan and Christian Slavs converted to Judaism. While historians have been disputing the extent of conversion to Judaism, Wexler thinks the linguistic and ethnographic evidence make the conversion evidence highly plausible. In addition, Jewish linguistic evidence refutes the traditional claims that Yiddish is a variant of High German and that Modern Hebrew is a “revived” form of Old Hebrew; new hypotheses are proposed: that Yiddish began as a Slavic language (specifically a Judaized form of Sorbian) that was re-lexified to High German at an early date, and that Modern Hebrew is, in turn, Yiddish that became re-lexified to Hebrew, and thus is also a form of Sorbian.

These facts support the author’s hypothesis of the Slavic origins of the Ashkenazic Jews, and the bulk of their religion and folk culture. The book proceeds to show how, under the conditions of relative separation from the non-Jewish population that developed after the twelfth century, the north European Jews developed elaborate processes of “Judaizing” their pagan and Christian Slavic religion and folk culture — by inserting unusually large amounts of Hebrew elements into colloquial Judeo-Sorbian/Yiddish and by reinterpreting and recalibrating religious and ethnographic practices according to biblical and talmudic precedents; customs known to be obsolete among the Christians were retained by the Jews as “Jewish” practices.

For example, the Slavo-Germanic glass-breaking ceremony intended to scare the devil away from the merrymakers at a wedding, was reinterpreted as remembrance of the destructions of the two Temples in Jerusalem. The ethnographic and religious evidence is taken mainly from discussions in the Germano-Slavic Hebrew religious literature of the thirteenth through sixteenth centuries which reveal that many rabbis were quite aware of the non-Jewish origins of Ashkenazic folklore and religious practices. Where the rabbis could not convince the masses to abandon pagan-Christian customs, they were obliged to retain them, but in a “Judaized” form. The book offers a correction to the unsubstantiated views of the late Arthur Koestler in his The Thirteenth Tribe (London 1976), that the Ashkenazic Jews are largely descended from Turkic Khazars who converted to Judaism in the Caucasus in the eighth century.

Wexler believes Koestler was right about a Slavo-Turkic basis for the north European Jews — but that he erred in assuming the preponderence of Turks over other ethnic groups, and in placing the “homeland” of the Ashkenazic Jews in the Caucasus. Where Koestler’s evidence, mainly non-linguistic, was scanty and totally unreliable, Yiddish and Ashkenazic folk culture and religion provide a wealth of varied evidence that support a primarily Slavic ethnic origin for the Ashkenazic Jews.

In opposition to the popular view that the Slavic imprint in Ashkenazic Jewish culture is a “late borrowing”, Wexler sees the Slavic elements as an “inheritance” from the pagan Slavic cultures which were to become for the most part submerged and reformed under the impact of Christianity.

Hence, Ashkenazic Judaism is essentially a Judaized form of Slavic pagan and Christian culture and religion (rather than an uninterrupted evolution of Palestinian Judaism) — and the best repository of pagan Slavic folk culture that survives to our days. Wexler also proposes that the other Jewish diasporas — e.g. the Sephardic, the Arab, Iranian, Chinese, Indian, Ethiopian and Yemenite — are also largely of non-Jewish origin.

The book compares the notion of Jewish peoplehood with attempts at rewriting the past found in many other societies. There is a bibliography of some seven hundred items and an index of examples.

Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses, by Eran Israeli-Elhaik

Abstract
The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved. The “Rhineland hypothesis” depicts Eastern European Jews as a “population isolate” that emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward and expanded rapidly. Alternatively, the “Khazarian hypothesis” suggests that Eastern European Jews descended from the Khazars, anamalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. Mesopotamian and Greco–Roman Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized Empire until the 13th century.

Following the collapse of their Empire, the Judeo–Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo–Khazars. Thus far, however, the Khazars’ contribution has been estimated only empirically, as the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland hypothesis.

We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Near Eastern-Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. We further describe a major difference among Caucasus populations explained by the early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central Caucasus. Our results have important implications for the demographic forces that shaped the genetic diversity in the Caucasus and for medical studies.

Introduction
Contemporary Eastern European Jews comprise the largest ethno-religious aggregate of modern Jewish communities, accounting for approximately 90% of over 13 million Jews worldwide (Ostrer 2001). Speculated to have emerged from a small Central European founder group and thought to have maintained high endogamy, Eastern European Jews are considered a “population isolate” and invaluable subjects in disease studies (Carmeli 2004), although their ancestry remains debatable between geneticists, historians, and linguists (Wexler 1993; Brook 2006; Sand 2009; Behar et al. 2010).

Recently, several large-scale studies have attempted to chart the genetic diversity of Jewish populations by genotyping Eurasian Jewish and non-Jewish populations (Conrad et al. 2006; Kopelman et al. 2009; Behar et al. 2010). Interestingly, some of these studies linked Caucasus populations with Eastern European Jews, at odds with the narrative of a Central European founder group. Because correcting for population structure and using suitable controls are critical in medical studies, it is vital to examine the hypotheses purporting to explain the ancestry of Eastern and Central European Jews.

One of the major challenges for any hypothesis is to explain the massive presence of Jews in Eastern Europe, estimated at eight million people at the beginning of the 20th century. We investigate the genetic structure of European Jews, by applying a wide range of analyses— including three population test, principal component, biogeographical origin, admixture, identity by descent (IBD), allele sharing distance, and uniparental analyses—and test their veracity in light of the two dominant hypotheses depicting either a sole Middle Eastern ancestry or a mixed Middle Eastern–Caucasus–European ancestry to explain the ancestry of Eastern European Jews.

The “Rhineland hypothesis” envisions modern European Jews to be the descendents of the Judeans—an assortment of Israelite–Canaanite tribes of Semitic origin (figs. 1 and 2) (supplementary note S1, Supplementary Material online). It proposes two mass migratory waves: the first occurred over the 200 years following the Muslim conquest of Palestine (638 CE) and consisted of devoted Judeans who left Muslim Palestine for Europe (Dinur 1961).

Whether these migrants joined the existing Judaized Greco–Roman communities is unclear, as is the extent of their contribution to the Southern European gene pool. The second wave occurred at the beginning of the 15th century by a group of 50,000 German Jews who migrated eastward and ushered an apparent hyper baby-boom era for half a millennium (Atzmon et al. 2010). The Rhineland hypothesis predicts a Middle Eastern ancestry to European Jews and high genetic similarity among European Jews (Ostrer 2001; Atzmon et al. 2010; Behar et al. 2010).

The competing “Khazarian hypothesis” considers Eastern European Jews to be the descendants of Khazars (supplementary note S1, Supplementary Material online). The Khazars were a confederation of Slavic, Scythian, Hunnic–Bulgar, Iranian, Alans, and Turkish tribes who formed in the central–northern Caucasus one of most powerful empires during the late Iron Age and converted to Judaism in the 8th century CE (figs. 1 and 2) (Polak 1951; Brook 2006; Sand 2009).

The Khazarian, Armenian, and Georgian populations forged from this amalgamation of tribes (Polak 1951) were followed by relative isolation, differentiation, and genetic drift in situ (Balanovsky et al. 2011). Biblical and archeological records allude to active trade relationships between Proto-Judeans and Armenians in the late centuries BCE (Polak 1951; Finkelstein and Silberman 2002), that likely resulted in a small scale admixture between these populations and a Judean presence in the Caucasus.

After their conversion to Judaism, the population structure of the Judeo–Khazars was further reshaped by multiple migrations of Jews from the Byzantine Empire and Caliphate to the Khazarian Empire (fig. 1). Following the collapse of their empire and the Black Death (1347–1348) the Judeo–Khazars fled westward (Baron 1993), settling in the rising Polish Kingdom and Hungary (Polak 1951) and eventually spreading to Central and Western Europe.

The Khazarian hypothesis posits that European Jews are comprised of Caucasus, European, and Middle Eastern ancestries. Moreover, European Jewish communities are expected to be different from one another both in ancestry and genetic heterogeneity. The Khazarian hypothesis also offers two explanations for the genetic diversity in Caucasus groups first by the multiple migration waves to Khazaria during the 6th–10th centuries and second by the Judeo–Khazars who remained in the Caucasus.

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Last 5 Turkic Empires Most Destructive in the World


Turkic Khanates

Turkic Khanates

During the 16th – 20th century when European empires dominated almost every civilization in the world, the only empires that could cause military destruction to European empires were the Turkic empires. In total there were 5 Turkic empires that posed threats to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

The Crimean-Nogai raids (1480-1774 AD) were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus’ then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569). These raids began after Crimea became independent about 1441 and lasted until the peninsula came under Russian control in 1774.

Their main purpose was the capture of slaves, most of whom were exported to the Ottoman slave markets in Constantinople or elsewhere in the Middle East. The raids were an important drain of the human and economic resources of Eastern Europe. The raids also played an important role in the development of the Cossacks.

Estimates of the number of people deported from the Slavic lands during the 14th to 17th centuries was about 3 million. Most of the raids fell on territory of today’s Russia and Ukraine. Slaves were mostly sold to the Ottoman Empire, although some remained in Crimea. The main slave market was Caffa which after 1475 was part of the coastal strip of Crimea that belonged to the Ottomans.

The Crimean Khanate broke off from the Golden Horde in 1441. The Khans took advantage of the conflicts between Lithuania and Moscow to raid both sides. During the Russo-Lithuanian War of 1500–1506 the Tatar penetrated deep into Lithuania. Then Turkic raids on Muscovy began in 1507.

The numerous raids and abduction of captives left a deep imprint on popular culture. In Ukrainian ballads and tales, one of the main themes is Turkish slavery.

Vasily Klyuchevsky (1841-1911) a leading Russian historian said: “During the 16th century, year after year, thousands of people on the borderland vanished from their fatherland, and tens of thousands of the best people in the country set off for the southern border to protect the inhabitants of the central provinces from captivity and ruin. If you consider how much time and spiritual and material strength was wasted in the monotonous, brutal, toilsome and painful pursuit of these wily steppe predators, one need not ask what people in Eastern Europe were doing while those of Western Europe advanced in industry and commerce, in civil life and in the arts and sciences.”

The condition of the captives as they were being carried to the Crimea was very difficult. Held in bondage, divided into small groups, hands tied behind their backs with rawhide straps, tied to wooden poles with ropes around their necks. Held at the end of a rope, surrounded by and tied to horsemen, they were driven by whips across the steppe without stopping. The weak and infirm often had their throats cut so they would not delay the march. Reaching the lower Dnieper where they were relatively safe from Cossacks, the Tatars let their horses graze freely while they set about dividing the captives each of whom had been marked with a hot iron. Having received their slaves as inalienable property each Tatar could do with them as he wished.

In Crimea they were driven to the slave market and placed in single file, bound together by the neck. The buyers carefully inspected the slaves, starting with their exterior appearance and ending with intimate parts of their bodies, to be sure that there were no missing or blackened teeth, warts, bumps or other imperfections. Beautiful girls were especially valued.

Which of these empire were the most destructive to Europe? In fact, many of the imperial states in Western Europe were either Turkic vassals or allies for some time. Marriage, fighters, slaves, and money businesses with Turkic were common in European imperial houses.

Ottoman Empire   (1299 – 1923)

During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful states in the world – a multinational, multilingual empire that stretched from the southern borders of the Holy Roman Empire on the outskirts of Vienna, Royal Hungary (modern Slovakia) and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the north to Yemen and Eritrea in the south; from Algeria in the west to Azerbaijan in the east; controlling much of southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa.

Kazakh Khanate   (1456 – 1847)

Kazakh state that existed in 1456–1847, located roughly on the territory of present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. At its height the khanate have ruled from eastern Cumania ( modern day West Kazakhstan ) to most of Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan and Syr Darya rivers with military confrontation as far as Astrakhan and modern day Iran city of Khorasan Province. Slaves were also captured by Kazakhs frequent raid on territory of Russia,[1] Central Asia to Western Siberia ( Bashkortostan ) during the Kazakh Khanate. From the sixteenth through the early nineteenth century, the most powerful nomadic peoples were the Kazakhs and the Oyrats.

Nogai horde (1440s–1634)

The Nogais horde along with the Crimean Khanate have raided Slavic settlements from Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Poland. The slaves were captured in southern Russia, Poland-Lithuania, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Circassia by Tatar horsemen in a trade known as the “harvesting of the steppe”. In Podolia alone, about one-third of all the villages were destroyed or abandoned between 1578 and 1583.[2] Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate.

Crimean Khanate (1441–1783)

the Crimean Khanate most destructive, even though their empire only included a fraction of Ukraine they had sold more European slaves than anybody, plunder and raided more than the Ottoman. Many of the soldiers who raided, pillage, and captured people for slaves in Eastern Europe under the Crimean Khanate were Nogais soldiers.

Kazan Khanate (1438–1552)

The khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El, Chuvashia, Mordovia, parts of Udmurtia and Bashkortostan; its capital was the city of Kazan. It was one of the successor states of the Golden Horde, and it came to an end when it was conquered by the Tsardom of Russia.

Nations Must Work Together to Save Humanity from Globalism


Turkic Settlements in 650 BC, Created Slavic, before Judaism was invented in 530BC in Babylonia and Ashkenazim made in 650AD

Turkic Settlements in 650 BC, Created Slavic, before Judaism was invented in 530 BC in Babylonia and Ashkenazim made in 650 AD

Nations Must Work Together to Save Humanity from Globalism

It is quite clear that there has been a long brutal campaign against Whites, Africans, Americans, Indians, Israelite, Arabs, Iranians, and Russians from a coalition of Turkic Mongolians (Jews, Persians, Turks, Gypsies, and Caucasians).

Whites, Africans, Americans, Indians, Israelite, Arabs, Iranians, and Russians must organize themselves and defend each other or otherwise those Turkic Mongolians will enslave the world as they did several times before since Alexander the Great.

The attacks are taking various political, religious, and economic forms.

The weapons used are: liberal multiculturalism, fanatic Islam, Talmudic Pharisees, institutional Christianity, open borders, mass migration, drug smuggling, leftist anarchism, organized crimes, EU states control, trade monopoly, money businesses, exchange rates fixing, corporate aggression, sexual perversions, academia dishonesty, media hogwash, educational decay, and international terrorism.

Nations must work together and form a united front to save humanity from global collapse under a coalition of Turkic Mongolians (Jews, Persians, Turks, Gypsies, and Caucasians).

Conservative politicians and patriots from Europe, Americas, Asia, and Africa MUST unite and form a strong and practical coalition NOW.

It must be based on mutual respect, interests, and trust to achieve common goals beyond narrow vision and selfish interests.

 

Watch out for the Turkic Connection!


Indo European Turkic connections

Indo European Turkic connections

Watch out for the Turkic Connection! To find out the true sources of slavery, NWO, counterfeited religions, and terrorism we have to go deeper than and depart the conventional mainstream academia, perceptions, and media.
In my opinion it is all about covering up and expanding the Turkic connection and Turanians.

The six Turkic groups are:
1- Turkic Muslim in Anatolia and Balkan, (fake Caucasians since Byzantine–Seljuq wars in 1048 Ad),
2- Turkic Shia Persians (fake Iranians since the Achaemenids in 550 BC),
3- Turkic Khazar Zionist Jews (fake Israelite since the tricky Babylonian “Return” in 520 BC),
4- Turkic rulers of Arabia (fake Arabs, following the death of Islam in 655 AD),
5- Turkic “Hindu” Indians and Gypsy (fake Aryans since the Persian conquest in 530 BC), and
6- Turkic Europeans (fake liberal Christians since the “Holy” “Roman” “Empire” in 962 AD)

Six Turkic Groups

Six Turkic Groups

Most monarchies, bankers, and politicians in Europe and USA are of their making since the so-called English, French, American, and Russian “Revolutions”. These Turkic groups committed all sorts of crimes in Asia, Europe, Levant, Arabia, and Africa.

With just a little of common sense and investigation people can easily find the real historic Turkic connections between them beneath their deceptive mutual hostilities and malignant policies.

The Routes of Turkic first invasions to India, Iran, Caucasus, Anatolia, East Europe, Levant, Arabia, and Africa around 600 BC. These invasions corrupted all region's major religions and created new tribal groups

The Routes of Turkic first invasions to India, Iran, Caucasus, Anatolia, East Europe, Levant, Arabia, and Africa around 600 BC. These invasions corrupted all region’s major religions and created new tribal groups

 

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