Vapor cyclic refrigeration methods and systems are either 1. Vapor-compression refrigeration; 2. Vapor-absorption refrigeration (no compressor); or 3. Vapor-adsorption refrigeration (no compressor)
In adsorption refrigeration, the refrigerant or adsorbate vapour molecules adsorb onto the surface of a solid instead of dissolving into a liquid. While in an absorption system, an absorber absorbs the refrigerant vapour into a liquid. Adsorption refrigeration also includes a generation process where refrigerant vapour molecules desorb from the solid.
A variant of Vapor-absorption refrigeration is the Electrolux Refrigeration is also known as Domestic Eloctolux refrigeration or sometimes known as Three fluid Refrigeration as it uses three fluids for the cooling process which are ammonia, water and hydrogen. Hydrogen gas is used to increase the rate of evaporation and hence rate of cooling. No pump or compressor is used.
The absorption cycle is similar to the compression cycle, except for the method of raising the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. In the absorption system, the compressor is replaced by an absorber which dissolves the refrigerant in a suitable liquid, a liquid pump which raises the pressure and a generator which, on heat addition, drives off the refrigerant vapor from the high-pressure liquid.
Some work is needed by the liquid pump but, for a given quantity of refrigerant, it is much smaller than needed by the compressor in the vapor compression cycle. In an absorption refrigerator, a suitable combination of refrigerant and absorbent is used. The most common combinations are ammonia (refrigerant) with water (absorbent), and water (refrigerant) with lithium bromide (absorbent).
Adsorption refrigeration was invented by Michael Faraday in 1821, even though the basis of artificial modern refrigeration dates back to 1748 with William Cullen experiments. Adsorption refrigeration technology has been extensively researched in recent 30 years because the operation of an adsorption refrigeration system is often noiseless, non-corrosive and environment friendly.
In the early years of the twentieth century, the vapor absorption cycle using water-ammonia systems or LiBr-water was popular and widely used, but after the development of the vapor compression cycle it lost much of its importance because of its low coefficient of performance (about one fifth of that of the vapor compression cycle).
Absorption refrigerators are a popular alternative to regular compressor refrigerators where electricity is unreliable, costly, or unavailable, where noise from the compressor is problematic, or where surplus heat is available (e.g., from turbine exhausts or industrial processes, or from solar plants), and in recreational vehicles that carry LP gas. It is also used in industrial environments where plentiful waste heat overcomes its inefficiency.
So, Why we Waste Car Radiators Heat Instead of Using it for Air-conditioning? The heat energy in car radiators could eliminate the need for compressors and be used in the generator process in Vapor-absorption or Vapor-adsorption systems for car air-conditioning.
It is better to utilize cars engines surplus heat using adsorption/ absorption systems low efficiency rather than waste energy into air, and using more energy to run compressors.
Not only the World wastes cars’ heat but also consumes huge energy in air-conditioning and refrigeration in too many countries having high solar heat by using compression refrigeration
I came across one massive load of nonsense titled “Encyclopedia of African History, ISBN 0816051992, 9780816051991. Willie F. Page, Editor, Revised edition by R. Hunt Davis, Jr., Editor”, 2005, by The Learning Source, Ltd. (2176 pages)
Vol 1, is titled “Prehistory to 500 CE”. Do these guys really know what is “Prehistory”?
In their first map on page 9 titled “Africa and the Mediterranean Region: Major Empires and Kingdoms, 3000 BC-700 CE” it stated too many new and foreign names (Persia, Assyria, Egypt, Kush, Abyssinia and all of it) and ignored the genuine native names (Iran, Sumer, Ebla, Ugarit, Dilmun, Magan, Meluhha, Kmt, Kerma and many others). Do these people and their so-called universities know these civilizations and their history???
That book stated that Egypt existed in 2700-1070 BC and Kush started in 2400 BC, and Aksum (500 BC-1000 AD) is different than Punt saying it began in 2000 and ended in 1500 BC!!!!! Do these people and their so-called universities know that Queen Hatshepsut, who visited the prosperous Punt, ruled in the period 1458-1425 BC????
Editor of First Edition, Willie F. Page is professor emeritus (retired) of Africana studies at Brooklyn College, in Brooklyn, New York. He is the author of numerous reviews and journal articles. His published works include The Dutch Triangle: The Netherlands and the Atlantic Slave Trade 1621–1664.
General Editor of Revised Edition R. Hunt Davis, Jr., Ph.D., is professor emeritus of history and African studies at the University of Florida. He received a Ph.D. in African studies from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Davis is an expert on the history of South Africa, African agricultural history, and the history of education in Africa. His published works include Mandela, Tambo, and the African National Congress (1991) and Apartheid Unravels (1991), along with numerous articles and book chapters. He served as director at the University of Florida Center for African Studies and is also a past editor of the African Studies Review.
Contributing Editors of Revised Edition Agnes Ngoma Leslie, Ph.D., outreach director, Center for African Studies, University of Florida. Dianne White Oyler, Ph.D., associate professor of history, Fayetteville State University
In my opinion, this bunch of contributors and universities are harmful to knowledge and any history.
Afrocentrism is working against Africans and history in general. They are serving their Hyksos masters since 1500 BC until today.
African Americans, Fulani and Turkic Mongolian Akkadian-Amorite Hyksos are really diverting Africans, particularly in West Africa and Maghreb, from their own history to use them against the history of Kmt, Kerma, Punt and Arabs, and even Europe.
Hyksos with Berber devastated West Africa and Maghreb and are using them along with ridiculous arguments to claim that the civilizations and the peoples of Kmt, Kerma and Punt were Negroid West African. Moreover, West Africans, particularly African Americans and Fulani bandits are satisfied with this hoax to fill and forge the gabs in their modern and ancient history under slavery since 1500 BC until 1700 AD, by books, public media or churches. Enough is enough. You must stop this nonsense and treason against Africa and Humanity.
Hatshepsut was the only legitimate heir of her father Tuthmosis I married her half-brother (Tuthmosis II), and she had no way of ruling but to marry Thutmose II and bore him a son and two daughters. The son died in his childhood, and his name was not left in any monuments. As for the two daughters, their names are Neferura and Meritre Hatshepsut. Thutmose II gave birth to his son (Thutmose III) from one concubines of the royal court, possibly of foreign origin, her name is (East), and some forge and say her name is Isis
Hatshepsut began ruling at the age of twenty upon the death of her father, Thutmose I (1503-1493 BC). She was her father’s partner in government and the legitimate heir to the throne. She is supposed to be the next king on the throne, Thutmose I. However, because the rule of a woman was something that was not the norm. For this reason, it was inevitable that her half-brother (Thutmose II) would take part in the rule with her. That slender person of non-royal origin, poor health, and inexperienced in managing the affairs of the country, became her superficial partner as a king, while she became the royal wife and the real legitimate king running the state
Hatshepsut continued the policies of her father and the patriotic first half of the 18th Dynasty. Hatshepsut launched military campaigns focused on protecting the kingdoms of Kerma south of Kemt from the Hyksos gangs stranded in Libya with the Berbers and their slaves and mercenaries of West Africa who, after several centuries of looting, brought down Kerma kingdoms and established the Kush colony that invaded and occupied Kemt in the 25th dynasty.
Her campaigns also protected the peoples of Ebla and Ugarit from the branching bandits of the expelled Hyksos. Hatshepsut was following the usual friendly policy with the peoples of the region, Ebla, Ugarit and Karma, and supported them to fight the attacks of branched gangs of the expelled Hyksos, the Hebrews and Mitanni in the east, and those who became Kushites in the south.
Thutmose III and “Menhabi” in the Amarna letters, the sixth king of the 18th dynasty, actually ruled 32 years in the period 1458-1425 BC, after the 22 years rule of Queen Hatshepsut 1479-1458 BC. As soon as he received the throne after the death of Hatshepsut, he completely reversed these policies, fought the neighboring peoples, and supported their enemies, the Hyksos gangs, and carried out sixteen campaigns on Ebla and Ugarit. Moreover, the neighboring peoples became in the hands of the Hyksos gangs, an ally of Thutmose III. While history books falsify state and claim that he campaigned against the Mitanni and the Kushites, and this is a blatant lie and completely opposite to the truth.
Thutmose III brought sons of the leaders of the Hyksos gangs to Thebes, the capital of Kmt, to learn about Kmt conditions and customs so that they could help him as advisors in the rule of Kmt. He claimed that he would make allies, and if they return to their country and assume power, they would be among his loyal followers and would not think of war against Kmt. This is also a false and misleading claim to cover up the betrayal of Thutmose III and his alliance with the Hyksos against the peoples of Kmt and the region.
A person named Yuya married Toya, and her mother was a bridesmaid in the palace, the supervisor of clothes, and the singer. Yuya and Thuya had a daughter, Tiye, who became the wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaten. Tiye’s father, Tia, whose name is Yuya, is of foreign origin due to the features of his mummy and the presence of many different ways of writing his name, which means that it was originally a non-Egyptian name. It is most likely that Tia and her family are Kushites, a creation of the Hyksos.
Amenhotep III, Akhenaten’s father, married Glyuchiba, daughter of Shutarna II, King of Mitanni, and issued a special number of memorial scarabs on his marriage to Glyuchiba in the tenth year of his reign. 317 young women accompanied the princess from Ghawani of the Mitanni royal palace. Glyuchiba became known as “the king’s secondary wife” in the sense that she was a concubine while Tiye was the official wife of Amenhotep III and never held the title of queen because she was a foreigner. On the scarab, Amenhotep mentioned the name of his chief wife, Queen Tiye, and the names of her parents, Yuya and Thuya. Glyochiba’s niece, Dodochiba, became a new wife to Amenhotep III after Glyochiba’s death, but Amenhotep III died shortly after her arrival.
The second half of Dynasty 18 was an ally and partner of the bands that branched off from the expelled Hyksos. Moreover, they worked together against the people of Kemet and all the peoples of the region in Sumer, Ebla, Ugarit, the Arabs, Punt, Kerma and Libya. Nobody in Egypt knows or admits that Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten were agents and should be accused of high treason. Rather, it is unfortunate that they are considered patriots and great kings, as the Hyksos want to deceive Kemet and the world. The army commander, Horemheb, is the one who saved Kmt from that treacherous family, the partner of the Hyksos.
The daughter of the King of Mitanni, who are from the Hyksos, the enemies of Kmt, who were expelled by King Ahmose I and his family and the first half of the 18th Dynasty. Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten were traitors and did not deserve to be Egyptians, but the Hyksos are still in Egypt and the region.
In order for the strategic alliance, which is so necessary for all the peoples of the region to succeed, between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Bahrain, the Hyksos remnants must be removed from every important authority in all the countries of the coalition. It is not possible to confront the terrorism and sabotage of the Zionists, Persians, Turks, Romans, Kushites and Sabaeans, while the Hyksos still have power and wealth in any facility and sensitive area in any country in the alliance.
The Hyksos of today are diverting Africans, particularly in West Africa and Maghreb, from their own history to use them against the history of Kmt, Kerma, Punt and Arabs.
There is no true history now; and mainstream institutions defy learning history as an investigative subject
The correct method of learning is against academic, religious, media, and political institutions all together. They do not want or allow letting people question them and doubt their actions or legitimacy. The change must start at the top and all learning institutions is easy to follow
The distribution map of the so-called Semites and Semitic-speaking peoples is too large to be one group. It is too big for a group and too small for the world. However, the map of the Semites and Semitic-speaking peoples perfectly matches the adventures and raids of the Akkadian-Turkic Mongolian alliance they formed after the expulsion of the Turkic Akkadian from Sumer in 2154 BC and the expulsion of the Amorites who caused the First Dark Age in Kmt (Ancient Egypt) in 2055 BC. The Hyksos were the alliance of the Turkic Mongolian Akkadians with the Amorites of the Levant
Therefore, the logical meaning of the terms Semitic and Semites is in fact a definition of the regions and nations that the expelled Hyksos from Kmt had conquered and subjugated since Kmt expelled the Hyksos in 1523 BC.
The Biblical List of Noah’s Descendants or the List of Nations is a genealogy of the sons of Noah and their spread in many lands after the Flood according to the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) invented in Babylon in 580 BC with an emphasis on the main known societies. The term nations to describe descendants is a Standard English translation of the Hebrew word “goyim” that appeared after 400 AD. The Latin word “nation” does not have the same political connotations today.
The List of Nations mentions for the first time 70 names of several well-known ethnic and geographical names important to biblical geography, such as the three sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, from which German scholars probably Jews of the eighteenth century at the Göttingen School of History derived the terms Semitic, Hamite and Japhite races. It did not include all peoples and did not cover important northern European peoples of the Roman world and the Late Middle Ages such as Celtic, Slavic, Germanic, and Northern peoples, and others of the world were not covered. Scholars have come up with a variety of justifications for making the table fit, for example, they say the Scythians are the ancestors of much of Northern Europe.
The Genesis account tells of how Noah and his three sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, along with their wives, survived the flood to repopulate the land.
The traditional classification of people on the basis of their alleged descent from Shem, Ham, and Japheth produced an alternate alleged division of the human race into three groups or races called Caucasian, Mongolian, and Negroid, terms introduced in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History. All of these naive assumptions are not based on evidence, but on narratives only, and contradict science, logic, and history.
It is impossible for nations to migrate like birds, fish and locusts. For example, it is impossible for a monkey or an elephant in Brazil to be of the same origin as a monkey or an elephant in Russia. Rather, the migrations of peoples and classifications of nations and the same origin of peoples are all legends and justifications for the invasion, spread and occupation of the Amorite-Turkic Mongolian Hyksos gangs. The truth is that every nation has its first parents, who sprouted from the soil and water of their homeland like a plantation, and there were never large, influential mass migrations
The myth of Shem and his sons in the Hebrew Bible and political Semitic refer to the area of interest and targets of the Amorite-Turkic Mongolian Hyksos. Despite the fact that Adam, Noah, their descendants, and the Flood existed, they were from a limited territory in the country of Punt Lands only.
The Hyksos of today are diverting Africans, particularly in West Africa and Maghreb, from their own history to use them against the history of Kmt, Kerma, Punt and Arabs.
There is no true history now; and mainstream institutions defy learning history as an investigative subject
Gilukhipa, or more probable Kilu-Hepa in Hurrian language, in the Egyptian language Kirgipa (fl. early 14th c. BCE), was the daughter of Shuttarna II, king of Mitanni. She was the sister of Tushratta (later King of Mitanni), Biria-Waza and Artashumara.
For political reasons, Gilukhipa was sent to Egypt to join Amenhotep III in marriage in his 10th regnal year (ca.1378–1376 BCE), where he recorded that the princess was escorted by 317 ladies-in-waiting, women from the Mitanni king’s royal palace. Gilukhipa became known as the “Secondary King’s Wife,” meaning she was secondary to Amenhotep III’s chief wife, Queen Tiye. Twenty-six years later, her niece Tadukhepa also became Amenhotep’s wife but he died shortly after her arrival to Egypt.
The second half of the 18th Dynasty was an ally and partner of the gangs that resulted from the expelled Hyksos. They worked together against the people of Kmt and all the peoples of the region in Sumer, Ebla, Ugarit, the Arabs, Punt, Karma and Libya
Nobody in Egypt knows that Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten were agents and should be accused of high treason. Rather, it is unfortunate that they are considered patriots and great kings, as the Hyksos want to deceive Kmt and the world. The army commander, Horemheb, is the one who got rid of that traitorous family
Egyptologists consider Tia’s father, Yuya, to be of foreign origin due to the features of his mummy and the presence of many different ways of writing his name, which may mean that it was originally a non-Egyptian name. It is most likely that Tia and her family were Kushites
Two daughters of the king of Mitanni, who were from the Hyksos who were expelled by King Ahmose I and his family and the first half of the 18th Dynasty became queens in Kmt. Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten were agents and traitors and did not deserve to be Egyptian. We must stop managing countries and peoples using corrupt history and concepts
The cognitive problem and the lack of public and specialized awareness is not about weakness or lack of publication, but rather that we publish and use history and writings written by enemies or ignorant people, all of which are fraud, malice, lies and naive legends.
The first and most important thing is that the true national history must be discovered and we stop transmitting and imitating and believing that the concepts and history known since the invention of the Tanakh in 580 BC on the hands of the expelled Hyksos gangs have any value.
For example, Babylonians are not Sumerians; and the Sabaeans are not Arabs, not even Yemenis or from the region. The Hyksos are Turkic Mongolian Akkadians on horses, with Amorite Bedouins of Levant.
The second half of the 18th Dynasty were traitors, agents and accomplices of the Hyksos against the peoples of Sumer, Ebla, Ugarit, Kumt, Punt and the Arabs. There are no Arabs Proper and Arabized Arabs, but these are not Arabs in the first place. In addition, the fake Arabs call real Arabs Extinct Arabs.
The names of Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Turkey are all wrong, misleading and foreign. This was done to destroy the history and civilizations of the peoples of Kumt, Sumer, Ebla, Ugarit, Arabs in Dilmun, Magan, Melluha, Punt, Kerma and Anatolia. Early Jews were not Israelites at all, and not a nation, tribe or clan, but gangs, as well as the Babylonians, Kurds, Sabaeans and Kushites.
In 2334 BC, bandits on horses conquered Sumer. The horses were unknown in the whole region. There are no fossils to prove the existence of domesticated horses. The first mention of horses in the Sumerian antiquities appeared in the period of the Third Kingdom of Ur in 2000 BC, after the expulsion of the Akkadians in 2154 BC. The Sumerians called horses mountains donkeys. It is certain that the origin of the horse came from East Asia and appeared with the Akkadians only
Kmt First Dark Period is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom of Kmt in 2181 BC and the advent of the Middle Kingdom in 2055 BC. In that First Dark Period ruled the Seventh Dynasty, the Eighth Dynasty in Memphis (2181 BC – 2160 BC), and the Ninth Dynasty and the Tenth Dynasty Herakleopolis (2160 BC – 2050 BC). The First Dark Period ended by the victory of the Eleventh Dynasty of Thebes.
In the First Dark Period, Kmt central monarchy and institutions collapsed and until the reunification of the country at the hands of the Eleventh Dynasty. Foreign arrivals from the East, the Amorites, who are Shasu Bedouins, brought down the state and divided the country. Shasu destroyed the monarchy by fomenting unrest, violence, conspiracies and chaos against their rule. After 126 Kmt expelled the Amorites. The expelled Amorites fled from Kmt in 2055 BC, to find in their lands the Akkadian Turkic gangs who used horses and were more powerful than they were, despite their small number. The presence of the Akkadian Turkic Mongolians in Amorites lands began in the year 2154 BC, during the occupation of the Amorites for northern Kmt in the First Dark Period.
There are no books, researchers and studies relating the First Dark Period with the period of cooperation between the Amorites with the Turkic Mongolians, until the beginning of the period of the invasion and occupation of Kmt by the Hyksos in 1670 BC. 400 years of regional history is missing, despite its paramount importance, and the devastating consequences of this alliance between the infantry Amorites and the Turkic Akkadians on horses on the peoples of Kmt and Ebla, Ugarit and Sumer since that time until today. This shortcoming and omission in history is undoubtedly a major flaw and a clear complicity in falsifying history against all the peoples of the region.
The formation of Akkadians-Amorites alliance continued from 2055 BC until 1670 BC. During which they developed joint raiding bandits, to loot convoys, and cutting off trade routes between the Arab kingdoms in Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha, and the outskirts of the neighboring Ebla, coastal Ugarit, Sumer and Kmt. At the end of that period, the Turkic Akkadians with the Amorites copied and learned the technique of using arrows from Kmt, as well as the use of the horse-wheel technique that was Sumer invented for transportation. Akkadians-Amorites gangs turned what they saw in Sumer and kmt into war chariots
The Turkic Mongolian Akkadians expelled from Sumer, along with the Amorites expelled from Kmt, decided to invade Kmt again as a soft target. They relied first on the remnants of the Amorites inside Kmt who remained behind after the end of the First Dark Period. Those Amorites multiplied for 400 years and knew Kmt’s language and customs well. The second invasion plan was the introduction of more Amorites to Kmt, under the pretext of asylum, trade, and peaceful migration. The government and the people of Kmt did not notice their plan and allowed them to enter and live with them. The penetration of the Amorites into the north of Kmt was a prelude, espionage and preparations for the military invasion of the Turkic Mongolian Akkadians on horses.
It was necessary to put an agreed sign on the homes of the Amorites before the day of the attack, in order for the Turkic Mongolian Akkadian invaders to recognize them and avoid attacking their collaborators, and spies. “The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.” (Exodus 12:13). “Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs.” (Exodus 12:7). This is a similarity to what the Amorites residing in Kmt and secretly collaborating with expecting arrival of the Turkic Akkadian invaders did to avoid the planned attacks. Thus, the targets were the people of Kmt only.
With the conquest and occupation of the Turkic Mongolian Akkadians, Kmt entered the Second Dark Period (1670-1550 BC), in which the Amorites were partners, while the rulers were Turkic Mongolian Akkadians. They took Avaris in the eastern delta as their capital and ruled under the 15th Dynasty. The people of Kmt called the Turkic Mongolian Akkadian invaders on horses Hekka Shsut, meaning the rulers of Bedouins, while the Amorites were known as Shsut only, meaning the Bedouins. Hekka Shsut became Hyksos after several centuries in the time of the Ptolemies. Kmt called the Hyksos rulers Pharaohs, while the title of indigenous king was Nesso. Therefore, the term Pharaohs points to Turkic Akkadians violent invaders only
The people and rulers of Kmt in the 17th Dynasty expelled the Hyksos in 1523 BC under the leadership of King Ahmose I, his mother and his family and founded the 18th Dynasty. The majority of the Turkic Akkadian fled to the Levant, along with some of the Amorites. A minority of stranded Turkic Mongolians and Amorites remained in Libya, unable to connect to the bulk of Akkadians-Amorites in Levant.
When Kmt expelled the Hyksos in 1523 BC, the Hyksos branched out into Hebrews, Mitannis, Kassites, and Mukarribs. After the victory of a coalition between the Hyksos and other Turkic bandits in the Battle of Carchemish over Assyria and Kmt in 605 BC, the expelled Hyksos called themselves Jews, Kurds, Babylonians and Sabaeans. This explains the relationship between the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) written in 580 BC in Babylon and the four main off shoots of the Hyksos who were expelled from Kmt in 1523 BC
Amorites who cooperated and paved the way for the Hyksos conquest continued to live in Kmt. They caused Kmt Third Dark Period (1069-664 BC), and which led to Kmt total collapse in 343 BC to remain in 2295 years of continuous occupation that ended in 1952 AD. However, Akkadians-Amorites remnants still live in Kmt today.
Therefore, it is obvious that the first Jews only appeared in 580 BC in Babylon and were renaming for the Hebrews, and the Hebrew were one group branched from the expelled Hyksos. The Turkic Mongolian origin of the Akkadian is a very important clue to reveal the true history of Sumer and the origin of the Hyksos.
Certainly, the first Jews and the Hebrew Bible both appeared 880 years after Moses and more than 1300 years after Abraham, Jacob and the Israelites. The traditions and history of Abraham, Jacob and the Israelites link them to the western part of Punt Lands, with Arabia as the eastern part of Punt Lands.
Egyptians and the World must search, know and verify who were Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten. There are many evidences to discover the truth of their dealings with the expelled Hyksos against all the peoples of Kmt, Ebla, Sumer, Ugarit, the Arabs, Kerma, and Punt
Stranded Hyksos in Libya carried out the final attacks on Kmt together with Berber-West African Kush bandits to re-colonized Kmt. From my personal long research, I found that the Hyksos are alliance between Turkic Mongolian Akkadians expelled by Sumer in 2154 BC together with Amorites who invaded Kmt and caused the First Dark Period 2181–2055 BC, before Kmt expelled them by the 11th Dynasty.
Kerma and Kush are two totally different and opposing entities. Kerma was indigenous civilization while Kush is colony crafted by Hyksos stranded in Libya with Berber and West African slaves and mercenaries appeared in 1500 BC and caused the collapse of Kerma in 1000 BC following the collapse of the Modern Kingdom of Kmt in 1070 BC. The mixed bandits called themselves Kush in 780 BC and a kingdom replaced the destroyed kingdoms of of Kerma civilization.
I ask all those who are interested in ancient history and politics to start group work centered on three specific topics. 1. The Turkic Mongolian origin of the Akkadians 2. The Akkadian-Amorite origin of the Hyksos 3. The offshoot groups of the expelled Hyksos since 1523 BC.
I consider the four offshoots of the Hyksos are 1. The Hebrews, 2. The Mitanni, 3. The Kassites, and 4. The Mukarribs. These groups turned to Jews, Kurds, Babylonians and Sabaeans after the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC. Another fourth topic of extreme importance is the disguised and devastating alliance between Thutmose III and the Hyksos offshoots, which characterized the rest of the second half of the 18th dynasty until general Horemheb ended that dynasty
The Kushite were West African mercenaries and slaves for the Berber and the Hyksos in Libya who Kmt cut them off from the expelled majority Hyksos who fled to Levant. The Hyksos of Libya took two alternative routes to reach Levant. The first on land by attacking Kerma with West Africans and Berber and threatening Egypt from south that led to creating Kush in 780 BC.
The Hyksos-Berber-West African bandits went further, invading and defeating the 24th Dynasty and colonizing Kmt by the 25th Dynasty to rescue the defeated 23rd and 22nd colonizing Dynasties. The second route by crossing the Mediterranean to Anatolia. Paintings depicted them in Trojan Wars as black West African mercenaries
The people of the kingdoms of Kerma Civilization along the six Cataracts were allies and kin to Kmt and Punt, and trade partners with Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha Arab regions, Ebla, Sumer and Ugarits. The Hyksos-Berber-West African bandits attacked Kerma since 1500 BC and the first half of the 18th Dynasty supported and protected Kerma.
Suddenly, the second half of the 18th Dynasty switched sides and supported the Hyksos-Berber-West African bandits. This led to the fall of the southern part of Kerma up the Fourth Cataract, and rest of Kerma was helpless. This situation continued until the arrival of the 19th Dynasty that put full protection on the remaining northern Kerma.
As soon as the 20th Dynasty fell and the New Kingdom ended in 1070 BC Kerma faced the Hyksos-Berber-West African bandits alone and was defeated in 1000 BC
Kerma and all the regions were in chaos, looting and total disorder. The Hyksos-Berber-West African bandits arranged themselves in 780 BC under a single leadership and declared the colony’s name as Kush to attack the 24th Dynasty and colonize Kmt.
In addition, the second half of the 18th Dynasty suddenly switched sides and supported the expelled Hyksos in the Levant against Ebla, Ugarit and Sumer. Historians wrongly describe the alliance between the second half of the 18th Dynasty and the expelled Hyksos as a formation of a great Kmt Empire by Thutmose III and his successors
For no reason the inventor of the Cryptocurrency system is unknown. The legal status of cryptocurrencies varies substantially from country to country and is still undefined or changing in many of them. At least one study has shown that broad generalizations about the use of bitcoin in illicit finance are significantly overstated and that blockchain analysis is an effective crime fighting and intelligence gathering tool.
The criminal enterprise Silk Road, which operated on Tor, utilized cryptocurrency for payments, some of which the US federal government has seized through research on the blockchain and forfeiture.
While some countries have explicitly allowed their use and trade, others have banned or restricted it. According to the Library of Congress, an “absolute ban” on trading or using cryptocurrencies applies in eight countries: Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United Arab Emirates.
An “implicit ban” applies in 15 countries, which include Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Lesotho, Lithuania, Macau, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan.
Here is my personal opinion on Cryptocurrency and how to understand it. Check it out and if you do not agree with my opinion ignore it or comment objectively without insistence to convince me. We are all free. Cryptocurrency is a Mafia pyramid scheme. It is a modern high-level fraud to steal real hard earned wealth from the poor by the wealthy to make the poor poorer. It looks like barter pyramid system of transactions
In my opinion, all cryptocurrencies are made from fake trust. Knowing this secret made the mafia kill John McAfee. Owning coins does not make them real because from their initial creation are fake
Many people find it difficult to understand Cryptocurrency because the fraud system uses complicated computer jargons. Actually, it is very simple to explain Cryptocurrency just by replacing each jargon with its true simple meaning. Here we go and you replace each jargon with it equivalent and read the article again. You will find it very easy to comprehend. My Cryptocurrency Jargons replacements:
1- Cryptocurrency/ token/ coin name= any particular registered fraud business with server and client computers; Cryptocurrency/coin system= a software that record actions between owner and clients and store data 3- Blockchain= a growing list of records, called blocks kept in physical database of the server of any fraud business; 4- Nodes= the terminal computer of clients; 5- Mining= using and developing system software of fraud business to get and record rewards of coins for clients;
6- Block rewards= coins rewarded as incentives for miners/clients for their work; 7- Cryptocurrency exchanges= for clients to trade coins for other assets, such as money or other coins; 8- Atomic swaps= agreements between fraud businesses to exchange coins; 9- Initial coin offerings= to initially operate as startup fraud business without registering with authorities and paying them; 10- Cryptocurrency wallet= an individual account for each client stored in the server of the fraud business;
11- Distributed ledger= database recorded in secondary sub-servers of some clients like peer-to- peer networks, unlike the central Blockchain server; 12- Consensus Mechanism= the Hashcash system for files checking; 13- Blockchain platform= the computer language used in writing a database/ Blockchain (like: Ethereum; Waves; NEM; IBM and others); 14- API= application programming interface a software intermediary that allows two applications to deliver a user response to a system and sends the system’s response back to a user; 15- Timestamping= is a small hash data stored in each block to determine the exact moment in which the block has been mined and validated by the blockchain network; 16- Transaction= is a transfer of Bitcoin value that is broadcast to the network and collected into blocks; 17- Block= batches of valid transactions that are hashed and encoded
“The truth will set you free, but first it will piss you off.”
― Gloria Steinem
"The great enemy of truth is very often not the lie--deliberate, contrived and dishonest--but the myth--persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic. Too often we hold fast to the cliches of our forebears. We subject all facts to a prefabricated set of interpretations. We enjoy the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought."
- John F. Kennedy (Commencement address, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, June 11, 1962)
The last of the very few decent Presidents America ever had