Meluḫḫa or Melukhkha is the Sumerian name of a prominent trading partner of Sumer during the Middle Bronze Age. Its identification remains an open question, but most scholars associate it with the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). They for a very long time ignored the reasonable possibility suggesting it is in Punt Lands. The discovery of the real Meluhha will ruin the Biblical myth that Sheba was in Yemen not in Tigray Region
Asko Parpola identifies Proto-Dravidians with IVC and the Meluhha people mentioned in Sumerian records. According to him, the word “Meluhha” derives from the Dravidian words mel-akam (“highland country”). It is possible that IVC people exported sesame oil to Mesopotamia, where it was known as ilu in Sumerian and eḷḷu in Akkadian. One theory is that these words derive from the South Dravidian 1 name for sesame (eḷḷ or eḷḷu). However, Michael Witzel, who associates IVC with the ancestors of Munda speakers, suggests an alternative etymology from the para-Munda word for wild sesame: jar-tila. Munda is an Austroasiatic language, and forms a substratum (including loanwords) in Dravidian languages. Asko Parpola relates Meluhha with Mleccha who were considered non-Vedic “barbarians” in Vedic Sanskrit.
Sumerian texts repeatedly refer to three important centers with which they traded: Magan, Dilmun, and Meluhha. The Sumerian location of Magan is now accepted to be the area currently encompassing the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Dilmun was a Persian Gulf civilization which traded with Mesopotamian civilizations, the current scholarly consensus is that Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Failaka Island and the adjacent coast of Eastern Arabia in the Persian Gulf. But, actually Magan is Makkan which is Makkah.
In an inscription, Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE) referred to ships coming from Meluhha, Magan and Dilmun. His grandson Naram-Sin (2254-2218 BC) listing the rebel kings to his rule, mentioned “(..)ibra, man of Melukha”. In an inscription, Gudea of Lagash (21st century BC) referred to the Meluhhans who came to Sumer to sell gold dust, carnelian etc.. In the Gudea cylinders (inscription of cylinder A, IX:19), Gudea mentions that “I will spread in the world respect for my Temple, under my name the whole universe will gather in it, and Magan and Meluhha will come down from their mountains to attend”. In cylinder B, XIV, he mentions his procurement of “blocks of lapis lazuli and bright carnelian from Meluhha.” There are no known mentions of Meluhha after 1760 BC.
Meluhha is also mentioned in mythological legends such as “Enki and Ninhursaga”: “May the foreign land of Meluhha load precious desirable cornelian, perfect mes wood and beautiful aba wood into large ships for you”— Enki and Ninhursaga
In one of his inscriptions, Ibbi-Sin mentions that he received as a booty from Marḫaši a Meluhha red dog: “Ibbi-Sîn, the god of his country, the mighty king, king of Ur and king of the four world quarters, his speckled Meluḫḫa ‘dog’, from Marḫaši brought by them as tribute, a replica of it he fashioned, and for his life he dedicated it to him (Nanna).” — Meluhha dog inscription of Inni-Sin.
The qualifier used to describe the dog can be read either dar “red” as an adjective, or gun3 “speckled” as an intransitive verb, and interpretations vary based on these two possible meanings. It is thought that this “red dog” could be a dhole, also called “Asiatic red dog”, a type of red-colored dog native to southern and eastern Asia. The Ethiopian wolf (also called the red jackal) is another candidate, it supports the theory that Meluhha is to be found either in Africa, somewhere near Egypt.
Various figurines of exotic animals in gold or carnelian are thought to have been imported from Meluhha. Many such statuettes have been found in Mesopotamian excavations. The carnelian statuette of an Asian monkey was found in the excavation of the Acropolis of Susa, and dated to circa 2340 – 2100 BC. It is thought that it may have been imported from India. It is now in the Louvre Museum, reference Sb5884.
Towards the end of the Sumerian period, there are numerous mentions in inscriptions of a Meluhha settlement in southern Sumer near the city-state of Girsu. Most of the references seem to date to the Akkadian Empire and especially the Ur III period. The location of the settlement has been tentatively identified with the city of Guabba. The references to “large boats” in Guabba suggests that it may have functioned as a trading colony which initially had direct contact with Meluhha.
It seems that direct trade with Meluhha subsided during the Ur III period, and was replaced by trade with Dilmun, possibly corresponding to the end of urban systems in the Indus Valley around that time.
According to some accounts of the Akkadian Empire ruler Rimush, he fought against the troops of Meluhha, in the area of Elam: “Rimuš, the king of the world, in battle over Abalgamash, king of Parahshum, was victorious. And Zahara and Elam and Gupin and Meluḫḫa within Paraḫšum assembled for battle, but he (Rimush) was victorious and struck down 16,212 men and took 4,216 captives. Further, he captured Ehmahsini, King of Elam, and all the nobles of Elam. Further he captured Sidaga’u the general of Paraḫšum and Sargapi, general of Zahara, in between the cities of Awan and Susa, by the “Middle River”. Further a burial mound at the site of the town he heaped up over them. Furthermore, the foundations of Paraḫšum from the country of Elam he tore out, and so Rimuš, king of the world, rules Elam, (as) the god Enlil had shown…” — Inscription of Rimush. Gudea too, in one of his inscriptions, mentioned his victory over the territories of Magan, Meluhha, Elam and Amurru.
Identification with the Indus Valley. Most scholars suggest that Meluhha was the Sumerian name for the IVC. Finnish scholars Asko and Simo Parpola identify Meluhha (earlier variant Me-lah-ha) from earlier Sumerian documents with Dravidian mel akam “high abode” or “high country”. Many items of trade such as wood, minerals, and gemstones were indeed extracted from the hilly regions near the Indus settlements. They further claim that Meluhha is the origin of the Sanskrit mleccha, meaning “barbarian, foreigner”.
Texts of 2200 BC indicate that Meluhha is to the east, suggesting either the Indus valley or India. However, other texts documenting the exploits of King Assurbanipal (668–627 BC), long after the IVC had ceased to exist, seem to imply that Meluhha is to be found either in Africa or Arabia, somewhere near Egypt. Clearly, many scholars are using false reasoning to protect Jewish Biblical myths and hide the location of real Israel
Meluhha also appears in these texts, in contexts suggesting that “Meluhha” and “Magan” were kingdoms adjacent to Egypt. In the Rassam cylinder, Ashurbanipal writes about his first march against Egypt: “In my first campaign I marched against Egypt (Magan) and Ethiopia (Meluhha), and Taharqa, king of Egypt (Muṣur) and Nubia (Kûsu), whom Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, the father who begot me, had defeated, and whose land he brought under his sway.” In this context, “Magan” has been interpreted as “Muṣur” (ancient name of Egypt) and “Meluhha” as “Meroe” (capital of Nubia). Meluhha was mentioned by Ashurbanipal in the Rassam cylinder in 643 BC, as a territory associated with Egypt, probably Meroe (column 1 line 52)
In the Hellenistic period, the term was used archaically to refer to Ptolemaic Egypt, as in an account of a festival celebrating the conclusion of the Sixth Syrian War, or in reference to the campaigns of Antiochus IV Epiphanes in Egypt (“Antiochus the King marched triumphantly through the cities of Meluhha”).
Very useful to find Sargonic scripture stating that Meluhha is 240 marching hours from Mari in Sumer. My suggestion it is the Yemeni port of Luhhayah (me- Luhha) is very strong. For Magan it could be (Makkan) which is the current Makkah. Melluha also means black land or land of blacks
After the sack of Ur by the Elamites and subsequent invasions in Sumer, its trade and contacts shifted west and Meluhha passed almost into mythological memory.
I am sure that my discovery of the place of Meluhha is correct and a very significant breakthrough in history
One very note is that probably the Akkadians, who are in fact Turkic Mongolian bandits just like Persians who colonized Iran, used the term Meluhha to point to blacks or slaves. This indicates that calling a place in Sumer Meluhha means slaves’ camp The true history of Arabs, Punt Lands, Iran, Sumer, Ugarit, Egypt and Yemen were deliberately obliterated and twisted by Turkic Mongolian bandits and their Amorite partners. I strongly believe the Hyksos who caused the Second Collapse Period in Kmt were alliance of expelled Akkadians on horse-back together with Amorites infantry who caused the First Collapse Period in Kmt
The alliance of East and West Asian bandits of Turkic Mongolian and the Amorites from the Levant, have been hostile to the Arabs and the Tigrayans since the time of King Solomon and their colony D’mt in 1000 BC. Now they are fighting and destroying the Arabs and the Tigrayans at the hands of the Houthis and the elites of Amhara, Tigrinya and Oromo. This aggression can be stopped by establishing counter alliance between the Yemeni Arabs and the Saudis with Tigray. The coalition can liberate Yemen and then liberate Ethiopia and Eritrea by working together. Read the true history of a Meluhha and Magan civilization in 2500 BC in Yemen and Mecca, when the Arabs and the Tigrayans were powerful and prosperous brothers and allies. Tigrayans, Yemen and Saudi Arabia must not miss this wonderful opportunity to restore the freedom, development and security of their people