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Fula or Fulani or Fulbe (the latter being an Anglicization of the word in their language, Fulɓɓe) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africa and The Sudan of east Africa. The countries in Africa where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Niger, Togo, the Central African Republic, Ghana, Liberia, and as far as Sudan in the east. Fulas are not a majority in every country they live, but in Guinea they represent a plurality of the population (largest single group).

There are also many names (and spellings of the names) used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe. Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages is also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Foulah. Fula and Fulani are commonly used in English, including within Africa. The French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, which is variously spelled: Peul, Peulh, and even Peuhl. More recently the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, which is a plural noun (singular, Pullo) has been adapted to English as Fulbe, which some people use. In Portuguese it’s Fula or Futafula.

Related Groups

A closely related group is the Tukolor (Toucouleur) in the central Senegal River valley. These people are often referred to together with Fulɓe of the region as Haalpulaar’en (Pulaar-speakers). Fula society in some parts of West Africa features the “caste” divisions typical of the region. In Mali, for instance, those who are not ethnically Fula have been referred to as yimɓe pulaaku (people of the Fula culture). The Woɗaaɓe, also known as the Bororo, are a subgroup of the Fula people.

Traditional Livelihood

Hausa: source zetaboards dot com anthroscape

The Fulani are traditionally a nomadic, pastoralist, trading people, herding cattle, goats and sheep across the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping somewhat separate from the local agricultural populations.

Origins and Spread

The early origin of Fulani People is most fascinating and deepened in mystery with widely divergent opinions. Many scholars believe that they are of Judaeo-Syrian origin. However, it is generally recognized that Fulani descended from nomads from both North Africa and from sub-Sahara Africa. They came from the Middle-East and North Africa and settled into Central and West Africa from the Senegal region they created the Tekruur Empire which was contemporary to the Ghana Empire. Then, they spread in all the countries in West-Africa, continuing to lead their nomadic life style. They created here and there mixed states where they sometimes were the dominant group. But more often, they were absorbed by the indigenous population whom they had dominated.

While some have speculated over the origin of Fulani people, current linguistic and genetic evidence suggests an indigenous West African origin among the Peul. The vast majority of genetic lineages associated with them reflect those most commonly seen in other West Africans. Their language is also of West African origin, most closely related to that of the Wolof and Serer ethnic groups. Historical and archaeological records indicate that Peul-speakers have resided in western Africa since at least the 5th century A.D. as well. Interestingly, rock paintings in the Tassili-n-Ajjer suggests the presence of proto-Fulani cultural traits in the region by at least the fourth millennium B.C. Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practiced by contemporary Fulani people.

The Fulani were the first group of people in West Africa to convert to Islam through jihads, or holy wars, and were able to take over much of West Africa and establish themselves not only as a religious group but also as a political and economic force. They are the missionaries of Islam and continued to conquer much of West Africa. The Fulani are primarily nomadic herders and traders. Through their nomadic lifestyle they established numerous trade routes in West Africa. Many times the Fulani go to local markets and interact with the people, getting news and spreading it through much of West Africa.

The History of the Fulani?

The history of the Fulani seems to begin with the Berber people of North Africa around the 8th or 11th century AD. As the Berbers migrated down from North Africa and mixed with the peoples in the Senegal region of West Africa the Fulani people came into existence. Over a thousand year period from AD 900 – 1900, they spread out over most of West Africa and even into some areas of Central Africa. Some groups of Fulani have been found as far as the western borders of Ethiopia. As they migrated eastward they came into contact with different African tribes. As they encountered these other peoples, they conquered the less powerful tribes.

Along the way many Fulani completely or partially abandoned their traditional nomadic life in favor of a sedentary existence in towns or on farms among the conquered peoples. The nomadic Fulani continued eastward in search of the best grazing land for their cattle. Their lives revolved around and were dedicated to their herds. The more cattle a man owned, the more respect he was given. Today, some estimate as many as 18 million Fulani people stretch across the countries of West Africa. They remain to be the largest group of nomadic people in the world.

Turkic Invasions & Slavery Routes in Africa

turkic-invasions-slavery-routes-in-africa

The history of Fulani is also closely linked to the history of the Baggara tribal group. They are also intermixed. During the 12th century, in Levant, a new tribal group called “Arab Turkmen” appeared  from Turkic descendants. That was followed by a massive migration of a confederation of tribes called “Banu Hilal”

The camel-herding Baggara are of Arab-Turkic origins, while the cattle herding Baggara are mainly of African origins. One theory suggests that after Banu Hilal invasion of Egypt (a.d. 1100-1200) the groups that became Baggara continued across North Africa to Tunisia, then came south across the desert into western Sudan. During that period the Turkic-Arabs invaders intermarried with the Berber (Amazigh) and formed the white Fulani as a new group.

They were part of an invasion up the Nile Valley into Ouadaï and Bornu in the late fourteenth century. Throughout the centuries, there has been movement east and west. The Baggara, on the southern fringes of the sultanates of Darfur, Ouadaï, and Bagirmi in the west, and Al-Funj to the east, between the two Niles, moved east and west along the line of the sultanates according to their political fortunes. New tribes were added to the Baggara between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries—for example, the Beni Khuzam and the Beni Helba.

By the eighteenth century, the Baggara were concentrated to the east of Lake Chad, and north of Lake Chad in Darfur and Dar Ouadaï. At this period, some of the groups began moving eastward; first the Reizegat (into eastern Darfur), followed by the Messiriya, the Humr, and the Messiriya Zuruq, and the Hawazma. Cunnison (1966, 3) says that the Humr probably moved eastward from Ouadaï about 1775, and that by 1795 there were references to the Messiriya in the southwestern corner of what is now Kordofan. Baggara groups have become widely scattered, as a result of their lateral movement over the centuries.

Rise to Political Dominance

Distribution of Fulani in West Africa

Beginning as early as the 17th and 18th centuries, but mainly in the 19th century, Fulas and others took control of various states in West Africa. These included the Fulani Empire founded by Usman dan Fodio (which itself included smaller states), Fouta Djallon, Massina and others. M. Delafosse suggested that with the expansion of the Fulani from Futa to Darfur, all this region became known to the Arabs as Takrur.

Culture & Language

The language of Fulas is called Pulaar or Fulfulde depending on the region, or variants thereof. It is also the language of the Tukulor. All Senegalese who speak the language natively are known as the Halpulaar or Haalpulaar’en, which stands for “speakers of Pulaar” (“hal” is the root of the Pulaar verb haalugol, meaning “to speak”). In some areas, e.g. in northern Cameroon, Fulfulde is a local lingua franca.

With the exception of Guinea, Fulas are minorities in every country they live in (most countries of West Africa). So some also speak other languages, for example:
Portuguese and Kriol in Guinea-Bissau
French and Arabic in Mauritania
Hausa and French in Niger
French and English in Cameroon
Wolof and French in Senegal
Sango and French in Central African Republic
Bambara and French in Mali
English, Hausa and Ghanaian languages in Ghana
English and some indigenous languages in Sierra Leone, particularly Krio, that lingua franca.
Hausa, other Nigerian languages and English in Nigeria

Fula are primarily known to be pastoralists, but are also traders in some areas. Most Fula in the countryside spend long times alone on foot, moving their herds; they were the only major migrating people of West Africa, though most Fula now live in towns or villages.

[As they conquered different towns and peoples, they would take captives from those tribes. Those captives became their slaves, adopting the language and lifestyle of the Fulani, and working their fields for them. Today, although no longer officially slaves, the ex-slave caste (rimaaybe or maccube) has no sense of their original ethnicity. Although distinct ethnically from the true Fulbe, their identity is now so intertwined with them that they are themselves called Fulani.

Over 99% of Fulani are Muslims. It is said that to be a Fulani is to be a Muslim. There are a small group of Fulani called the Mbororo, or Wodaabe, found in Niger and Cameroon, who resisted Islam, and have kept much of their pre-Islamic way of life and beliefs. And in different places, small groups of Fulani are choosing to follow the way of Christ. However, the vast majority are Muslims, most practicing a version of folk Islam, integrating animistic practices into their Muslim religious duties.] Source: Under the Acacias

[In 1804 Usuman Dan Fodio, a studious and charismatic Muslim Fulani scholar, began to preach the reformist ideology in the Hausa kingdoms. His movement became a revolution when in 1804, seeing himself as God’s instrument, he preached a jihad against the Hausa kings whom he felt were not following the teachings of the Prophet. A great upheaval followed in which the Fulani took control of most of the Hausa states of northern Nigeria in the western Sudan. A new kingdom, based on the city of Sokoto, developed under Dan Fodio’s son and brother. The Fulani expansion was driven not only by religious zeal but by political ambitions, as the attack on the well-established Muslim kingdom of Bornu demonstrated. The result of this upheaval was the creation of a powerful Sokoto state under a caliph, whose authority was established over cities such as Kano and Zaria and whose rulers became emirs of provinces within the Sokoto caliphate.

By the 1840s the effects of Islamization and the Fulani expansion were felt across much of the interior of West Africa. New political units were created, a reformist Islam that sought to eliminate pagan practices was spread, and social and cultural changes took place in the wake of these changes. Literacy, for example, became more widely dispersed and new centers of trade, such as Kano, emerged in this period. Later jihads established other new states along similar lines. All of these changes had long-term effects on the region of the western Sudan.

These upheavals – moved by religious, political, and economic motives -were not unaffected by the external pressures on Africa. They fed into the ongoing processes of the external slave trades and the development of slavery within African societies. Large numbers of captives resulting from the wars were exported down to the coast for sale to the Europeans, while another stream of slaves crossed the Sahara to North Africa. In the western and central Sudan the level of slave labor rose, especially in the larger towns and along the trade routes.

Slave villages, supplying royal courts and merchant activities as well as a sort of plantation system, developed to produce peanuts and other crops. Slave women spun cotton and wove cloth for sale, slave artisans worked in the towns, and slaves served the caravan traders, but most slaves did agricultural labor. By the late 19th century regions of the savanna contained large slave populations – in some places as much as 30 to 50 percent of the whole population. From the Senegambia region of Futa Jallon, across the Niger and Senegal basins, and to the east of Lake Chad, slavery became a central feature of the Sudanic states and remained so through the 19th century.] Source: Africa And The Africans In The Age Of The Atlantic Slave Trade

[People whom historians identify as Fulani entered present-day Senegal from the north and east. It is certain that they were a mixture of peoples from northern and sub-Saharan Africa. These pastoral peoples tended to move in an eastern direction and spread over much of West Africa after the tenth century.

Their adoption of Islam increased the Fulanis’ feeling of cultural and religious superiority to surrounding peoples, and that adoption became a major ethnic boundary marker. The Toroobe, a branch of the Fulani, settled in towns and mixed with the ethnic groups there. They quickly became noted as outstanding Islamic clerics, joining the highest ranks of the exponents of Islam, along with Berbers and Arabs. The Town Fulani (Fulbe Sirre) never lost touch with their Cattle Fulani relatives, however, often investing in large herds themselves. Cattle remain a significant symbolic repository of Fulani values.

The Fulani movement in West Africa tended to follow a set pattern. Their first movement into an area tended to be peaceful. Local officials gave them land grants. Their dairy products, including fertilizer, were highly prized. The number of converts to Islam increased over time. With that increase, Fulani resentment at being ruled by pagans, or imperfect Muslims, increased.

That resentment was fueled by the larger migration that occurred during the seventeenth century, in which the Fulani migrants were predominantly Muslim. These groups were not so easily integrated into society as earlier immigrants had been. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, revolts had broken out against local rulers. Although these revolts began as holy wars (jihads), after their success they followed the basic principle of Fulani ethnic dominance.

The situation in Nigeria was somewhat different from that elsewhere in West Africa in that the Fulani entered an area more settled and developed than that in other West African areas. At the time of their arrival, in the early fifteenth century, many Fulani settled as clerics in Hausa city-states such as Kano, Katsina, and Zaria. Others settled among the local peoples during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. By the seventeenth century, the Hausa states had begun to gain their independence from various foreign rulers, with Gobir becoming the predominant Hausa state.

The urban culture of the Hausa was attractive to many Fulani. These Town or Settled Fulani became clerics, teachers, settlers, and judges—and in many other ways filled elite positions within the Hausa states. Soon they adopted the Hausa language, many forgetting their own Fulfulde language. Although Hausa customs exerted an influence on the Town Fulani, they did not lose touch with the Cattle or Bush Fulani.

These ties proved useful when their strict adherence to Islamic learning and practice led them to join the jihads raging across West Africa. They tied their grievances to those of their pastoral relatives. The Cattle Fulani resented what they considered to be an unfair cattle tax, one levied by imperfect Muslims. Under the leadership of the outstanding Fulani Islamic cleric, Shehu Usman dan Fodio, the Fulani launched a jihad in 1804. By 1810, almost all the Hausa states had been defeated.

Although many Hausa—such as Yakubu in Bauchi—joined dan Fodio after victory was achieved, the Fulani in Hausaland turned their religious conquest into an ethnic triumph. Those in Adamawa, for instance, were inspired by dan Fodio’s example to revolt against the kingdom of Mandara. The leader was Modibo Adamu, after whom the area is now named. His capital is the city of Yola. After their victories, the Fulani generally eased their Hausa collaborators from positions of power and forged alliances with fellow Fulani.

Settlements
For the fully nomadic Fulani, the practice of transhumance, the seasonal movement in search of water, strongly influences settlement patterns. The basic settlement, consisting of a man and his dependents, is called a wuru. It is social but ephemeral, given that many such settlements have no women and serve simply as shelters for the nomads who tend the herds.
There are, in fact, a number of settlement patterns among Fulani. In the late twentieth century there has been an increasing trend toward livestock production and sedentary settlement, but Fulani settlement types still range from traditional nomadism to variations on sedentarism. As the modern nation-state restricts the range of nomadism, the Fulani have adapted ever increasingly complex ways to move herds among their related families: the families may reside in stable communities, but the herds move according to the availability of water. Over the last few centuries, the majority of Fulani have become sedentary.
Those Fulani who remain nomadic or seminomadic have two major types of settlements: dry-season and wet-season camps. The dry season lasts from about November to March, the wet season from about March to the end of October. Households are patrilocal and range in size from one nuclear family to more than one hundred people. The administrative structure, however, crosscuts patrilinies and is territorial. Families tend to remain in wet-season camp while sending younger males—or, increasingly, hiring non-Fulani herders—to accompany the cattle to dry-season camps.

Town Fulani live in much the same manner as the urban people among whom they live, maintaining their Fulani identity because of the prestige and other advantages to which it entitles its members. In towns, Fulani pursue the various occupations available to them: ruler, adviser to the ruler, religious specialist, landlord, business, trade, and so forth.

Economy
Subsistence and Commercial Activities:  The Fulani form the largest pastoral nomadic group in the world. The Bororo’en are noted for the size of their cattle herds. In addition to fully nomadic groups, however, there are also semisedentary Fulani—Fulbe Laddi—who also farm, although they argue that they do so out of necessity, not choice. A small group, the Fulbe Mbalu or Sheep Fulani, rely on sheep for their livelihood.

The Toroobe are outstanding clerics in the Sunni branch of Islam. They have generally intermarried with Hausa and no longer speak Fulfulde. They are found practicing other urban trades: teaching, serving in government positions, engaging in legal activities, renting property, financing trade, and so forth.
Many of the other Town Fulani were actually slaves of the Fulani who now identify with the group because of their high prestige. These urban dwellers engage in all the trades one finds in Hausa towns from crafts to long-range trade throughout Africa and the world.

Industrial Arts:  The Fulani are not particularly noted for industrial arts, except for those associated with cattle. They do engage in leatherworking and some craft production. Many of their former slaves who have assumed Fulani ethnicity follow the basic crafts of other West Africans: silver- and gold-smithing, ironworking, basket making, and similar crafts.

Trade:  The Fulani are engaged in long-distance trade, generally involving cattle, with their Hausa colleagues. Often the Hausa are also butchers who control West African cattle markets by controlling access to Fulani cattle.

Division of Labor:  Herding cattle is a male activity. Tending and milking cattle, however, are women’s work. Women may also sell dairy products; their graceful movement with containers of milk or cheese is a common sight in West African towns. Adolescent males traditionally have been in charge of moving the herds, whereas their elders deal with the political decisions and negotiate with sedentary people for the safe movement of the herds through farmlands.

Land Tenure:  Land is held by—and inherited through—the patrilineage. As the Fulani have become increasingly sedentary—generally as a result of the pressure of the modern nation state and its centralized control—rights in land have become increasingly important.] Source:  The Encyclopedia.com

Middle Eastern Origins of the Fulani

The Fulani people have an old Berber element. This is not surprising, but it is only a part of the origin of light complexion Fulani. The remaining and the most surprising part about Solving the Mysterious Origin of the Fulani is not in Africa but might be by historical analysis is in Turkic speaking countries, particularly The Khazars. Their vast slavery campaigns brought them in contact with many peoples in East Europe, Turkey, the Levant, and the Berber and from that the Fulani people were formed.

R1b1c (R-V88) is related to R-M335 (R1b1b) mainly found in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and P297 and its division R-M73 (R1b1a1). Found in Anatolia, Caucasus, Urals, Hazara

Haplogroup R1b is not indigenous to Africa, and it is also not in Europe. Its homeland is only central and western Asia. What is called R1b in Europe must be something totally different from the R1b of R1b1c and R1b1b. R1b identification, maps and grouping need fresh investigations and further studies.

The tribes that were to comprise the Khazar empire were not an ethnic union, but a congeries of steppe nomads and peoples who came to be subordinated, and subscribed to a core Tűrkic leadership. Many Turkic groups, such as the Oğuric peoples, including Šarağurs, Oğurs, Onoğurs, and Bulğars who earlier formed part of the Tiĕlè confederation, are attested quite early, having been driven West by the Sabirs, who in turn fled the Asian Avars, and began to flow into the Volga-Caspian-Pontic zone from as early as the 4th century CE and are recorded by Priscus to reside in the Western Eurasian steppe-lands as early as 463.

This is historic approach. It is necessary to investigate it genetically. This could be a great discovery for the origins of the Fulani, the Roma and the Ashkenazi peoples that eluded everybody forever.

 

[The Fulani who are nomadic pastoralists that speak a Niger-Kordofanian language and reside across central and western Africa do not cluster with other Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations. Moreover, the Fulani are distinguished from other African samples in Tishkoff et al.’s STRUCTURE analysis (Tishkoff SA, et al. (2009) The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans, 1035–1044).

Morphological analyses of the Fulani have been interpreted to suggest a Middle Eastern origin for the Fulani (Ehret C (2008) The Early Livestock Raisers of Southern Africa, 7–35.), and there has been some speculation based on linguistic data that the Fulani migrated to central Africa from northern Africa or the Middle East.]

[The clustering of the Baggara near the Fulani is also consistent with Tishkoff et al., who report that the Baggara share ancestry with the Fulani and with the Chadic speakers.] source: PNAS

Origins of the Fulani according to Jamtan.com

[Some believe that they are from a Semitic origin. According to the tradition, the ancestors of Fulani is Jacob son of Israel, son of Issac, son of Abraham When Jacob left Canaan and went to Egypt where Joseph was established. The Israelites prospered and grew in population while living in Egypt. Fulani people descended from them. After a long time a new Pharaoh who did not know about Joseph’s fame in Egypt, came to power. He made the Israelites work hard at slave labor. The Pharaoh oppressed the people, including Fulanis who were rich in cattle. They emigrated from Egypt, some of them went back to Palestine and Syria under Moses guidance and the other crossed the Nile with their cattle and headed west. They took the name of fouth or foudh meaning those who left. A group from the latter moved along the edges of the Sahara to Touat-Air and then to West-Africa.

Those who came to Masina (in present day Mali) spread to the neighboring regions where they were rejoined by Fulani groups from Morocco. It has established that about 700AD, Fulani groups from Morocco, moved southward, and invaded the regions of Tagout, Adrar, Mauritania, and Fuuta Tooro. The cradle of the Fulani group is situated in the Senegal River valley, where Fulanis established kingdoms. Until the beginning of the IX th Century. Around that period they continued their migration in the regions of Bundu, Bambouk, Diomboko, Kaarta, and Bagana. Finally those who were concentrated in the Ferlo from the XI to the XIV century moved in various groups to the Fuuta Jalon, to the Volta river basin, to the Gurma, to the Haussa land, and to the Adamawa, Boghirme,Ouadai

Other versions of the Fulani origin include:

a- The mixing between the proto-Berber from North Africa, and the Bafur (the people who populated the Sahara)

b- Issued from Asiatic pastoral tribes that invaded Africa, crossed the Sahara and dispersed through all the West-Africa Sahalian zone

c- The Anthropologists declare that the study of many Fulbe cranian structure has indicated that they are intimately linked to the Ethiopians and that both types are very similar to the Egyptian crane structure. According to the eminent Anthropologist Mr. Verneau, the Fulbe origin has to closely link the Egypt.]

The theories of the origin of Fulani

* Jewish or Arab Syrian origin and suggested a migration westwards along the North African littoral, southwards into the West-Africa and, thence, in historical times, eastwards. According to Some writers (e.g. Guiraudon, 1888; Delafosse, 1912; Morel, 1902)

* Fulani were North African Berbers, According to. Passarge, 1895; Meyer, 1897; Crozals, 1883

* Hindu Origins According toGolberry, 1805; Binger, 1892), Malayo-Polynesian (EichTall, 1841

* Gypsy theories complete the list of elaborate surmises on Fulani origins.

Wodabout the Wodaabe?

A very interesting and useful article was written by David B and published on April 03, 2004 at Gene Expression  “Wodabout the Wodaabe?

[I was planning to write a critique of Geoffrey Miller’s The Mating Mind (Vintage, 2001), but I got sidetracked by an intriguing passage about the Wodaabe tribe of North Africa. In Miller’s account:

“Perhaps human aesthetics emerged through runaway sexual selection, with aesthetic tastes evolving as part of female mate choice… Something like this still happens among the Wodaabe people (also known as the Bororo), cattle-herding nomads who live in the deserts of Nigeria and Niger. At annual gere wol festivals, hundreds of people gather, and the young men spend hours painting their faces and ornamenting their bodies. The men also dance vigorously for seven full nights, showing off their health and endurance. Towards the end of the week-long ceremony, the men line up and display their beauty and charm to the young women. Each woman invites the man she finds most attractive for a sexual encounter. Wodaabe women usually prefer the tallest men with the whitest teeth, the largest eyes, the straightest nose, the most elaborate body-painting, and the most creative ornamentaion. As a result, Wodaabe men have evolved to be significantly taller, whiter-toothed, larger-eyed, straighter-nosed, and better at self-decoration than men of neighboring tribes. This divergence probably happened within the last few hundred or few thousand years, illustrating runaway’s speed…” (pp.276-7)

On reading this, two problems occurred to me. One was that the process described by Miller would lead only to a one-to-one pairing of males and females, with no reproductive advantage to the most attractive males, unless the females who chose the most attractive males happened to be the most fertile. The other was that the Wodaabe, like all other ‘primitive’ peoples, must have an elaborate system of kinship and marriage, and Miller gives no indication how the selection process fits into this.

So I decided to find out what I could about the Wodaabe…

This is easier said than done. Miller gives no references for his statements about the Wodaabe, and searching bibliographies for the Wodaabe hits the problem of variant names and spellings. I soon found that one alternative spelling is ‘Wodhaabhe’, but a bigger problem is that the Wodaabe are just a subgroup of the Fulani, and the Fulani are also known as the Fula, the Fulahs, the Fule, the Fulbe, the Felaata, the Peuls, and doubtless other variants. But a search of the online British Library catalogue turned up half-a-dozen promising references, and two of these proved to be right on the button:

Derrick J. Stenning: Savannah Nomads: A study of the Wodaabe pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu Province, Northern Nigeria, 1959

Marguerite Dupire: Peuls Nomades: Etude descriptive des Wodaabe du Sahel Nigerien, 1962.

The following is based on these excellent anthropological studies.

The Fulani consist of a few million people speaking dialects of the Fulfulde language, and are spread across several countries of North-West Africa. Traditionally they were nomadic cattle herders, moving around the grasslands of the savannah south of the Sahara. Over the past few hundred years many Fulani have settled down as farmers and intermarried with other peoples of the region. But some Fulani remain as nomads, and the Wodaabe [singular: Bodaado] are one of the largest tribes of these ‘pastoral’ Fulani. The Fulani, including the Wodaabe, are now at least nominally Muslims, though the Wodaabe have retained many of their pagan traditions.

From early times explorers and anthropologists have been intrigued by the appearance of the Fulani, which differs from that of the Negroid peoples around them. According to Stenning: “The Fulani are not basically of Negro stock, although it is clear that through the centuries Fulani populations have interbred in various degrees with the Negro populations among whom they are dispersed…[the pastoral Fulani] retain non-Negroid physical characteristics to the greatest extent, speak the purest Fulfulde, and in general have been the least amenable to conversion to Islam… The desirable physical qualities of a Fulani are a light colour, slight bone structure, straight hair, thin lips, and, above all, a long narrow nose…” (pp. 2-4 and 56; see also Dupire, pp. 1-10, but Dupire points out that only a minority of Wodaabe have all of these features).

These are obviously ‘Caucasian’ characteristics, and the natural explanation is that the Fulani have a partly Caucasian ancestry, either from East Africa (e.g. Ethiopean) or more likely from the North (e.g. Tuareg). The Fulani themselves believe they are related to the Tuaregs and Arabs. They despise the Black populations to their South, describing them as ‘hyenas, apes, and asses’ (Dupire, p. 322). Intermarriage with Blacks is deplored, and described as ‘eating the fruit of the bitter black plum tree’ (Stenning, p. 57). (Sorry, that’s not very PC, but don’t blame me, blame the Wodaabe!)

The social organisation of the Wodaabe is based on patrilineal (agnatic) lineages. The Wodaabe depend entirely on their cattle, feeding on their meat and milk, and trading for other commodities with the settled people around them. According to Stenning, ‘The traditional aim of a Bodaado elder was, and still is, to pass on more cattle to more sons than his father was able to do’ (p.46).

Marriage practices reflect these interests. A man may have up to four wives. A man with more cattle can marry and keep more wives. If he loses cattle, his wives may divorce or desert him. Divorce by both men and women is relatively easy, though compensation may be required.

There are two main forms of marriage. The most prestigious form is by betrothal (kooggal). In kooggal marriage the boy and girl are betrothed as children and marry when the girl reaches puberty. The marriages are arranged by their paternal relatives. Various exchanges of cattle and gifts are required. To keep cattle within the lineage, there is a strong preference for betrothal between close patrilineal relatives, often cousins. The great majority of first marriages are by kooggal.

Subsequent marriages, by people who are divorced or widowed (or by men acquiring an extra wife) are usually by contract (teegal). In contrast to kooggal marriage, teegal marriage is usually between lineages not closely related (or between Wodaabe and non-Wodaabe). In principle, teegal involves an element of hostility (the wife is regarded as being ‘stolen’), so it is not thought desirable among closely related lineages.

So where, if anywhere, does the gere wol dance come into this?

The gere wol is a ceremony involving two unrelated maximal lineages (clans). At irregular intervals the elders of a clan will decide ‘time for a gere wol’, and choose another clan to visit, the choice depending on how long since they last met, whether there is a duty to reciprocate, and so on. Clan leaders will then take the young men (above puberty but not yet heads of families) on a visit. The ceremony itself is described thus by Stenning:

“Gerewol… is a dance before the elders: youths dressed in their finery… dance to a slow stamping rhythm unaccompanied by drums, while praising in song the charms of the maidens [of the other clan]. In this way the girls are graded in an order of beauty. Meanwhile the maidens, who dance in a circle nearby, choose the most handsome and best-dressed youth and point him out by oblique references in song. This goes on until three or four of the best-looking youths and maidens have been paired. At the hirde [evening] gathering which now takes place, the couples are expected to spend the evening together, the rest of the dancers pairing off as they may.

“Although the gerewol is connected with courtship it does not regulate or determine betrothal and first marriage, which have been decided on, often some years previously, by the parents or guardians of the partners. Gerewol has the effect of ranging the youths and maidens of a particular age group into a generally recognized order of physical desirability by which the status of a young man or woman in that age group is assessed. But after marriage this status is unimportant, for that of men – and in reciprocal terms that of women – is measured by the number of cattle and children they possess.” (Stenning p. 157; see also the more elaborate account in Dupire, pp. 312-19).

From this description it is clear that gere wol can have at most a marginal effect on the reproductive success of Wodaabe men. It does not affect the normal course of marriage arrangements, and the selection of the most handsome men in itself has little impact, since they get only one partner for the evening. (It is all rather reminiscent of the Senior Prom in an American high school, as portrayed in countless teen dramas!) This is not to say that the gere wol meetings have no effect at all. According to Dupire, they provide opportunities for flirtation and adulterous affairs, which may lead to divorces and sometimes to teegal marriages between members of the unrelated clans. But there seems to be no basis for Miller’s claim that sexual selection at the gere wol is responsible for the distinctive physical appearance of the Wodaabe. This is more simply explained by their mixture of Caucasian and Negroid ancestry. The gere wol may however have some indirect influence by reinforcing Wodaabe conceptions of beauty, which emphasise precisely those aspects of Fulani appearance, such as a narrow nose, which differentiate them from the neighbouring Negro populations. The gere wol would therefore help to perpetuate the Wodaabe preference for mating among themselves, and prevent or delay their merging into the surrounding gene pool.]

Fulani Country Locations:

Countries with a large number of Fulanis

[Source: Jamtan.com, Sagata Group Inc ]
The Principal Traditional Fulanis regions are: Adamawa, Kanem-Bornou, Masina, Futa-Jallon, Futa-Toro and many other regions in West Africa. Fulanis are found in significant numbers include the following republics: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, The Gambia, Guinea Republic, Guinea Bissau, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra-Leone, Sudan (See Table: Fulanis Country Statistics)

Countries with Presence of Fulani:

In 21 countries (Ethnic Groups and religions); (2008 Data)

1- Nigeria;

Population: 130 million; Fulani: 9%; Growth rate: 2.54%Nigeria, which is Africa’s most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

2- Ethiopia;

Population: 54 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 2.64%Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1% Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%

3- Cameroon;

Population: 16.2 million; Fulani: 10%; Growth rate: 2.34%Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

4- Niger; 

Population: 10.6 million; Fulani: 9%; Growth rate: 2.7%Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fulani 9%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriatesThe Fulani who, together with their herds, are concentrated in the Dosso-Agadez- Maine-Soroa triangle. Some have also settled in the West, around Tera, Say and Niamey. They predominate in certain parts of Maradi, Tessaoua, Mirriah and Magaria Districts. Sometimes they live alongside Tuaregs and Toubous. (ref : Upenn)Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian

5- Guinea; 

Population: 7.8 million; Fulani: 40%; Growth rate: 2.3%Fulani 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%

6- Chad; 

Population: 9 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 3.27%200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulani, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in ChadMuslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%

7- Benin; 

Population: 6.8 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 2.91%African 99% (42 Ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500Indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%

8- Togo; 

Population: 5.2 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 2.48%African (37 Ethnic Groups; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%-Indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%

9- Central Africa Republic; 

Population: 3.6 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 1.8%Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M’Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2%- Indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%

10- Burkina Faso; 

Population: 12.6 million; Fulani: 8%; Growth rate: 2.64%Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani.- Burkina Faso also has several hundred thousand Fulani nomads in the northern part with their goats, sheep, and other livestock.- Indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%

11- Cote D’ivoire; 

Population: 16.8 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 2.45%Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and 20,000 French) (1998)- Christian 20-30%, Muslim 35-40%, indigenous 25-40% (2001) note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)

12- Gambia; 

Population: 1.4 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 3.09%African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fulani 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other 4%), non-African 1%- Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%

13- Ghana; 

Population: 20.2 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 1.7%Black African 98.5% (major tribes – Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)- indigenous beliefs 21%, Muslim 16%, Christian 63%

14- Guinea Bissau; 

Population: 1.3 million; Fulani: 20%; Growth rate: 2.23%African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fulani 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%- indigenous beliefs 50%, Muslim 45%, Christian 5%

15- Mali; 

Population: 11.3 million; Fulani: 17%; Growth rate: 2.97%Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Fulani 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%- Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%

16- Mauritania; 

Population: 2.8 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 2.92%Maur 30%, Fulani, Soninke, Wolof, Haratin – Muslim 100%

17- Senegal; 

Population: 10.6million; Fulani: 23.8%; Growth rate: 2.91%Wolof 43.3%, Fulani 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%- Muslim 94%, indigenous beliefs 1%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic)

18- Sierra Leone; 

Population: 5.6 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 3.31%20 native African tribes 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia’s recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians- Muslim 60%, indigenous beliefs 30%, Christian 10%

19- Sudan; 

Population: 37 million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 2.73%Black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%.The Fulani nomads are found in many parts of central Sudan from Darfur to the Blue Nile. In the Eastern Sudan there are large colonies of Fallata the name by which the Fulani are called. They are also called Teckruri and believed to number between 1 and 2 millions.In Darfur groups of Fulani origin adapted in various ways to the presence of the Baqqara People. Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)

20- Somalia; 

Population: 7.7million; Fulani: small; Growth rate: 3.46%Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)-Sunni Muslim

21- Eritrea; 

Population: 4.4; Fulani: 1-2 million; Growth rate: 1.28%Ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%. The Tekruris have been part of the Eritrean society.

The common story of their start is that they were in event to Mecca and stayed in Eritrea and Sudan.

Comments on: "Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins?" (152)

  1. Assiatou diallo said:

    am a fulani lady living in Zambia and it’s wonderful to learn about my origins.

    • hi i am also a fulani in the Gambia(bubaj@hotmail.co.uk) or search me on
      facebook

    • Alfred Alexander said:

      I love to no more about ur tribe,am having a case study on the origin of ur tribe

      • Thanks, but the Fulani is not my tribe, I am Nubian-Fadicca and our home land extended from Sennar in Sudan down to Aswan in Egypt. Now we, as well as all native tribes, lost most of our lands and powers as result to Fulani invasions and their mutual assistance to colonizers.

      • Adir-Ya'ats Israel said:

        We are Hebrew Israelites, fuck theses hating ass dumb Africans hosting on my people. We are the chosen

  2. […] Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins? « Tarig Anter on Protect …Sep 17, 2011 … Fulas are not a majority in every country they live, but in Guinea they ….. usually prefer the tallest men with the whitest teeth, the largest eyes, … […]

  3. it is a lie that fulas have such percentage in these countries mentioned! again this set of people are are violence people in nature why? the fulas are not nigerians neither africa but they are arabs who migrated in search of pastures, read more historical details about these set of people who are causing havoc all over the world. there is time to end this nature of these terrorism when Jesus Christ the Master and King of the Universe will come soon, let them watch and see it, let them ask Pastor El-Buba and other scholars about the coming of this Jesus Christ. thanks.

    • Gyang, this is an academic research, and i bet you try to broaden your brain, forget about your myopic thinking because the Beroms have the problem with the Fulanis. The Fulani are beyond your imagination, being from the blood of Abraham you curse them you are in trouble. Seek knowledge don’t base on your local understanding of Ful’be. Jesus will never exterminate them, because he loves them beyond comprehension. Go to any university in Europe or America, you will find a separate self of books only on Fulani. Mind you, Fulani have no origin from the Arabs, they only said that based on religion (Islamic inclination), but many retain the real origin. Before the Fulbe accepted Islam, they fought with the Arabs invaders for a period of 360 years. Over years, Fulani were subdued under many attacks, from being peaceful, they later learnt the art of war, and that was how they conquered many places. Ask El-Buba and the scholars you are referring to, Jesus will never exterminate. If Fulani put their cows in farms to eat your crops, take legal actions it is allowed, but don’t kill their cows for the sake of meat, and becaus ethey are not in the position of the media. Tell me any Boko Haram leader who is a Fulani. Let us fix our problem here in Nigeria, and let me tell you that scholars in Nigeria don’t know anything about the Fulbe, more works on them are in French and German, translated few in English (about their origin). Jesus is in control. I love u Gyang, but Dagwi loves u more.

      • Adir-Ya'ats Israel said:

        Fula are definitely Hebrews. Everywhere I went in China, the Africans kept telling me I was Fula. I am an American raised Hebrew, my father is of Yahudah and I have Gad on both sides of my family . I wish I could find out which specific tribe most fula descend from- Simeon, Ephraim, Yahudah, Gad?

    • A.B. Daneji said:

      Let me add it to your dictionary Mike, you should know that you are a ” Gentile” according to Jesus more like he is sent to Fulani rather then to some body like you. ” I am not send but to the lost sheep of…..”

      • @A.B. Daneji. Fulanis are evil race who does not have any genealogical links with jews.For Fulani to claim to be of Jewish race is mockery.Its another way of hidden their satanism as they did in Nigeria by claiming Hausa-Fulani.Have you seen two ethnic group becoming one.Besides,Fulanis are illiterates who only rear cows.Leadership in modern Africa is eluding them unlike in the past centuries when they were using violence to achieve their evil aim.

      • I assume, the older history of slavery before the trans-atlantic era is very important to study and comprehend the consequences that led to the appearance of Fulani first in North Africa and then latter in West and East Africa gradually before 3 thousand years.
        The original Fulani are very few in number but the bulk of Fulani today were taken away from many different native African tribes in their slave trade and they are a cross-bread who are completely detached from their African origins.
        The striking features; way of life and the versions of the Fulani history are strong indicators that they are from nomadic Hebrew-Arab origins particularly from the Syrian deseret. They fled their home land immediately after the establishment of old Israel.

      • “Jews” are a religion not a “race”. Jews have not been a race “since they left Africa with Moses”. Population genetics clusters Jews in at least 8 Y-Chromosome DNA haplotypes, and >80% with European haplogroups.

        It does not advance thought to cling to totally refuted beliefs.

        As an interpretive motif, however, one must always think of origin from a “mountainous region” when a population claims descent from Jacob. In the old mythos, about which we now know a great deal, Jacob (James) was an Earth-god, who was best symbolized by the “hillock”. The location of Jacob in Galacia, Spain, or Jacob’s stone in Scotland all envision the Rock (mountain).

        There is a hint as well in the name Fula, Pula etc.. The connection anthropology makes with Ethiopians has a considerable merit. A number of West African groups claim by tradition that they came from east of the Nile. (the Senegalese scholar Sheik Anta Diop wrote as much decades ago.) The Ethiopian Highlands represent 80% of Africa’s high ground. The oldest Jews (Bete-Israel) sprang in Abyssinia. Their cousins in Egypt are billed as the people of Moses, who himself had taken an Ethiopian woman for a wife, according to the Book of Exodus.

    • i think you have to go back to history and find out more about fulani mr, The fulanis are wel known for thier good behaviors, they are the most peaceful people around Africa

      • For decades, the Fulani nomads in Nigeria are known for their violence. over the past two decades they have gotten worse: Murders rape and rampage of harmless citizens including children. That is the definition of the Fulani herdsman in Nigeria – heartless and armed murderers who actions are similar to the terrorists (except for the bombs).
        Do not take my word for it; simply Google the words: Fulani herdsmen Nigeria, and you would get very ‘amazing’ reading.
        … and they are only immigrants.

    • If this allegation is not true, why don’t you give us the right version of Foulah population including the statistic in each country and tell us about their origin. As a toucouleur myself this is how I remember my great aunt telling me about my history…we are nomad, successful and proud.
      I would like to thank this person who went out of his ways to find my Foulani heritage, may God bless you

    • In fact,i really like ur comment,fulanis are truble maker every most xpecially in Nigeria here.

  4. if what is being said about the Fulas is a lie, could you tell us a bit more of your knowledge and please could you give me reference so that i can do my own independent investigation.

    • Adir-Ya'ats Israel said:

      Were Hebrews, straight up

      • Providence said:

        How do you know fulanis are descended from the Biblical children of Israel? I’m not doubting, actually, I just wanna know where you get your proof? Also, no need to disparage AFricans, the Hebrews are and were an amalgam of African/Hamitic groups, as well as Shemetic from their patriarchs.

  5. In recent genetic studies, researchers have uncovered a significant y minority – as much as 10% in some subgroups – of the rare Y Dna ( paternal lineage) haplohroup T (formerly known as K2) among the Fulani. Haplogroup T originated somewhere in Western/South Asia and represents a minority among some Dravidian tribes of India and modern Egyptians and Tunisians, but more significantly so among the Iranian Bakhtiari,Omanis and some Saudí Arabians tribes. Of special note is the fact that hplogroup T/K2 is present among the Portuguese Jews from Tras-os-Montes and the Marranos/CryptoJews from the Spanish Island of Majorca in frequencies of as much as 15%, hence the partly Western Asiatic (and perhaps Jewish) descent of the Fulani does indeed have some scientific corroboration.

    • It would be more precise if we say that the Western Asiatic corroboration of the Fulani indicates Hebrew and Arab descent (as the Hebrew and Arab are ethnic groups while Jews and Muslims are modern religious grouping).
      In many African countries there are many differences between the light-skin and the dark-skin Fulani. Also, there is an opinion that points to Aleppo (Halab), Hamah, and Hims cities in Syria as an old land to the original ancient Fulani who migrated in all direction fleeing the new religion of Moses and the rise of Israelites.

    • That does not account for 90% of the Y-DNA of the Fulani. There is a logical fallacy there. Moreover, Haplotype T is present in a number of countries in Africa. Some 5-8% of the people of the Horn of Africa cluster in haplotype T. The observation was made that many of the long distance runners from Ethiopia were found to be haplotype T. Researchers still wonder whether the haplotype bestowed a special advantage on long distance runners. (See Wikipedia under haplotype T). By the way, the American Thomas Jefferson (not my favorite human being) was haplotype T, as were many of the Phoenicians.

      • Providence said:

        Interesting — we know the Phoenicians were Hamites (Canaanites) and good old Thomas obviously must have had some of that NEGRO blood, lol.

  6. Terry Carter said:

    I am American by birth as is my family. I recently found that our family is descended from the fula people of Guinea. I was so excited to read this profound study of such a great people with such a rich heritage and culture. I would love to connect with any Fulani people and learn more of the culture. Thank you for posting.

    • My name is bodewal jallo ,
      they are many proves to so that the fulbe are one of the frist people with a rich culture.I will give some exampels. with all the languas i knouw .it is only in pullare you can tell some to wash a part of his/her boody without naming it.
      surmo = wash your face
      sodhe = wash your hands
      senbhe = wash your feet
      lote = wash your body

    • I would like to help Terry Carter. I am pullo( fulani) from Guinea.

      Sincerely

    • so be greatful to yr God mr Carter to being a fulani linage, you are from a descent familly, we will love to have

    • souleymane barry said:

      hi terry, im also american (but my parents are from guinea) as you already know, our tribe has a great history and quite frankly i barely knew anything about our origins but this blog really helped me out. but most of the words regarding the fula such as pulaar or hallugol or sagata are in the fula language and might be very confusing so if you have any question just ask me them in a reply and ill answer them

  7. Alpha jallow said:

    i m really impressed with this information i m happy for those who have done this piece of work . ,..it is good history .

  8. hi. is realy nice to read about this wounderfull tribe, i am very proud to be a fuller from guinea.

  9. Ibra Sulei said:

    nice work Tariq pullo from sudan

  10. i want know if the Fulani people are part of the barber people or not

    • I don’t think that there is any ethnic relationship between the Amazigh (Berber) and the Fulani.

      The Amazigh (Berber) (as the Libu; Numidia; Mauretania; Tuareg; Mozabites; Nafusis; Zenatas; Zuwaras; Tlemcen; Siwi; Shawiya; Riffians; Mozabites; Kabyles; Djerba; Chlouhs; and others) have very ancient history and they are indigenious to Africa. While the Fulani originate from the Arabian and Hebrew lands. The Fulani became heavily involved in Trans-Saharan slavery and may be with some trading and settled farming Berber tribes with western African nations. That may be the link between them together with control of the Berber on Trans-Saharan routes between North and West Africa.

      The relationships between the Fulani and Berber is similar to those with the Hausa; Takrur, and the ancient Ghana Empire; the Nubians; and many other indigenous states that were subjugated by the Fulani in their slavery campaigns and during the colonial era.

      The name Berber appeared for the first time after the end of the Roman Empire. A history by a Roman consul in Africa made the first reference of the term “barbarian” to describe Numidia. Muslim historians, some time after the Arab conquest and colonization to North Africa, also mentioned the Amazigh as Berbers.

      • All of you, both the proud and not proud so call Fulani people, it high time you went back to where you claim you came from and stop disturbing the entire West Africa. If Fulanis are such as we see in Nigeria forget it. Fetish and dirty set of people. Always selling charms, it is believed that those rearing cows make love to cows, turns to cows when chased for crime. No wonder the can easily kill if their cow is accidentally hit by car. Such driver is dead. Tell me which traits of a troublesome fulanis resembles that of jewish. Jews are people known to stand and prefer to die than bow to any other god except Yaweh. Read about Jews, these writers do not know a thing about Jews. Come out of your frenzy. If any of you happens to be jew, you do not need any attention seeker to write, to remind you. You will know that in your spirit. Stop deceiving people. Let me tell you either by default or by God’s making two jews most times do not need introduction before knowing they are related. If you are a jew you will not have anything to do with islam, you’re here bragging about islamizing everywhere you go, calling God to destroy Isreal. You people cannot islamize Nigeria, especially south east and south south. Go back to Futa jalon or God knows where, you migrated from.
        For the writer claiming descent from Isreal, you are only fulfilling scripture – God said in old testament people will come from all over the world, running and begging the Jews to allow them follow them. Having realize only Jehovah Yaweh not allah is the only true God. A true jews will renounce islam and shun violence. My prayer is that God will open your eyes to see and know the truth. God bless. Comments are welcome. See ya.

  11. Adul Carimo said:

    I´m fula from Guinea Bissau i’m verry glad for this good history

  12. Adrienne Wheeler said:

    I am African-American and have just found out through genetic testing of my mother that we share genetic markers with the Fula of Guinea Bissau. I would like to know more about this particular branch, what are the differences between this group and the Fula in Senegal, Nigeria, Mali etc? I’m very excited about these findings. We also share genetic markers with the Mende of Sierra Leone and the Mandinka of Senegal.

    • There is no diffrent between fulbe/ fulani/ fellata /fula, neither different between fulani from guinea conakry/ guinea bissaou sierra leone/ senegal/mali/niger/nigeria/cameroun/chad/sudan etc etc the are all one ethinc one familly share the same dialect. thank you mr/mrs wheeler for being a fulani

      • I am overwhelmed with the strong, not-necessarily logical, comments on the origins & quality of the fulbe. I know that the dialects of pulaar east of Burkina Faso are generally comprehensibe; by the time that you get to Niger, that dialect (fulfulde) is not. While living in Niamey, I was friends w/a handful of Senegalese, most of whom were Tukuloor. One of them married a local girl & found that he understood her French much better than her fulfulde.
        If the earlier fulBe had dominated the trans-Saharan slave trade, what happened to the Berbers, especially the Tuareg, who did so the last 300-400 yrs? Linguistically, the fulBe speak a West Atlantic language, in the same family as Wolof & Sereer (I speak Wolof)?
        Most of these origin tales are pure fantasy. Jaraaba. Modugay

    • Ahmed Tejan Jalloh said:

      am very for being a a fula

    • There are all from the same heritage. I am Toucouleur from senegal from my father side of the family and Foulah from Guinea from my mother side. The slight difference is how they speak…i.e in Toucouleur something can said but when translate it in Guinean Foulah it would mean something different, but the vocabulary will still the same.

  13. M. F. Usman said:

    I have never read anything like this on the history of the Fula, it is quite outstanding and encouraging. I’m one from the Toroobe subgroup in Nigeria and presently working on the history of my ancestors six generation back

  14. […] Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins?. […]

  15. I am so proud to be a Flulani (From Guinea) and I have learned a lot from this article. Would we able to keep our children fully aware of their origin and be proud of it ? That is the challenge.

  16. Yunusa Usman said:

    What an outstandind revalation of the fulani’s and their heritage.

  17. Abdulbagi said:

    I am a Sudanes polo and arabic fulfulde speaking but I noticed that we can find many litrature written on fulbe in French, English and other languages but in Arabic language it is very small writing we need to see some writing in arabic so that we can clearly explain to arabic speaker about our Pullaku,culture and history.
    As there is a big mix between our niebours from Husa and Fulbe.

  18. Word is Born said:

    i mean….. the straight hair,straight nose, slim lips and muslim faith confirmed middle eastern (Asian) connections to me. The genetic tests and linguistic data just backs it up! its kinda like duh! This needs to be shown to those girls on youtube with ‘natural’ hair growing down their backsides saying that they arent MIXED and that there are ‘black’ people in Africa with naturally straight hair, well these studies show that they are mixed race – no matter how small the percentage of Asian genes, it has still had an effect on appearance. Or show this to people who believe ALL black Africans are mixed….this shows that there are groups that have infiltrated and assumed the identity but did not know or mention the fact that they are a nomadic people! I have to say it was obvious to me, but at least now there is proof, facts. i love genetic science! On a side note i watched a documentary were a group of blacks in africa who had typical black features,nappy hair,button nose etc… had the star of david in their village and claimed to be Jewish and practice Judaisim, well as u can imagine, people around laughed and scoffed…until genetic professor tested their genes…guess what, they had Jewish ancestory! lol, this confirmed it. funny old world ey….but we must not overlook ancestry and deny part of who we are. If you are mixed (and you know it) why not be proud and say it?! dont confuse others and yourself. This is so interesting, i didnts even know that there was an Asian slave trade in Africa, before the white slave trade!!! that would exlpain A LOT! Also exlpains why there are darker (almost black) Asians in Asia with button noses almost nappy hair…..can you see the trend emerging? i’m going off to study more, this is cool! Word is born

    • (sigh) you’re an idiot. First, there are Black people (Africans) with naturally straight hair. If Blacks/Africans were the FIRST and OLDEST people of this planet, encompassing the most abundant genetic diversity, where do you think the genetic marker for straight hair came from, dummy? Straight hair is an ancestral trait that Caucasians inherited from their AFrican forefathers, NOT the other way around. Horners are indigenous to Africa, they have straight hair. If you understand anything about the indigenous Black or pure Arabs and how they evolved to the modern varying gradations in skin color/hair texture you see in modern Arabs today, you would understand that THESE modern Arab mulattos are the mixed people, NOT the other way around.

      Second, I suspect you’re talking about the Lemba people of southern Africa somehow testing positive for Jewish DNA (whatever that means). The question you should be asking yourself is: what DNA did they test the Lemba against? the modern white impostor Jews in Israel today, or did they test the preserved mummified bodies of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob?

  19. Haba … Ikeme, why do you hate these beautiful people. What do you mean they are illiterates? That one, you only say it out of hatred, Ful’be are the most intelligence race in Africa, make research and you will find, ask educated people and they will tell you. Abuse or not, you can not beat your ideology, i know deep inside you, you love them, find them🙂 Don’t worry, i will be your friend. Jesus said, ‘pray for your enemy’, so why can’t you find a space in your heart to pray for the poor Fulani, who is your brother.

    • Adir-Ya'ats Israel said:

      Fuck the Hebrew hating Hamites

    • fullahs were able to read and write before whiteman came,.we were never illiterates,we had our writing and education over maths and astronomy all colonialist wondered our educated we are ,reference u to the french.we were pharaohs of egypty we found monotaism .ra,the sund god,ehknaton was a fullah,

  20. yakay sey said:

    i am a fulani by birth from gambia. i was amazed when i study this website

  21. yakay sey said:

    i am so drilled with their rich culture.proud to be a fula.

  22. I’m a Fula from SIERRA LIONE I!!!’m Realy HAPPY 2B A FULA, OUR HISTORY REALY NIIIIIICCCCCCEEEEEE MAY ALLAH GUIDE US ALWAYS….. AMEEN.

  23. i am a descendant of usman dan fodio specifically from atiku usman dan fodio lineage who are the ruling family in kontagora . my father is the greatx3 grandson of umaru nagwamatse son of atiku usman dan fodio . i recently discovered our extended family in mai worno sudan . it was a wonderful experience !!!!!!!!!! i was well received by the sultan and his family . i am very happy that we are still keeping in touch . and they are so nice to my boys who are schooling in khartoum . i greatly admire the simplicity and contentment of the people of maiworno in sudan . wouldnt mind relocating !!!!!!!!!!!! any brother or sister out there ?

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  26. Ahmed Tejan Jalloh said:

    fulas are very proud, although am also. but i must say it that we are proud. we are fund of calling our fula brothers as slaves which is very bad.

  27. Hardy Jalloh said:

    It is great to know that Fula people have middle eastern origin. No wonder we are seen as outsiders in most west African countries. A Fuani from Sierra Leonean

  28. Hardy Jalloh said:

    Typo from above. A Fulani from Sierra Leone

  29. belko issaka said:

    i am a decendant of belko who his origin from burkina faso but now in ghana.i am very proud to be part of the fulbe.why do people critise the inocent fulani peole

  30. All of you, both the proud and not proud so call Fulani people, it high time you went back to where you claim you came from and stop disturbing the entire West Africa. If Fulanis are such as we see in Nigeria forget it. Fetish and dirty set of people. Always selling charms, it is believed that those rearing cows make love to cows, turns to cows when chased for crime. No wonder the can easily kill if their cow is accidentally hit by car. Such driver is dead. Tell me which traits of a troublesome fulanis resembles that of jewish. Jews are people known to stand and prefer to die than bow to any other god except Yaweh. Read about Jews, these writers do not know a thing about Jews. Come out of your frenzy. If any of you happens to be jew, you do not need any attention seeker to write, to remind you. You will know that in your spirit. Stop deceiving people. Let me tell you either by default or by God’s making two jews most times do not need introduction before knowing they are related. If you are a jew you will not have anything to do with islam, you’re here bragging about islamizing everywhere you go, calling God to destroy Isreal. You people cannot islamize Nigeria, especially south east and south south. Go back to Futa jalon or God knows where, you migrated from.
    For the writer claiming descent from Isreal, you are only fulfilling scripture – God said in old testament people will come from all over the world, running and begging the Jews to allow them follow them. Having realize only Jehovah Yaweh not allah is the only true God. A true jews will renounce islam and shun violence. My prayer is that God will open your eyes to see and know the truth. God bless. Comments are welcome. See ya.
    I will

    • Anabs, you are really amazing me with your story, and your myopic thinking about the Fulbe. You barely know with your people talk-less about knowing about the Fulbe or Hebrews people. I don’t even know or thought that Fulbe do hate an Igbo person, so whatever you say, it is your own opinion and you are entitled to it, but talking about Fulbe origin, you are ignorant, Fulbe are known many generations by Europeans and Arabs writers. Fulbe don’t claim to be Jews, but history and anthropology testify it. It is not a 20th century claim as some claim. The Fulbe never had juju, masquerades, oracle, idols and ancestral worshiping. Yes, they have charms as human being and no human beings that don’t possess charms, even during the period from Moses to these days people were performing miracles and magic. In terms of Islam, Fulbe resisted Islamization by the Arabs for 360 years warring the Arabs, before they embraced the religion, and up till now they have Fulbe who are still follow Pulaaku a form of distorted Hebraic religion, and they have few thousands who follow Jesus Christ, the Saviour. Thank you and I love you.

      • I am a fulani from Guinea and a follower or Jesus Christ. I would like to connect with Fulani believers in Jesus. Thank you for this interesting study.

    • Adir-Ya'ats Israel said:

      All of the Hebrews started following idols and demons that the hamite African tribes worshipped. Fulani are definitely Hebrew as while China visiting from America the hamites kept referring to me as so. We aint hamite africans, and that seems to the problem. Had blacks in anerica thinking they were africabs when all aling we are Hebrews…On that note, fuck u hamites that hate YHWH’s people.

  31. Fulbe have nothing to do with Jews, it is just a comparison from the fact they have no land of their own, I mean no one country they are tied to.
    Also, if you want to understand the Fulani, forget the ones that are closer to you, they don’t represent the Fulani who a a very diverse group.
    There is an excellent book about the origins of Fulɓe written in Fulah language by Pr Aboubackry Moussa Lam from Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar, Senegal. It’s one of the best researched and documented books about Fulbe. According to Lam, Fulɓe have never claimed to be Arabs or Jews, they speak a true Niger-Congo language that has no relation whatsoever with semitic languages.
    Many Europeans who have worked on the subject before have been deceived by their appearance and distinctive features, so they tried to relate them to other people, forgetting that the Fulani have kept everything from the origin: way of life, language, beliefs. And nothing in these cultural attributes have a single resemblance to Jews or Arabs. Nothing.
    The book is entitled: “Fulɓe, gila Heli-e-Yooyo haa Fuuta-Tooro” (The Fulani, from Heli-e-Yooyo (a region of the Nile) to Fuuta-Tooro (the place they settle on the Senegal river after migration from Egypt).
    I am a Fulani myself from that very region which all Fulani mlgrated across Africa from.
    I have doubts about a few percentages of Fulani in certains countries. For example Mauritania says “small” but they are more than 13% of the population although Mauritania has only 3 million.
    Nice discussion though (except those frustrated haters who are desperate trying to minimize what is great🙂. Let bark and go.
    Thank you Tarig Anter for the research.

    • Adrienne Wheeler said:

      Thank you Moussa, your response to the question of the Fulani origins seems to me the most accurate, I’ve read to date. It would be wonderful if the book you mentioned was available in English or even French. If possible could you recommend similar books that have been tranated. Again, thank you, the information is refreshing. Peace

  32. The Berber connection has been dismanteled: it’s nonsense.

    • Where do you suppose the origins of the Fulba to be then? They seem to be nomads that just popped out of nowhere? And why do they look a bit different from the populations around them?

    • Dicko Diallo said:

      Berber origin is not dismantled – I’m considered to be a pure Fulani from Sudan , my Y dna haplogroup result is ” E1B1B1B*” L 19* which is a Berber DNA –

  33. idrith g. said:

    Im hausa fulani from kano Nigerian,and I believed its only in Nigerian fulanis are facing such hatred because we have many criminals especially in the south south and south east who are wolf eager to eat meat by any means,some times they are eating un cooked human flesh,whenever they see our cows they will attack us and kill us and consume all our cows,since after we understand their tactics and started plan against it they were not succeeding anymore,then it follows by hatred and all sort of black painting,our people are always ready killing them before they kill us and if they think jewish are also such a doll people let them go there and start doing their business of army robber and see if they can survive it.they are insulting Fulfulde because they jelous us,we have our history but they dont have any history,they are animals descendends of a yellow champensy and monkeys,please let them produce their own history,if not because of the coming of white men they could have been living without cloth,cooking human being.

    • Haba Idrith, ka dan rege musu kadan mana. Fulbe had a very long history, so anybody who cannot even talk about his or her history should leave Fulbe alone.Fulbe are not like other tribes which are only found in one country.

  34. idrith g. said:

    we fulanis have enough to be proud of ourselves without even attaching our history with jewish because jews are coward people never fight you directly rather indirectly,but fulani have fight and conquered many states in Africa,if you doubt it go and check history of fodiyo,while jewish were chased by white people from one country to another but fulani fought white people and they suffered in out hands if not because we dont have guns then they couldt have done what they called indirect rule in the northern Nigeria. But what happened in the southern Nigeria only yaruba and benin were civilised,others are only jumping from one tree to another like monkeys,that is why they were directly ruled by the colonial masters.

    • Definitely Fulbe are proud and especial people, whose origin date back from Egypt, and who lived in North Africa, where up till now their artwork is found Tassili. The Fulbe are been oppressed from people of North Africa and also by the black Africans. During the Islamization of North Africa and West Africa, Fulbe first fought the Arabs for 360 years before accepting Islam, from there they became the powerful movers of islam in West and Central Africas. In Mali, during the Songhay, Bamabra of Segou and the Mossi periods, Fulbe suffered oppressions, but being from the blood of a great origin, Fulbe excelled all the same.

      My brother, talking about attaching relationship between the Fulbe and Jews, we should understand here, the relationship is not based on religious reason, but ethnic, so please don’t see it as such, based on some research, Pulaaku in one aspect has some judaism belief.

    • Adir-Ya'ats Israel said:

      Dumb bitch you are damned…. The true Hebrews are the creators people and you will bow your knee in slavery you hamite pig, unless u repent and change your views on YHWHs people.

  35. Am Jalo Mark Ali from Ghana…………..indeed i love to lean more about my sole tribe in Ghana………Fulani lol…….check me on the face book…..

  36. what a wonderful history, i have been wondering bout my real origin till today but thanks God am really happy delighted to read this article bout my ethnicity. Honestly it would be a big pleasure for me to interact with any Fulani around the world no matter where he/she is from.by the way i’m a Fulani from Guinea-Conakry. Below is my twitter and Facebook address:
    @thimsjalloh and Thims Jalloh.
    No hesitation, feel free to hit me back ’cause u all welcome…….:)

  37. […] Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins?. […]

  38. ibrahim bah said:

    i want to become a member

  39. Pullo futa sedy barry said:

    missou sedy berry —> fulani I’m a Fula from —-> guinnea conakry is ( 85%Muslim 10%, Christian ) not ( 10%Muslim 85%, Christian )

  40. whoah this blog is great i like studying your posts. Stay up
    the great work! You already know, many people are looking around for this information,
    you can aid them greatly.

  41. jaraama bandiraabe , i hope someone can help me, i want to know more about ful6e in africa,

    for example
    how intelligible is the language(s)? lets say from senegal and nigeria, can a nigerian/ camerounian/nigerien
    pullo understand a gambian or guinean pullo?

    also do the terms such as foutanke
    exist in nigeria, cameroun, niger also? do the names like Kane, Ly,Sow exist in Nigeria?
    or is this only seen with halpulaaren? im so curious thanks

    . are you all heavily casted in Nigeria?rimai6e, matchou6e, and allow intermarriage,
    i always hear “hausa/fulani” which to me sounds like fusion ethnicity? is this true
    or the two exist apart? any help is appreciated thanks!

    • Habiba, mi saanii ma. Jam nyalli. A jaaraama. I will just start telling you just some few sentences on Fulbe. The Fulfulde language or known in the West part as in Senegal, Guinea as Pulaar is a very dynamic language. I am opportuned to visit countries like senegal, Mali, Guinea-Conakry, Niger, Benin, Cameroon, CAR and Chad, i will like to tell you that if you are a Pullo, you can understand at least when a Pullo from these countries speak. But the challenges are, the more you come down from Senegal down to Sudan, the speech and intonation decline, meaning for example a Senegal Pullo speak faster than the one in Nigeria. So i always asking please speak slowly, then i get what he says, but also we find out some words in a particular place is borrowed from the native people they mingle with. But words such as kosam, nebbam, raande, nagge, naange, hiite, leydi/lesdi, pulaaku/pulaagu, biraadam, eggol, anndal/ganndal, etc are the same. The word Foutanke is not found in the countries from Burkina Faso down East to Sudan, but countries like Nigeria and Niger you have words like Fulani, an appellation of Hausa adopted by English people.

      Talking about names such as Kane, Ly, Sow, do not exist anymore in those countries from Nigeria to Sudan, just because when the 4 clans (Diallo, Ba, Sow and Barry) moved down from Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, those names were forgotten, while adopting other names like Jahun, Ba;en (Ba’aaji), Gorkanko’en, Raahaaji, Naatirbe, Katsinanko’en, Sisilbe, siwalbe, Jallanko’en, Kesu’en, Kiiri’en, Wedwedbe, gara’en, yirlaabe, yillaga’en, and more than 500 clans and subclans (suudu), wodaabe, Uuda’en, Bookolo’e, Boodi, torodbe, Mallanko’en, etc. But some tried to retain the original names as Ba’en from Ba, where you find the ruling house of Yola, the Laamiido of Adamawa is from, Jallanko’en from Diallo, and so. Just to tell you a little.

      About the casting, Fulbe all over have difference, between the Rimbe, Riimaybe, maccube. Fulbe na’i always in Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, CAR tend to see themselves as pure than the settled Fulbe who because of religious inclination intermarried with others. Pullo nagge still does not want the inter marriage but things are changing nowadays. The rimbe do not also want to marry the riimaybe or maccube who are seeing as inferior.

      The issue of Hausa/Fulani actually is a political term in Nigeria just to propagate the influence of the northern Nigeria. But the true is that many of the Fulbe found in place like sokoto, kano, katsina, zaria, daura do not speak fulfulde again so to play the game that fusion came to existence, for example in Kano we can say about 80% of fulbe speak hausa with the exception of the nomadic fulbe. In gombe, Yola, Jalingo, Cameroon, that is the pride of the Fulbe, the language is cherished, but also those in kano and quo too are really regretting for not speaking it. You find out, the educated fulbe love more fulfulde than the non-educated who don’t know what is to be a pullo, or because they don’t know the history of their people.

      There are many of us in Nigeria who don’t want that fusion, also i met lots of hausa who don’t want itk so we have three part, the fulani, the Hausa and the Hausa/fulani. I will explain more later, but for now i hope this is of help. And also this fusion put the Fulani being hated by various tribes in Nigeria, many are asking why do fulbe accepted that. Also visit http://www.jamtan.com

      • I agree this confusion about hausa/fulani only exists in Nigeria as hausa does not exist in others countries.
        Fulanis are just fulanis even though some of them are mixed with others tribes but we never say for exemple serer fulani as one tribe.
        I dont know why I see many nigerians especially the hausa one talking about hausa/fulani as it is one tribe. Even if they did intermixed with each others, that’s not a justification.
        There are so many fulanis in other countries that this fusion is irrelevant

  42. Hi, greetings from Eu.As European I know this history it is present on web if one is willing to search. My problem is this:I cannot relate Fulani people to Soninke and Songhai.Are the latter offshot of Hausa or what?

    • The Fulani are not related to Soninke and Songhai; and even to Hausa, but there are lots of intermarriages between them due to Islamic orientation, but you will find that the still nomadic Fulani do not intermarry with any of these, except in recent times.

  43. DIALLO FROM NEW YORK CITYFULA PEOPLE ARE FROM EAST AFRICA THE CRADLE OF CIVILIZATION.SINCE THE BEGINING WE TRAVELED WITH OUR HERD OF CATTLE WESTWARD WERE THE TERRAIN WAS MORE FERTILE. LOOK AT THE DEPICTIONS OF US ON THE PYRAMIDS WE TOOK ISLAM AS AN INTRUMENT TO GATHER FOLLOWERS WHICH MADE US A LARGER GROUP, BUT WE ALSO INTRODUCE EDUCATION MORESO THAN ANY OTHER GROUP ON THE CONTINENT, IF LEFT ALONE THE FULANI ARE THE BEST LEADERS ON THE CONTINENT ALSO WE ARE THE MOST BEAUTIFUL. INTELLIGENT AND WEALTHY. STOP HATING, PEACE ENJARAMA

  44. Ibraheem khaleel said:

    Your attitude is the eye of your soul ,if your attitude is negative ,then you see things negatively.if its positive ,then you see things positively.i am a Fulani and always proud being a Fulani

  45. You are welcome Nenad, of course you can contact me through my email addresses and I can answer what I can. My emails addresses are: hassan_naungo@yahoo.com and fycadi.2006@gmail.com. Thanks

  46. […] Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins? | Tarig Anter on Protect & Reinvent Democracy […]

  47. Jallow Omar said:

    Well ma name is Omar Jallow from The Gambia, but my parents migrated from futa djallon of Guinea Conakry. And I’m so proud to be a Fulani… I love to research about my history and origin and it’s so fascinating…
    Check me out on Facebook “Omar makai”.
    We got a lot of Fulani pages and groups on Facebook where we bring all the Fulani people around the globe together. We learn a lot from each other. Some of the pages are Fulanitube, fulbeh laide Africa, Zone fulbeh and Fulbeh Africa. Check it out.

  48. I’m happy with those people that posting all this comment. especially brother omar l am really happy to hear all form you. today is my first day visiting this website. by god grace l’ill try my best to asisting you on posting comment.

  49. Kelley Cornwell said:

    Hello my daughter is half Fula her father being Sierra Leonean and his parents from the Fouta Djallon in Guinea. I agree with the DNA testing as I did a connect my DNA on my daughter to determine her paternal origins. Her prevalent country origin was Oman. This substantiates the Egyptian /Ethiopian cranial similarities that have been studied and how the Fula were of Middle Eastern / Arabian peninsula descent at least in the last 10,000 years possibly Jewish/ Assyrian descent even further back

  50. Hello Friends I’m Polish.

    I found some information on Polish websites that yours origin is North Africa on both sides of the Nil river and native Fulani are holders in 54% of haplogroup R1a1.
    Could someone confirm this please ?
    I think that some knowledge maybe busily hidden, we got that problem from more than 1000 year.

    Regards
    Polanin

  51. Am proud to be a fullah man, the Fulani there are the best
    People in the world.
    The thing I want to share is that ilove all the
    Fula people in this world
    And thanks be to the man who bring this histories
    Lay god bless u and your family
    My name is abubakar Jalloh from guinea Conakry
    My village is pitta masi
    For information go to Facebook
    Abubakarjalloh2020@gmail.com

  52. Ibrahime Oumar Bah said:

    Hello
    I am fulani from Guinea Dalaba
    I am happy to read this article

  53. Alpha alim jalloh said:

    My name is alpha jalloh,fullani and am proud to be part of this great tribe,thank Allah for this gift,for those who got hatred for fullanis, it’s up to them,for me I love ibo people,for I got many friends from this tribe,am sure history still reminds us about the Biafra war,

  54. El hadji ahmadou Ba said:

    he i am fula haaboobe from senegal live in england i am very proud of my origin if anyone of you are haaboobe from an other counrty thank you bandirabe

  55. I never knew that Fullahs are also hated in Nigeria, is very hard for me to believe, I was thinking that these nonesenses about Fulahs are only found in my country(Sierra Leone)and neihboring Guinea. But thank to some educationalist who through history have made it known to the current generation about how blessed and great our tribe is.In Guinea Conakry, where i originated from is believed to be first settled by non muslim fulahs before the arrival of muslim fulanis who later waged a war against the non muslim fullahs and they other tribes for their refusal of the religion and because of this Futa Jallon was the only civilised and organised region in Guibea when the french came
    , they found out that we had a democratic leadership style.
    My fellow Fulanis let us don’t listen to what others says about us, it is all gealousy, Let no one fulls you we are native Africans not Arabs as we do not have a single arabic word in our language, we speak 100% pullaku.

    please let us practice how to speak our tribe very well and show the world that we are proud to be giants in Africa.

    Jalloh Ibrahim
    Sierra Leone(Kenema).

  56. Ahmed Tejan Jalloh said:

    This stands questionable, when would a fulani politician rule guinea

  57. We are a fula , not Arab. It is said that if u done know where u come from u will not know where u are going. I as a fula want to appeal to all friends, brothers, sisters and mothers to try n know our root n go back to our culture. …one love to all conscious youth out there.. …..

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  64. Baabangida Ibrahim said:

    Very very exciting!!
    In fact, I am very proud to be pullo( fulani ), coz fulbe are the first group to be converted to Islam for the whole West Africa.
    Also let me clare this fallacy that fulbe are terrorist.

    It’s never true can u imagine e historical background of e fulanis empire…..? How our grand fathers sacrifice before Islam got trend in West Africa 4 now, what I know is all hatred.
    I’m urging all fulanis in e world especially Africa to be United, coz our only problem is e unity if we’re able to do so, no any person can talk against us.
    I’M BAABANGIDA IBRAHIM, a Ghanaian citizen by birth n real pullo “ONKIIRI JAM “

  65. Baabangida Ibrahim said:

    Contact me on baabangidaibrahim@gmail.com Facebook
    On wasapp, viber, 0261336907 BAABANGIDA IBRAHIM

  66. Jalloh Abud said:

    Thanks for all those comments about the
    origin of the fullanis. As a pastor coming from a Muslim background, when the Lord called me twelve years ago he said to me the bible is the truth and the bible is the word of God, the bible is the book of your ancestors they have ears. What this means the book ofyour ancestors? Go and search the word ancestors then you will tell who are the fullanis.

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  68. The origin and History of fulbe in a world is a peoples of islam and history.

  69. Musa Balloh said:

    I am writing from Liberia, I see no reason why some handsome or beautiful fulani are denying the fact they are not Arab origin. The physical or structural appearance the fula can tell that they are not typical African.

    • That’s a very stupid thing to say. There is no such thing as a ‘typical African’. We have the most diverse DNA on this planet. You act as if Black peoples with straight hair and straight nose can’t be indigenous to Africa. Are the horners mixed or emigrants, like the modern North Africans? NO, these traits are ancestral to the motherland. Go read a book and stop buying into the white lie that some Africans can’t NATURALLY be light-skinned like the Khoisan or have straight hair like the Afars, or have straight noses like the Fulani. Go read a book!

    • Fulani are Hebrews original.read about paleo Hebrew and more about Egypt.

  70. Why do some fulani look so different they look very african while others do not .

    • Many scholars believe that the original minority of light-skinned Fulani are of Judaeo-Syrian origin.
      As they conquered different towns and peoples, they would take captives from those tribes. Those captives became their slaves, adopting the language and lifestyle of the Fulani, and working their fields for them. Today, although no longer officially slaves, the ex-slave caste (rimaaybe or maccube) has no sense of their original ethnicity. Although distinct ethnically from the true Fulbe, their identity is now so intertwined with them that they are themselves called also Fulani.

      • I dont think so i think fulani were berber people and where they were situated i think they mixed with other hamitic types or their culture was adopted the original e3b dna was a mix of dravidian canaanite mixed with canaanite same as pure aboriginal people of north america mixed with another hamitc type you will not get such an african feature in facial features as well as hair

  71. The berbers came from north africa . Number 1 tthe original Phoenician are the Canaanite dravidians with straight hair .
    Assyrians entered North Africa , not west africa , indo aryan hittites entered north africa not west africa berbers were a mix between semitic and hamitic e3b is berber the berbers of North africa are from Imliq e3b is a mix of Canaanite dravidian , mixed with a Canaanite people same as pure First nations people of north america not referring to inuit , mixed with another hamitic type or types phut or cush





  72. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-FstD4y0RiMw/UGoXNUMkEOI/AAAAAAAAbj8/aQ-V5ricTsk/s1600/sn1jd8.jpeg these are true berbers
    http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-2-2_K593MZ8/TxzcIXZwbMI/AAAAAAAAAQk/Yve9YrvR4dE/s1600/Fulani+of+Mali.jpg this is fulani
    Imliq is the father of Amalekites who came the berbers, who are children of Thamila bin Maarib bin Faaraan bin Amr bin Imliq bin Lud bin Shem bin Nuh AS with the exception of Sinhaja and Kitaama who are offspring of Furayqish bin Sayfi bin Sibaa both of the last two are from Morocco and are not looking like pure africans even the berbers mix with e3b you would get a full african looking person

  73. correction imliq is the father of Amalekites who came the berbers, who are children of Thamila bin Maarib bin Faaraan bin Amr bin Imliq bin Lud bin Shem bin Nuh AS with the exception of Sinhaja and Kitaama who are offspring of Furayqish bin Sayfi bin Sibaa both of the last two are from Morocco and are not looking like pure africans even the berbers mix with e3b you would NOTget a full african looking person this what i meant

  74. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQMrVqetHSg berbers the berbers are very handsome people the type of hamitic people they mixed with would give nice color skin and curly black hair and berbers are mixing with other people and others are adopting their culture

  75. Houdou Diallo said:

    Stop these stupid comments and value the work of history. Time will comme that the world will see a great Fulaniland from north Africa to Egypt. Fulanis are getting educated. Don’t see them as poor patoralists even if there is a little number of them still pratcising this way of life.

    • Abdelhasieb Elshareef said:

      Fulani are from different origins – The language of the Fulani is actually the language of the black people living beside the middle of Senegal river – The people of this place were divided into nomads and sedentary – The first nomads came from Sus Morocco ” Berbers ” – The sendatary are mainly blacks with limited white stock – The nomads were white but their race is changed through intermarriage with limited back stock- Both nomads ” Fulani ” and sedentary ” Ruumbe ” were called Takrur , toorobe – When Fulani left
      their homeland with the language of Takrur to Maasina they kept their own dialect ” Fulfulde ” , The sedentary Ruumbe became religious caste hence they kept the name of their homeland ” Tooro ” – DNA E , T , R are the proof that the original Berbers have received new people who spoke Fulfulde and became Fulani , T, R and J -The origin of Fulani after the advanced technology is not a mysery – Caste away fantasy and follow science ” Linguistics and Genetic results ” –

  76. Boureima Diallo said:

    Hello, i’m Boureima Djibo Diallo from Republique du Niger. I’m happy to witness this even, knowing by origin.

  77. I am the only person in this world today that knows the true origin of the Fulani race, i came across this information by chance, and i will tell the world with scientific proofs soonest, so many will not believe now but when the see the evidence they will. I am afraid unraveling this mystery is a sign of the end of time

  78. Lots of people on both sides of the Fula debate, pro-asiatic, pro-African . Simply take an ancestory test. My daughter is half Sierra Leonean whose grandparents were from the Futa Jallon in Guinea and half Caucasian American. Fathers side dna South Africa. And Omani origins revealed . I am an American with Irish, German , English ancestory I do not speak Gaelic, German or Saxon. It would be foolish to assume the Fula have West African origins because the current populations speak a Niger Congo language. You absorb the language of your surroundings over time

    • It’s not that simple to take a dna test because the results of a dna test does not tell your whole ancestry. For exemple for a girl, the dna test only indicates your maternal lineage, mother to mother to mother, ect…there is no between, neither the father side.
      Most Africans Americans are a mix of all Africans tribes, some tribes are predominent like “igbo” or “yoruba”
      But I have to admit even though dna test indidactes a small amount of your ancestry, it’s better than nothing.

      I agree with you for the language part. Even though many fulanis have been mixed with others tribes in Africa for centuries, we can still see if someone has fulani blood in him. They got a particular look especially in the eyes.
      In West Africa, some fulanis are fulanis by culture not by origin and vice-versa, some are fulanis by blood but their family adopted another culture

  79. Khalil Rahman Ali said:

    I have just seen this amazing series of posts about the Fula Peoples. I wish to add another dimension to the discourse and would be plaesed to have views. In Guyana, which is a former British Colony on South America, the Dutch plantation owners took african Slaves from West Africa, to work on their coffee estates. I understand that most of the slaves were muslims from the Fula tribe. One such amazing person by the name of Kofi along with about 3,000 others, led a Slave Revolt against the Dutch, and defeated them to claim over half of the estates in Berbice County in the 18th Century. Kofi was even daring enough to declare himself as the new Governor of Berbice, but after the Dutch reassembled and got new recruits from the Netherlands, they defeated Kofi and his followers. Kofi is recognised as the National Hero of Guyana… I am descended from ancestors of India and whilst growing up in Guyana, I used to hear people refer to us Muslims as Fulaman! My ancestors had been enticed to go to Guyana to work on the British owned sugar plantations as Indentured labourers on fixed term contracts, from 1838 through to 1917 by whence over 239,000 Indians had arrived in the Colony. I am a writer and have had published two historical fiction novels about these times and later on. The first one is titled Sugar’s Sweet Allure and the second is The Domino Masters of Demerara, both available at Amazon.com

  80. The Fulani are a mixture of Judeo-Syrian slave traders with African slaves. They are responsible in many African countries for military coups; religious politics; civil wars; economic sabotage; cultural disintegration and degradation; and colonial collaboration. Their presence in African countries must be corrected.
    الفولاني هم مزيج من تجار الرقيق اليهودي السوري مع العبيد الأفارقة. وهم مسؤولون في العديد من البلدان الأفريقية عن الانقلابات العسكرية؛ و الدين السياسي ؛ و الحروب الاهلية؛ و التخريب الاقتصادي؛ و التفكك الثقافي وتدهوره؛ والتعاون الاستعماري. يجب تصحيحه وجودهم في البلدان الأفريقية.

  81. mohammad ahmad said:

    Iam a fellow Fulani tribe man from Nigeria I find the debate about the origin of Fulani very educative.I will hasten to add that iam considering writing a historical treaty about my jahun Fulani clan leanage to mali I hope some one will help with information another surprising thing is that there is no dermacation between Fulani and tocouleur

  82. Amadou bailo bah said:

    Guinea

  83. mohammad ahmad said:

    In Nigeria there is no distinction between tocouleur and fulani I was so surprised when I heard about in senegal

  84. […] Who are the Fulani People & Their Origins:  https://tariganter.wordpress.com/2011/09/17/who-are-the-fulani-people-their-origins/ […]

  85. […] Source: Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins? […]

  86. […] Who Are the Fulani People & Their Origins? […]

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